Body Area Networks System Localization in High Frequency Student: Perzila Arab (42732360) Supervisor: Prof. Michael Helmich Outline • • • • • • • Introduction Body Area Network Capsule endoscopy Localization methods Radar Technology Millimeter Wave Identification (MMID) Summary Slide 1 Introduction Aim: Designing and developing a positioning system model to monitor a capsule endoscopy inside a body in high frequency. Frequency work: 60 GHz Slide 2 60GHz Characteristics • Operates in an unlicensed band (57−64GHz) with approximately 7GHz bandwidth  • High data rate that makes it suitable for high data rate wireless application (> 1Gbit/s) • Lower interference due to the high free space loss  • Better frequency reuse in cellular system due to low Inter-Channel and Co-Channel Interference  • Small RF component and antenna • Appropriate for short-range applications Slide 3 Body Area Network BAN refers to the technology which carries out the wireless transmission of data between devices located around or implemented in human body. Slide 4 BAN Applications Respiration Monitoring Vital sign Monitoring ECG EMG Glucose Monitoring Brain Simulation Medical Application Disability assistance Capsule Endoscope EEG Motion Monitoring Hearing Aid PH Monitoring Slide 5 BAN Applications Entertainment Video Streaming Gaming 3D Video Non-Medical Applications Social Networking Sport Data file Transfer Slide 6 Medical applications requirements Applications Data Rate Bandwidth ECG (12 leads) ECG (6 leads) 288 kbps 71 kbps 100-1000 Hz 100-500 Hz EMG EEG (12 leads) Blood saturation 320 kbps 43.2 kbps 16 bps 0-10000 Hz 0-150 Hz 0-1 Hz Glucose monitoring Temperature Motion sensor 1600 bps 120 bps 35 kbps 0-50 Hz 0-1 Hz 0-500 Hz several Mbit/s - Video Slide 7 BAN Communication structure  1. Intra-BAN communication: Communication between body sensors or between body sensors and personal devices (PS). 2. Inter-BAN communication: Communications between the PS and APs. 3. Beyond-BAN communication: It has designed for the use in metropolitan area. By this communication the authorized healthcare staff can access to the patients information remotely. Slide 8 BAN Communication structure Slide 9 Capsule Endoscopy Diagnosis of diseases in the small bowl • Less than 4gm • Takes 2 images per second • 50000 frames in 8 hours exam Slide 10 Limitations of Capsule Endoscopy  1. Probability of missing an abnormalities in some areas because of rapid transit of the capsule 2. Blurred photos 3. Battery life 4. Determining the location of abnormalities 5. Capsule can get stuck in small intestine due to the tumors Slide 11 Position estimation Process of estimating the position of a node • Self-positioning: Node position can be estimated by the node itself • Remote-positioning: Node position can be estimated by a central unit that obtains information via the reference nodes • Two-step positioning Scheme Some signal parameters will be extracted from the signals and then the position will be measured according to those parameters. Slide 12 Signal Parameters in positioning 1. Received Signal Strength (RSS) The distance will be calculated based on, the strength and energy of the signal which is varies by distance. 2. Time of Arrival (TOA) The distance will be calculated by measuring the one-way propagation time. 3. Angle of Arrival (AOA) It determines the angle between two nodes. Slide 13 Comparison of Methods • RSS highly depends on the channel parameter. • In TOA all transmitters and receivers in the system have to be synchronized. • AOA will be limited by some parameters likes: as shadowing, multi-path or the directivity of the measuring aperture. • To location estimation, RSS and TOA need the position of at least 3 reference elements, but AOA requires only 2 references. Slide 14 Radar The reflected signal can be collected by the radar receiver antenna . So, Radar can determine and track the object. Slide 15 Radar Functions • • • • • Searching for the object Target detection Tracking of the target Measuring the target position Measuring the target velocity Slide 16 Radar Cross Section It is a measurement that shows the delectability of an object by a radar system. It strongly depends on:  1. Size: The larger object has a greater RCS, so the object can be easily detected. 2. Material: Plastic, fiberglass, cloth or wood are less reflective. 3. The incident angle: is the angle which the radar beam beat a target. It depends on the shape of target. 4. Reflected angle: is the angle which the reflected signal leaves the target and depends on the incident angle. 5. Polarization: depends on the position and location of the target. Slide 17 Millimeter Wave Identification (MMID) • Same as RFID, it enable wireless non-contact transfer from a tag attached to an object. • It can be used for remote identification and tracking purposes. • The ISM band around 60GHz is appropriate for MMID since no license is required. • Precise accuracy, high data rate and small size of antenna are some advantages of MMID. Slide 18 MMID applications  • Wireless mass memory • Automotive Radar • Location Sensing Slide 19 MMID system MMID system like RFID consists of a reader and a tag (transponder). Three types of tag: 1- Passive tag 2- Semi-passive tag 3- Active tag Slide 20 Summery • • • • • Body Area Network Capsule endoscope Localization methods Radar Technology Millimeter Wave Identification (MMID) Slide 21 References  M. Peter, W. Keusgen, and J.Luo, “A survey on 60 ghz broadband communication: Capability, applications and system design,” in European Microwave Integrated Circuit Conference, 2008. EuMIC 2008., Oct. 2008, pp. 1 –4.  M. Luo, Keusgen, W.Kortke, and A.Peter, “A design concept for a 60 ghz wireless in-flight entertainment system,” in IEEE 68thVehicular Technology Conference, 2008. VTC 2008-Fall., Sept. 2008, pp. 1 –5.  B. Latr, B. Braem, I. Moerman, C. Blondia, and P.Demeester” A survey on wireless body area networks”. In Wirel. Netw Jan.2011,pp.1-18.  M.Chen, S.Gonzalez, A.Vasilakos, H.Cao, and V.C.Leung, “Body area networks: A survey,” Mob. Netw. Appl., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 171–193, Apr. 2011. References  (2012, Jun.) Capsule Endoscopy. [Online]. Available: http://www.medicinenet.com/capsule_endoscopy/page2.htm  S.Gezici,”A Survey on Wireless Position Estimation”,Wirel. Pers. Commun, Feb.2008, pp.263-282  (2012, Jun.) Radar cross section. [Online]. Available:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radar_cross-section  (2012, Jun.) Wireless Sensing and RFID . [Online]. Availabl:http://www.vtt.fi/files/research/mel/wireless_sensing_slides_sho rt.pdf Any questions ?