Average Rate of Return
A2 Business Studies
Aims and Objectives
• To understand the investment appraisal technique:
Average Rate of Return.
• Define ARR
• Calculate ARR
• Analyse ARR results
• Evaluate ARR method
Explain what the payback method calculates.
Explain two benefits of the payback method.
Explain two drawbacks of payback method.
ARR Definition
Average Rate of Return assesses the merits of an
investment by calculating the average annual profit as a
percentage of the initial investment.
Step 1
Calculate the average annual profit by adding up all net
cash flows divided by the number of years.
Average annual profit
= Total net cash flow / Number of Years
Step 1
Machine A =
(£750,000) + £142,500 + £192,500 + £252,500 +
£252,500 + £292,500 = £382,500
Average Annual Profit =
£382,500/5 = £76,500
Step 2
Divide the average annual profit by the initial
investment and show as percentage.
ARR = (Average Annual Profit/Initial Investment) x 100
Step 2
ARR = (£76,500/£750,000) x 100 = 10.2%
The ARR for machine A is 10.2 %
Machine B
Calculate the ARR for machine B.
Show all calculations and formulas in your working
Make everything obvious to the examiner!
Analysis and Evaluation of ARR
Higher the ARR the more potentially profitable the
Analyse machine A’s and machine B’s ARR.
Evaluation: Benefits & Drawbacks
Discuss the benefits and drawbacks of ARR method.
Interest Rates and lending
Cash Inflows
Evaluation: Benefits
Easy comparison with other forms of investment
Can compare with interest rate
Compared to current or target ROCE figure
Evaluation: Drawbacks
Does not take into account specific timings of cash inflows.
An investment may appear profitable, but if it takes four
years before a positive net cash flow is achieved this
might threaten the firm’s short term survival
Define ARR
Explain how to calculate ARR.

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