SIVA

Report
Introduction to Geotechnical
Engineering
ground
N. Sivakugan
SIVA
Duration: 13 mins
1
Typical Geotechnical Project
Geo-Laboratory
~ for testing
SIVA
soil properties
Copyright  2001 construction site
Design Office
~ for design & analysis
2
Shallow Foundations
~ for transferring building loads to underlying ground
~ mostly for firm soils or light loads
firm
ground
SIVA
Copyright  2001
bed rock
4
Shallow Foundations
SIVA
Copyright  2001
Deep Foundations
~ for transferring building loads to underlying ground
~ mostly for weak soils or heavy loads
P
I
L
E
weak soil
bed rock
SIVA
Copyright  2001
6
Deep Foundations
Driven timber piles, Pacific Highway
SIVA
Copyright  2001
7
Pier Foundations for Bridges
Millau Viaduct in France (2005)



Cable-stayed bridge
Supported on 7 piers, 342 m apart
Longest pier (336) in the world
A separate slideshow on the construction is
in the bottom drawer
SIVA
Copyright  2001
8
Pier Foundations for Bridges
Millau Viaduct in France (2005)
SIVA
Copyright  2001
9
Retaining Walls
~ for retaining soils from spreading laterally
retaining
wall
Road
Train
10
SIVA
Copyright  2001
Earth Dams
~ for impounding water
reservoir
clay
core
shell
soil
11
SIVA
Copyright  2001
Concrete Dams
reservoir
concrete dam
soil
12
SIVA
Copyright  2001
Concrete Dams
Three Gorges Dam, Hong Kong
SIVA
Copyright  2001
13
Concrete Dams
14
SIVA
Copyright  2001
Earthworks
~ preparing the ground prior to construction
SIVA
Copyright  2001
Roadwork, Pacific Highway
15
Construction hazard
~ an unwelcome visitor at an earthwork site.
What does it have
to do with Geo?#!
A dead Anaconda python (courtesy: J. Brunskill)
SIVA
Copyright  2001
16
Geofabrics
~ used for reinforcement, separation, filtration and
drainage in roads, retaining walls, embankments…
SIVA
Copyright  2001
Geofabrics used on Pacific Highway
17
Reinforced Earth Walls
~ using geofabrics to strengthen the soil
18
SIVA
Copyright  2001
Tunneling
MSE (Mechanically
stabilised Earth) wall
Chile (2006) – during my sabbatical leave
SIVA
Copyright  2001
19
Tunneling
20
SIVA
Copyright  2001
Soil Nailing
~ steel rods placed into holes drilled into the walls
and grouted
21
SIVA
Copyright  2001
Retaining Walls
Rock anchors to support the vertical walls
SIVA
Copyright  2001
22
Sheet Piles
~ sheets of interlockingsteel or timber driven into
the ground, forming a continuous sheet
warehouse
ship
sheet pile
23
SIVA
Copyright  2001
Sheet Piles
~ resist lateral earth pressures
~ used in excavations, waterfront structures, ..
24
SIVA
Copyright  2001
Sheet Piles
~ used in temporary works
25
SIVA
Copyright  2001
Sheet Piles
~ interlocking sections
26
SIVA
Copyright  2001
Cofferdam
~ sheet pile walls enclosing an area, to
prevent water seeping in
27
SIVA
Copyright  2001
Cofferdam
~ sheet pile walls enclosing an area, to
prevent water seeping in
28
SIVA
Copyright  2001
Landslides
29
SIVA
Copyright  2001
Shoring
propping and supporting the exposed walls to
resist lateral earth pressures
30
SIVA
Copyright  2001
Excavations
Chile (2006) – during my sabbatical leave
SIVA
Copyright  2001
31
Mining
32
SIVA
Copyright  2001
Blasting
For ore recovery in mines
33
SIVA
Copyright  2001
Earthquake Engineering
Loma Preita Earthquake, San Francisco (1989)
34
SIVA
Copyright  2001
Ground Improvement
Impact Roller to Compact the Ground
35
SIVA
Copyright  2001
Ground Improvement
Sheepsfoot Roller to Compact Clay Soils
36
SIVA
Copyright  2001
Ground Improvement
Smooth-wheeled Roller
37
SIVA
Copyright  2001
Ground Improvement
Big weights dropped
from 25 m, compacting
the ground.
Craters formed in compaction
SIVA
Copyright  2001
38
Environmental Geomechanics
Waste Disposal in Landfills
39
SIVA
Copyright  2001
Instrumentation
~ to monitor the performances of earth and
earth supported structures
~ to measure loads, pressures, deformations,
strains,…
40
SIVA
Copyright  2001
Soil Testing
SIVA
Copyright  2001
Vane Shear Test
Standard Penetration Test
More Field Tests
Soil Testing
Triaxial Test on Soil Sample in Laboratory
SIVA
Copyright  2001
42
Soil Testing
Variety of Field Testing Devices
SIVA
Copyright  2001
43
Soil Testing
Purdue University, USA
SIVA
Copyright  2001
Being Pushed around by my Supervisors
44
Typical Safety Factors
Type of Design
Safety
Factor
Probability of
Failure
Earthworks
1.3-1.5
1/500
Retaining
1.5-2.0
structures
Foundations 2.0-3.0
1/1500
1/5000
45
SIVA
Copyright  2001
Some Civil Engineering marvels ….
foundations
soil
exploration
tunneling
… buried right under your feet.
SIVA
Copyright  2001
46
Soil Testing
Cone Penetration Test Truck – Lavarach Barracks, Townsville
SIVA
Copyright  2001
Dynamic Compaction
JCU site visit to Townsville Port in 2003
49
SIVA
Copyright  2001
Sheet pile at Woolcock St
50
SIVA
Copyright  2001
Soil Nailing at Strand
51
SIVA
Copyright  2001
JCU Dynamic cone penetration rig
52
SIVA
Copyright  2001
JCU Dynamic cone penetration rig
53
SIVA
Copyright  2001
Pile driving rig – Ross River Dam
54
SIVA
Copyright  2001
Pile driving rig – Ross River Dam
A pile group
55
SIVA
Copyright  2001
Sea wall in Brisbane (2005)
SIVA
Copyright  2001
Courtesy: Coffey Geosciences Pty Ltd.
56
Great Contributors to the Developments
in Geotechnical Engineering
Karl Terzaghi
1883-1963
L. Bjerrum
1918-1973
C.A.Coulomb
1736-1806
A.W.Skempton
1914-
WJM Rankine
1820-1872
Siva’s teacher in USA –
deserves gold frame
G.F.Sowers
1921-1996
A.Casagrande
1902-1981
G.A. Leonards
1921-1997
Purdue University (USA), 1986
Mini-Me
SIVA
Copyright  2001
Geotechnical Group: Postgrads & staff
59
Geotechnical Engineering Landmarks
Leaning Tower of Pisa
Our blunders become monuments!
61
SIVA
Copyright  2001
Hoover Dam, USA
SIVA
Copyright  2001
Tallest (221 m) concrete dam
62
Petronas Tower, Malaysia
Tallest building in the
world
63
SIVA
Copyright  2001
Monuments
and….
64
SIVA
Copyright  2001
Geo-engineering at JCU
CS2005
Introduction to Geotechnical Engineering
CS3002
Soils & Foundations
CS4001
Foundations & Rocks
Postgrad
MEngSc/PhD
66
SIVA
Copyright  2001
Practicals
~ five practical sessions
~ closed footwear must be worn in the lab
67
SIVA
Copyright  2001
Safety
Rio de Janeiro
We have pride in our high safety standards
68
SIVA
Copyright  2001
Quizzes
How?


about 4-6, 50 minutes each
open book
Why?



reinforce main points
provide a wake up call
form of assessment
69
SIVA
Copyright  2001
Past CS2005 Grades
1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002
HD
5
1
1
3
3
0
D
4
2
3
2
9
6
C
15
12
6
7
7
2
P
12
8
8
6
10
8
P-
6
0
2
4
1
5
N
12
10
12
14
9
13
X
0
0
3
3
3
1
33
35
39
42
35
Total 54
?
70
SIVA
Copyright  2001
Some Suggestions
Attend the lectures.
It takes longer to understand
from the lecture notes
Develop a good feel for the subject.
It is practical, interesting and
makes lot of sense.
71
SIVA
Copyright  2001
Some Suggestions
Work in groups.
72
SIVA
Copyright  2001
Some Suggestions
Thou shall not wait till the last minute.
73
SIVA
Copyright  2001
Exams
My mama always said, “Exam is like a box
of chocolates; you never know what you
gonna get”
74
SIVA
Copyright  2001
Recipe for Success
I like soils… I like soils….I like soils….
75
SIVA
Copyright  2001

similar documents