Body Area Networks System
Localization in High Frequency
Student: Perzila Arab (42732360)
Supervisor: Prof. Michael Helmich
Body Area Network
Capsule endoscopy
Localization methods
Radar Technology
Millimeter Wave Identification (MMID)
Slide 1
Designing and developing a positioning system
model to monitor a capsule endoscopy inside a
body in high frequency.
Frequency work: 60 GHz
Slide 2
60GHz Characteristics
• Operates in an unlicensed band (57−64GHz) with
approximately 7GHz bandwidth [1]
• High data rate that makes it suitable for high data
rate wireless application (> 1Gbit/s)
• Lower interference due to the high free space loss [2]
• Better frequency reuse in cellular system due to low
Inter-Channel and Co-Channel Interference [2]
• Small RF component and antenna
• Appropriate for short-range applications
Slide 3
Body Area Network
BAN refers to the technology which carries out the wireless
transmission of data between devices located around or
implemented in human body.
Slide 4
BAN Applications
Respiration Monitoring
Vital sign Monitoring
Glucose Monitoring
Brain Simulation
Disability assistance
Capsule Endoscope
Motion Monitoring
Hearing Aid
PH Monitoring
Slide 5
BAN Applications
Video Streaming
3D Video
Social Networking
Data file Transfer
Slide 6
Medical applications requirements[3]
Data Rate
ECG (12 leads)
ECG (6 leads)
288 kbps
71 kbps
100-1000 Hz
100-500 Hz
EEG (12 leads)
Blood saturation
320 kbps
43.2 kbps
16 bps
0-10000 Hz
0-150 Hz
0-1 Hz
Glucose monitoring
Motion sensor
1600 bps
120 bps
35 kbps
0-50 Hz
0-1 Hz
0-500 Hz
several Mbit/s
Slide 7
BAN Communication structure
1. Intra-BAN communication:
Communication between body sensors or between
body sensors and personal devices (PS).
2. Inter-BAN communication:
Communications between the PS and APs.
3. Beyond-BAN communication:
It has designed for the use in metropolitan area. By this
communication the authorized healthcare staff can
access to the patients information remotely.
Slide 8
BAN Communication structure
Slide 9
Capsule Endoscopy
Diagnosis of diseases
in the small bowl
• Less than 4gm
• Takes 2 images per second
• 50000 frames in 8 hours exam
Slide 10
Limitations of Capsule Endoscopy
1. Probability of missing an abnormalities in
some areas because of rapid transit of the
2. Blurred photos
3. Battery life
4. Determining the location of abnormalities
5. Capsule can get stuck in small intestine due
to the tumors
Slide 11
Position estimation[6]
Process of estimating the position of a node
• Self-positioning:
Node position can be estimated by the node itself
• Remote-positioning:
Node position can be estimated by a central unit that
obtains information via the reference nodes
• Two-step positioning Scheme
Some signal parameters will be extracted from the signals
and then the position will be measured according to those
Slide 12
Signal Parameters in positioning
1. Received Signal Strength (RSS)
The distance will be calculated based on, the
strength and energy of the signal which is varies by
2. Time of Arrival (TOA)
The distance will be calculated by measuring the
one-way propagation time.
3. Angle of Arrival (AOA)
It determines the angle between two nodes.
Slide 13
Comparison of Methods
• RSS highly depends on the channel parameter.
• In TOA all transmitters and receivers in the
system have to be synchronized.
• AOA will be limited by some parameters likes:
as shadowing, multi-path or the directivity of
the measuring aperture.
• To location estimation, RSS and TOA need the
position of at least 3 reference elements, but
AOA requires only 2 references.
Slide 14
The reflected signal can be collected by the radar
receiver antenna . So, Radar can determine and track the
Slide 15
Radar Functions
Searching for the object
Target detection
Tracking of the target
Measuring the target position
Measuring the target velocity
Slide 16
Radar Cross Section
It is a measurement that shows the delectability of an object by
a radar system. It strongly depends on: [7]
1. Size: The larger object has a greater RCS, so the object can be
easily detected.
2. Material: Plastic, fiberglass, cloth or wood are less reflective.
3. The incident angle: is the angle which the radar beam beat a
target. It depends on the shape of target.
4. Reflected angle: is the angle which the reflected signal leaves
the target and depends on the incident angle.
5. Polarization: depends on the position and location of the
Slide 17
Millimeter Wave Identification (MMID)
• Same as RFID, it enable wireless non-contact
transfer from a tag attached to an object.
• It can be used for remote identification and
tracking purposes.
• The ISM band around 60GHz is appropriate for
MMID since no license is required.
• Precise accuracy, high data rate and small size
of antenna are some advantages of MMID.
Slide 18
MMID applications
• Wireless mass memory
• Automotive Radar
• Location Sensing
Slide 19
MMID system
MMID system like RFID consists of a reader and a
tag (transponder). Three types of tag:
1- Passive tag
2- Semi-passive tag
3- Active tag
Slide 20
Body Area Network
Capsule endoscope
Localization methods
Radar Technology
Millimeter Wave Identification (MMID)
Slide 21
[1] M. Peter, W. Keusgen, and J.Luo, “A survey on 60 ghz broadband
communication: Capability, applications and system design,” in European
Microwave Integrated Circuit Conference, 2008. EuMIC 2008., Oct. 2008, pp. 1 –4.
[2] M. Luo, Keusgen, W.Kortke, and A.Peter, “A design concept for a 60 ghz
wireless in-flight entertainment system,” in IEEE 68thVehicular Technology
Conference, 2008. VTC 2008-Fall., Sept. 2008, pp. 1 –5.
[3] B. Latr, B. Braem, I. Moerman, C. Blondia, and P.Demeester” A survey on
wireless body area networks”. In Wirel. Netw Jan.2011,pp.1-18.
[4] M.Chen, S.Gonzalez, A.Vasilakos, H.Cao, and V.C.Leung, “Body area networks:
A survey,” Mob. Netw. Appl., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 171–193, Apr. 2011.
[5] (2012, Jun.) Capsule Endoscopy. [Online]. Available:
[6] S.Gezici,”A Survey on Wireless Position Estimation”,Wirel. Pers.
Commun, Feb.2008, pp.263-282
[7] (2012, Jun.) Radar cross section. [Online].
[8] (2012, Jun.) Wireless Sensing and RFID . [Online].
Any questions ?

similar documents