An Overview of Response to Instruction and Intervention

Report
An Overview of Response to
Instruction and Intervention (RtI2)
Credential Counselors and Analysts of
California Conference
October 10, 2012
Phyllis Hallam
Literacy, History, and Arts Leadership Office
California Department of Education
Lynda Nichols
Title II Leadership Office
California Department of Education
Roxann L. Purdue
Certification, Assignment, and Waivers Division
Commission on Teacher Credentialing
CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
Tom Torlakson, State Superintendent of Public Instruction
What is RtI2 and MTSS?
TOM TORLAKSON
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
• Definitions
o Response to Intervention and Instruction (RtI2)
o Multi-Tier System of Supports (MTSS)
• Background, goals and purpose
• School-wide strategies
• Considerations for planning
• Roles and responsibilities
2
Definitions
TOM TORLAKSON
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
RtI2 and MTSS integrate assessment and
intervention in a general education, multi-level
prevention system to maximize student
achievement and to reduce behavior problems.
– Identify students at risk for poor learning outcomes
– Monitor student progress, provide evidence-based
interventions
– Adjust the intensity and nature of those interventions
depending on a student’s responsiveness
RtI2
– Identify students with learning disabilities or other
disabilities and provide increased intervention
3
Background and Goals of
RtI2 / MTSS
• RtI first surfaced in the arena of special education.
TOM TORLAKSON
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
• Districts and schools across the state began developing
and implementing RtI2 independently.
• The Special Education and Professional Learning
Support Divisions of California Department of Education
(CDE) organized the efforts around RtI2 in a task force
that met from 2007–08 with results including:
o CDE Curriculum and Resources RtI2 Web site
o Ten Core Components
o Implementation and Technical Assistance Guide
• Both RtI2 and MTSS are based on a system of
screening, progress monitoring, and data-based
decision making for instruction and provide intervention
in a timely manner to struggling students.
4
RtI2 Process
TOM TORLAKSON
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
5
INTENSIVE
TOM TORLAKSON
Tier III
INTENSIVE
Time Program Group Size
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
Tier II
SBE Adopted Core
Intervention Program
STRATEGIC
CORE +
SUPPLEMENTAL
Tier I
BENCHMARK
SBE-adopted
CORE with
Differentiated
instruction
6
Additional Online Information
CDE Web page http://www.cde.ca.gov/ci/cr/ri/
TOM TORLAKSON
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
1. A Letter from State Superintendent Tom
Torlakson
2. California's RtI2 Philosophy and Definition
3. Ten Core Components of RtI2
4. Resources by Ten Core Components
5. RtI2: An Implementation and Technical
Assistance Guide for Districts and Schools
6. Brief: Staffing for RtI2 Academic Interventions
The National Center on RtI Web site
http://www.rti4success.org/ (Outside Source)
7
Why RtI2?
TOM TORLAKSON
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
• The Individuals With disabilities Education Act
2004: authorized determining eligibility for
Specific Learning Disabilities (SLD) using a
research-based process such as RtI
• Blueprint for Reform 2010 U.S. Department of
Education, Elementary and Secondary
Education Act: use of additional support and
appropriate instruction to meet diverse needs
• P-16 Council’s recommendations support RtI2
objectives
• No Child Left Behind (NCLB) requirements of
district mandate support for struggling
students
8
A letter from former State Superintendent
of Public Instruction Jack O’Connell
states:
TOM TORLAKSON
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
In a desire to close the achievement gap and
meet federal and state requirements, many
districts and schools are implementing the
latest research-based practices that ensure
students are successful in school.
As a means to effectively utilize personnel, some
special education teachers are being asked
to instruct students with and without an
Individualized Education Program (IEP).
9
CDE Letter Continued
TOM TORLAKSON
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
If there are changes occurring in the
manner of how instructional programs are
delivered, including special education
services, it is necessary that these
practices remain compliant with federal
and state laws and regulations.
10
CDE Letter Continued
Use of Personnel and Funding
TOM TORLAKSON
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
1. Special education teachers must have the
appropriate credentials to provide instruction to
both students with an IEP and those students
without IEPs.
2. Teachers must be highly qualified.
Special education teachers providing instruction
in the core academic subjects must meet the
same "highly qualified" requirements and
personnel qualifications described in the
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
(IDEA) laws and regulations (EC Section
56058).
11
School-wide Strategies: A Comprehensive
Instructional Approach
Teachers work cooperatively to:
TOM TORLAKSON
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
• Link instruction to student achievement
• Emphasize good first teaching
• Ensure all students receive initial academic
screening
• Implement progress monitoring which intensifies,
depending on the need
• Differentiate instruction per assessment results
• Monitor student progress
• Provide targeted academic and behavioral
interventions if needed
12
Models of RtI2 and MTSS
TOM TORLAKSON
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
• School-wide approach
• District-wide approach
• 3, 4, or more tiers framework
13
RtI Is
TOM TORLAKSON
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
RtI is NOT
• A general education
activity
• For Special
Education only
• A system to improve
instruction for all
students
• A system for
tracking
• A school-wide
approach that
recognizes the
importance of core
curriculum
instruction and
interventions when
needed
• A single program for
use by one or two
teachers as desired
• Only interventions
• Only elementary
• Only academics
14
What Does Intervention Look
Like at the Site Level?
TOM TORLAKSON
•
Tiered instruction and intervention provided
by credentialed and non-credentialed adults
•
Targeted instruction that increases in
intensity as needed for all students including
English learners, struggling readers, or
students with behavior issues or disabilities
•
Frequent progress monitoring
•
Collaborative problem solving around
instruction
•
Flexibility in grouping
•
Exit criteria
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
15
Consider the Case of Marty
TOM TORLAKSON
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
No RtI2 or MTSS Model in Place
•Marty has struggled in reading throughout school
but always managed to show some progress. His
family moved just before Marty entered 9th grade.
•In 9th grade, he is reading at a 5th grade level
and has little hope of leaving the non-proficient
category in state testing.
• His science and social studies grades are
suffering as well.
16
The Case of Marty
TOM TORLAKSON
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
• His 9th grade English teacher is
considering a referral for special
education.
• By the end of 9th grade, he may be
tested and placed into special education
services, which will provide modifications
and accommodations to his core
curriculum throughout his 9-12 career.
17
RtI2/MTSS for Marty
TOM TORLAKSON
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
• Using curriculum-based assessments, his
teacher was able to identify specific areas of
need in comprehension and Marty received
supplemental instruction, 30 minutes a day, 5
days a week in an after school program.
• By the end of 9th grade, Marty scored at grade
level on oral reading fluency assessments and
one grade below grade level on reading
comprehension.
• The school continues to monitor his progress
through tenth grade to make sure he stays on
track. Marty does not need special education
services.
18
Considerations for Developing
and Planning RtI2 and MTSS
TOM TORLAKSON
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
• There is no one “right” way to implement the
RtI2 and MTSS process. Each school or district
develops its own plan.
– What are existing policies within district that might
affect implementation?
– Do policies support process or do they need to be
modified?
– Are all teachers and paraprofessionals correctly
credentialed to instruct academic areas?
– Are the HR/Credential Analysts a part of the
development process to ensure proper staffing
issues are addressed?
19
RtI2/MTSS Planning Team:
Who is at the Table?
TOM TORLAKSON
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
May include but not limited to:
• General Education Teachers
• Special Education Teachers
• Principal
• Curriculum and Instruction Director
• Psychologist
• Speech Language Pathologist
• Credential Analysts
• Academic Improvement Director
20
RtI2 Roles and Responsibilities
TOM TORLAKSON
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
Commission on Teacher
Credentialing (CTC):
• Teacher Preparation Programs
• Credential Requirements
• Authorizations
• Appropriate Assignment
21
Staffing Considerations
TOM TORLAKSON
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
Education Code (EC) §44225 states, among other
responsibilities, that the Commission determines the
scope and authorization of credentials and establishes
sanctions for the misuse of credentials and the misassignment of credential holders.
The Education Specialist Instruction Credential authorizes
instruction to students identified through a valid IEP as
needing instruction and services for specified federal
special education disability areas.
If an individual holds an Education Specialist teaching
credential and does not also hold a multiple subject or
single subject teaching credential, the individual is not
authorized to independently teach general education
students in a self-contained or departmentalized setting.
22
Staffing Considerations
TOM TORLAKSON
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
Dual Credentialed Special Education Teachers:
Individuals who hold special education credentials
issued prior to 1997 are dual credentialed and were
required to earn a general education teaching
credential prior to earning the special education
credential. There are current dual credential programs
still offered with teachers electing to earn both general
and special education teaching credentials.
Note: NCLB approval for subject matter competence is
not equivalent to an authorization or credential to
serve. An individual must also hold a credential or
authorization appropriate to the assignment and
establish subject matter competency for the content
area being taught.
23
Staffing Considerations
TOM TORLAKSON
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
In relation to appropriate authorization and assignment, there are
a variety of staffing options available to provide flexibility for the
implementation of the multi-tiered intervention models uniquely
developed at the local level.
Collaboration (consultative content teaching, cooperative teaching)– In
some models general or special education teachers visit the general
education classroom and provide re-teaching and supportive strategies
during regular classroom instructional time for the subject. These
interventions include collaboration with the general education teacher of
record and do not require the special education teacher to have an
authorization to teach general education students.
Co-Teaching (shared instructional responsibility, team teaching) - A
classroom partnership or learning center model including both special
education and general education credentialed teachers in order to meet the
instructional needs of all students. These teachers combine their expertise
and share responsibility in providing the instruction in a classroom or
learning center with both general and special education students. The
teachers have joint and equal responsibility for classroom instruction,
planning and assessment. As this team of teachers carries a combination of
authorizations for all of the students they jointly serve as the teachers of
record, the special education teacher in this model would not need to hold
an additional credential authorization to teach general education students. 24
Staffing Considerations
TOM TORLAKSON
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
Study Skills/Strategies Local Assignment Option - In some cases,
local education agencies indicate that their multi-tiered intervention
models do not include specific content instruction but rather focus on
learning strategies and skills.
Local assignment option – This type of instructional model could be
addressed with the use of a local assignment option in
regulations. Title 5 section 80005(b) contains an authorization for
teachers to be broadly assigned to provide instruction in areas that do
not fall within the statutory single subject content areas – including
courses in life skills, study skills, study hall, and others. Holders of a
teaching credential based on a bachelor’s degree and a teacher
preparation program including student teaching, who have been
determined to have the knowledge and skills in the area, may serve
in this type of assignment. Service is restricted to the grade level of
the teaching credential. This local option does not require board
authorization just teacher consent.
Special Education Teachers - The language in this section of
regulation does not preclude using a special education credential as
the appropriate credential and may meet the needs of some multitiered intervention model settings not involving content instruction. 25
Staffing Considerations
TOM TORLAKSON
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
Local Assignment Options for Content Based
Interventions- California has many provisions within
the Education Code that provide avenues for the
assignment of certificated employees outside their
basic credential authorization. These Education Code
options provide school districts with local level
flexibility for staffing. Most require specific units and
local governing board action or resolution. Teacher
consent to the assignment is required.
Local Assignment Options must be annually
documented and renewed if action by the local
governing board is required.
26
Staffing Consideration
Common Local Assignment Options
TOM TORLAKSON
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
• §44258.3 allows local
school districts to assign
credentialed teachers to
teach departmentalized
classes in grades K-12
as long as the teacher’s
subject-matter
competence is verified
according to policy and
procedures approved by
the governing board.
• §44263 allows the
credential holder to
teach in a
departmentalized class
at any grade level if the
teacher has completed
eighteen semester units
of course work, or nine
semester units of upper
division or graduate
course work, in the
subject to be taught.
27
Does a Teacher Need to Hold a
Credential or Authorization?
TOM TORLAKSON
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
Individuals need to hold the appropriate
authorization prior to providing instructional
services
• EC §44001
• EC §44830(a)
• EC §44831
• EC §44253.1
28
Intervention Classes
TOM TORLAKSON
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
• Content of the class and authorization
is determining factor for appropriate
assignment
• Type of class such as review, honors,
intervention, or supplemental
instruction is not a factor nor is the
reason why the class is offered
29
Teacher on Special Assignment
(TOSA)
TOM TORLAKSON
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
• Local employment term
• If assigned as a TOSA in
instructional capacity, individual
needs credential or authorization in
subject area(s)
• Information also applies to ‘resource
teacher’ assignments
30
Special Education Credential
Holders
TOM TORLAKSON
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
Appropriate Assignment
Special education credential holders are
authorized to provide instruction in all
academic subjects to students whose
primary disability falls within the specialty
area of their authorization.
Note: Credential holder may be appropriately
assigned but not be NCLB Compliant.
31
Special Education Credential
Holders
TOM TORLAKSON
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
Misassignment
Special education credential holders including
resource specialists are not authorized to provide
instruction to general education students unless
they also hold appropriate general education
credential.
Note: NCLB approval for subject matter
competence is not equivalent to an authorization
or credential to serve. An individual must also hold
a credential or authorization appropriate to the
assignment.
32
Special Education Services
Credentials
TOM TORLAKSON
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
• Speech Language Pathology (SLP) Services in
Language, Speech, and Hearing without Special
Class Authorization (SCA)
• Authorized to provide speech therapy services
• Not authorized to provide academic instruction
to general or special needs students
• Cannot teach reading or other content areas to
general education or special needs students
33
SLP Credential Authorization
TOM TORLAKSON
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
SLP Credential must include a
SCA in order for the holder to
provide academic instruction to
special needs students.
(Autism and Speech Language
Impairment only)
34
Contact Information
TOM TORLAKSON
State Superintendent
of Public Instruction
Phyllis Hallam, Ph.D.
Education Programs Consultant
[email protected]
916-323-4630
Lynda Nichols, Education Programs Consultant
Title II Leadership Office
[email protected]
926-323-5822
Roxann L. Purdue
Certification, Assignment, and Waivers Division
[email protected]
916-322-5038
35

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