tia10e_ch08_pptM - Computer and Information Science

Report
Technology
in Action
Alan Evans • Kendall Martin
Mary Anne Poatsy
Tenth Edition
Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Technology in Action
Chapter 8
Digital Devices and Media:
Managing a Digital Lifestyle
Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Digital Convergence
• Digital convergence
– The use of a single unifying device to handle
media, Internet, entertainment, and telephony
needs
– Smartphones do almost anything computers
do
– Refrigerators can include LCD touch-screen
and network adapters
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2
Digital Convergence (cont.)
• Digital Living Network Alliance
– Organization working to standardize different kinds of appliances
and network devices
• As more and more computing power is available in mobile
processors, mobile devices have evolved to be able to do multiple
tasks.
– Smartphones can now video-conference like laptops.
– Tablets like the iPad are touch sensitive like smartphones.
– Netbooks and ultrabooks both run traditional desktop operating systems and are
lightweight.
• All these devices have significant overlap in the tasks they can
perform, so learning the differences will be important in finding the
device that’s just right for you.
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3
Telephony: Smartphones
and Beyond
• Telephony
– The use of equipment to provide voice
communications over a distance
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4
Telephony: Smartphones and Beyond
Smartphone Basics
• What exemplifies a Smartphone?
• The functions & features of:
– Internet access
– Personal information management (PIM)
– Voice recording
– Play and organize music files
– GPS services
– Digital image and video capture
– Computing power to run programs
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5
Telephony: Smartphones and Beyond
Smartphone Basics (cont.)
• Cell (cellular) phones
– All phones that use mobile, cellular
technology
– Feature phones are inexpensive, less
powerful cell phones with modest processors,
simpler interfaces, and often no touch screen
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6
Telephony: Smartphones and Beyond
Smartphone Components (cont.)
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Telephony: Smartphones and Beyond
Smartphone Components
• Smartphones have the same components as a computer
– CPU
– Memory
• ROM for OS
• Other Internal memory chips
• Micro SD flash cards
– Input devices
• Microphone, Touch pad, Keyboard
– Output devices
• Speaker, Liquid crystal display (LCD), OLED: (Optical light emitting
diode)
– Require their own operating system
– Specialized Processors
• GPUs
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8
Telephony: Smartphones and Beyond
Smartphone Components (cont.)
• Phone data is stored in separate Many
smartphones let you add additional
memory
– iPhones don’t let you add memory
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9
Telephony: Smartphones and Beyond
Smartphone Components (cont.)
• Smartphone OS comes with standard
collection of software
– To-do list
– Contact manager
– Calendar
• Web-based software stores for software
applications
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10
How Cell Phone Technology Works
• Set of connected “cells” make up cellular
network
– Geographic areas centered on a base transceiver
station
– The base transceiver station picks up the request
for service and passes it to a central location –
the mobile switching center
– The role of the Mobile Switching Center is to:
• Make sure that service is routed to a base station
based on the strength of the signal
• When signal is weak, it orders the next base
station to take charge of the call
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11
How cell phone Technology Works
• When you speak into a cell phone, a series of digital processing steps
occur:
1.Sound enters the microphone as a sound wave.
2.The analog-to-digital converter chip digitizes the analog sound
waves into digital signals.
3.The digital signal processor chip compresses the data so that it
will transmit more quickly to another phone.
4.The digital data is transmitted as a radio wave through the
cellular network to the destination phone.
5.The receiving digital signal processor decompresses the
incoming message.
6.An amplifier on the receiving phone boosts signal to make it
louder and passes it to speaker
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12
Digital Data
•
Any kind of information can be digitized (i.e. measured and converted to a stream of
numeric values)
–
–
Sound waves
Light waves
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13
Digital Data
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14
Digital Data
• Digital formats describe signals as long strings of
numbers
• Analog-to-digital conversion
– Measures the incoming analog signal many times
each second
– The strength of the signal at each measurement is
recorded as a simple number
– The series of numbers produced is the digital form of
the wave
• Easy to distribute digital information
• The implications of the shift to digital media are
continually evolving.
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Smartphones: Synchronizing
• Transfer of data to your phone
– Use a micro SD card
– Use a USB cable
– Use a wireless connection to transfer data
• Bluetooth – uses a small Bluetooth chip to allow the transfer
of data wirelessly to any other Bluetooth-enabled device via
radio waves
– Bluetooth 4
» Distances up to ~300 feet
» almost 2x speed of Bluetooth3.
• WiFi connection through the cloud
– SugarSync, Apple’s iOS 5, Google Sync, Amazon Kindle
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16
Text Messaging
• Short message service (SMS) - Allows you to send up
to 160 characters
• SMS uses the cell phone network
– The sms calling center receives the message and delivers
it to the appropriate mobile device using something called
store-and-forward technology.
• MMS (Multimedia MS) is an extension that allows you
to send messages that include, text, sound, images,
and video
– arrives as a series of messages; the text, then the image,
and then the sound, and so on.
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17
Mobile Internet
• Smartphones and other mobile devices connect to
Internet using:
1. WiFi network - faster
2. Cellular phone system (3G||4G) – more available
• This requires a wireless Internet service provider Phone companies double as wireless ISPs
– Providers measure Internet usage according to how
much data you download/upload - Wi-Fi doesn’t count
– Internet connectivity plan is known as the data plan
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18
Telephony: Smartphones and Beyond
Mobile Internet (cont.)
• Cellular data transfer
– more reliable than WiFi and less
susceptible to interference and
saves on power consumption
– 3G standard offers speeds up to
3.8 Mpbs
– 4G standard – although
technically capable of up to 100
Mpbs, this is not yet available and
so in practice 4G LTE (new 4G)
delivers 6 Mbps to 11 Mbps.
Not shown - Cable or fiber-option offer speeds up to 50 Mbps.
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19
Before you Subscribe
• Before subscribing to a data plan, you should asses your needs:
1. How often will you be able to use WiFi access vs. the cellular network?
Is security an issue?
2. How often do you download apps, stream music, or play online games?
3. Do you use your phone to watch streaming video?
4. Do you use your smartphone’s Internet access to download files
attached to e-mails or from your company website?
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20
Wi-Fi Mobile Internet
• Setting your phone to use a WiFi connection will be slightly
different for each mobile OS, but in general, you turn on the
setting that allows your phone to look for a network.
– If a network is found, the phone will try to log in. If the network has
security protection, you’ll be prompted for a password before
joining.
– Most smartphones then display a special icon to show that you’re
using a WiFi connection instead of a 3G/4G signal.
• Some people choose to leave their phone in the mode where
it’s looking for a WiFi network so it will always use a WiFi signal
it is available, saving them on data plan usage.
– This does use more battery life, though, so turn off WiFi detection
if you’re trying to extend your battery usage.
– Security?
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21
Telephony: Smartphones and Beyond
Mobile Internet (cont.)
• If WiFi isn’t available devices are available
to create mobile hot spot
• Mi-Fi devices are often available free
– Devices connect to the Internet through
3G/4G wireless phone network
– Distribute the WiFi signal over 30 feet area
– Can support up to 5 devices
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22
Smartphone Security
• Viruses can infect cell/smartphones
• It is expected that virus attacks will increase
• Antivirus software for mobile devices
– Symantec
– McAfee
– F-Secure
• Download only from familiar websites
• Use a virtual phone number
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23
VoIP
• VoIP - A fully digital phone service
• Uses technology similar to e-mail; Security
• Skype is well-known free provider
– Requires callers and receivers to have company’s
software installed on computers
• Vonage
– More complicated to set up, not free
• Major ISPs, like Comcast and Verizon, also
provide VoIP phone services as an option you can
package with your Internet or cable television plan.
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24
Digital Defined
• All forms of entertainment
have migrated to digital
domain
– Phone systems
– TV signals
– Music
– Films
– Sound
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Digital Media
• Entertainment industry has become alldigital
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26
Digital Media
Digital Publishing
• Electronic text (e-text)
– Textual information captured digitally so that it
can be stored, manipulated, and transmitted
by electronic devices
• E-readers
– Display e-text and having supporting tools,
like note taking, bookmarks, and integrated
dictionaries
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27
Digital Media
Digital Publishing (cont.)
• The basic features of e-readers offer
advantages over paper books
–
–
–
–
Integrated dictionaries
Note taking and highlighting
URL links or links to glossary
Bookmarks are immediately pushed through
cloud technology
• Digital formats for publishing
– Amazon uses proprietary format: .azw
– Open format: ePub
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Digital Media
Digital Publishing (cont.)
• Two popular technologies for representing
digital text
– Electronic ink: Very crisp, sharp grayscale
representation of text
– Backlit monitors: Screens illuminate
themselves
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29
Digital Media
Digital Publishing (cont.)
• Libraries are lending e-books and audio
books
• Overdrive Media Console
– Search to find which area library has the book
you want
• Some publishers are refusing to allow their
e-books to be distributed through libraries
• Lending your own e-books
– Barnes and Noble NOOK
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30
Digital Media
Digital Publishing (cont.)
• Project Gutenberg
– Source of free reading
– Repository site of 38,000 free books
– Copyrights have expired
• Self-publishing
– Self-publish into Amazon Kindle Store
– Smashwords
– Lulu
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31
Digital Media
Digital Music
• Digital music is created by turning sound
waves created by instruments into a string
of digital information
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Digital Media
Digital Music (cont.)
• Sampling rate
– Specifies the number of times the analog
waves is measured each second
– The higher the sampling rate, the more
accurately the original wave can be re-created
– Higher sampling rate produces bigger files
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33
Digital Media
Digital Music (cont.)
• Digital music file formats
– MP3
– AAC
– WMA
– DivX
– MPEG-4
– WMV
– Xvid
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34
Digital Media
Digital Music (cont.)
• File formats compete on sound and video
quality and compression
• Number of songs or hours of video
devices can hold depends on storage
space
• Another factor includes the quality
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35
Digital Media
Digital Music (cont.)
• When ripping, or converting, a song you
can select sampling rate
• Always limited by the amount of storage of
the player
• Some devices allow you to add storage
• Subscription plans
– Spotify
– Rhapsody
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36
Digital Media
Digital Music (cont.)
• High-speed port
– Used to move large volumes of data between
your computer and music device
• Cloud services can automatically sync
music to mobile device
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37
Digital Media
Digital Music (cont.)
• Listening options
– Audio receivers have ports for mobile devices
– Networked audio/video receivers
– Auxiliary inputs in cars
– Home speaker docks
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Digital Media
Digital Music (cont.)
• Business models are still evolving to meet
audience needs and protect intellectual
property rights
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Digital Media
Digital Music (cont.)
• Tethered downloads
– Pay for music and own it, but are subject to
restrictions on its use
– DRM-free music
• Music without any digital rights management
• DRM is a system of access control that allows only
limited use of material that’s been legally
purchased
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40
Digital Media
Digital Music (cont.)
• The Internet allows artists to release new
songs immediately
• Radio stations make their stations
available through Internet sites
• Digital music has made distributing your
own recordings very simple
– ReverbNation
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41
Digital Media
Digital Photography
• Digital cameras capture images on electric
sensors and then convert them to digital
data
• Most cameras also record digital video
• Point-and-shoot vs. digital SLR
• Digital Photography Review is a site that
compares cameras and provides feedback
from owners
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42
Digital Media
Digital Photography (cont.)
• Smartphone cameras provide lower
resolutions and inferior lenses than
standalone cameras
• Do not provide many features that
photographers rely on
– Autofocus
– Image stabilization algorithms
– Smile shutter
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Digital Media
Digital Photography (cont.)
• Image quality is determined by many
factors
– Quality of lenses
– File format and compression
– Color management software
– Resolution – the number of data points it
records for each image captured
• Point-and-shoot offer from 10 MP to 15 MP
• Digital SLRs use resolutions as high as 24 MP
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44
Digital Media
Digital Photography (cont.)
• Most common formats
– Raw uncompressed data (RAW)
• Records all original image information
• Larger than compressed files
– Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG)
• Either some compression keeping most details or
great compression losing some detail
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45
Digital Media
Digital Photography (cont.)
• Transferring files from camera
– USB port
– Flash card
– Wireless network connections
– Eye-Fi
– Eye-Fi Mobile X2
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46
Digital Media
Digital Photography (cont.)
• Scanners can turn sketches and photos
into a digital file
– Film negatives and slides
– Quality is measured by its resolution
– Optical character recognition: Converts pages
of handwritten or typed text electronic files
that can be opened and edited with Microsoft
Word
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47
Digital Media
Digital Photography (cont.)
• Sharing digital photos
– Facebook
– Picasa
– Digital scrapbook site such as Cottagearts.net
– Tablets and smartphones
– Connect iPad wirelessly to TV
• Printing digital photos
– Photo printer
– Photo-printing service
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48
Digital Media
Digital Video
• Digital video surrounds us
– TV
– The Internet (Google Video, YouTube, Vimeo,
Ustream)
– Hulu
– On-demand streaming video (cable, iTunes,
Netflix, Amazon)
– Create your own
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49
Digital Media
Digital Video (cont.)
• Video equipment for home use stores in
DV format
– Cameras don’t require tapes
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50
Digital Media
Digital Video (cont.)
• Digital video-editing software allows you to
– Edit digital video
– Review clips frame by frame
– Reorder segments
– Correct color, balance, brightness, or contrast
• Codec (compression/decompression)
– A rule, implemented in either software or
hardware, that squeezes the same audio and
video information into less space
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51
Digital Media
Digital Video (cont.)
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52
Digital Media
Digital Video (cont.)
• Special authoring software
– Pinnacle Studio HD
– Adobe Encore
– Create final discs and have animated menu
systems and easy navigation controls
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53
Digital Media
Digital Video (cont.)
• Webcasting
– Broadcasting your video live to an audience
– Need webcam and a site like justin.tv or
ustream.tv
– Can display interactive chat next to video feed
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54
Digital Media
Digital Video (cont.)
• HD stands for high definition
– Standard of digital tv signal that guarantees a
specific level of resolution and a specific
aspect ratio
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55
Digital Media
Digital Video (cont.)
• Advantages of watching digital video
– Other information services can be integrated
with the broadcast
– Additional content can be delivered in real
time
• More interactivity will be integrated in
broadcasts
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56
Digital Media
Digital Video (cont.)
• DVR
– Digital video recorder
• PVR
– Personal video recording software for your
computer
– SnapStream
• Slingbox
– Device that takes video from your TV and
broadcasts it over the Internet
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57
Chapter 8 Summary Questions
1. How is the trend of digital convergence
seen in the market?
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58
Chapter 8 Summary Questions
2. What hardware and software comprise a
typical smartphone?
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Chapter 8 Summary Questions
3. How do I synchronize information
between my phone and my computer,
and how do mobile Internet data plans
work?
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60
Chapter 8 Summary Questions
4. What do I need to keep my smartphone
secure?
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Chapter 8 Summary Questions
5. How does digital telephony support VoIP
services?
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62
Chapter 8 Summary Questions
7. What advantage do digital formats have
over analog signals?
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Chapter 8 Summary Questions
8. How is the digital format changing the
way media is created and distributed?
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64
Chapter 8 Summary Questions
9. How do I work with digital images and
video?
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mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written
permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America.
Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Publishing as Prentice Hall

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