MINISTRY OF WATER & POWER FEDERAL FLOOD COMMISSION FLOOD MANAGEMENT IN PAKISTAN JULY 12, 2012 FEDERAL FLOOD COMMISSION ESTABLISHMENT Prior to 1976, the Provincial Governments were responsible for planning and execution of flood protection works; Disastrous floods of 1973 and 1976 resulted in heavy losses indicating that existing flood protection facilities and planning were inadequate to provide effective protective measures for the country; Consequently in January 1977, Federal Flood Commission was established for integrated flood management on country-wide basis. 2 FEDERAL FLOOD COMMISSION COMPOSITION Chief Engineering Adviser Chairman Chief (Water), Planning & Development Division, Member Joint Secretary (Roads), M/O Communications Member Member (Water), WAPDA Member Director General, Pakistan Meteorological Department Member Member (Civil Engineering), Pakistan Railways Member Four Provincial Irrigation Secretaries and representatives from Gilgit-Baltistan, FATA and Azad Jammu & Kashmir Members 3 FEDERAL FLOOD COMMISSION CHARTER OF DUTIES Preparation of Flood Protection Plan for the country; Approval of flood control/protection schemes prepared by Provincial Governments and Federal Agencies; Recommendations regarding principles of regulation of reservoirs for flood control; Review of damage to flood protection works and review of plans for restoration and reconstruction works ; Measures for improvement of Flood Forecasting & Warning System; Preparation of a Research Programme for flood control and protection; Standardization of designs and specifications for flood protection works; Evaluation and monitoring of progress of implementation of the National Flood Protection Plan (Resolution No. W-II.3(23)/76/FFC dated 4th January, 1977) NOTE: Preparation of schemes (PC-Is), tendering, award of contract, execution, disbursement of 4funds, maintenance of flood works, etc. is total responsibility of Provinces/Federal Line Agencies. FLOOD MANAGEMENT IN PAKISTAN Flood have caused massive damage to infrastructure and crops in Pakistan, besides loss of life. Monetary losses during the major floods since 1950 aggregate billion dollars. Major floods during the years 1955, 1973, 1976, 1988, 1992, 2010 & 2011 resulted in inundation of millions of acres of land in various parts of Pakistan, which constituted one of the most serious environmental hazards. Over 10,668 people lost their lives during these floods. Floods are detrimental not only in financial terms, but also in their ability to severely undermine the productive system, which needs to be free from uncertainties and frequent disruptions. FLOOD MANAGEMENT IN PAKISTAN The complete prevention of floods is almost a physical impossibility. However, flood protection to the extent it is technically and economically feasible, is a socioeconomic necessity. By proper planning, means can be devised not only to minimize flood losses but also to conserve the surplus flows for augmenting water availability for productive use of the community. The recent drought, prolonged as it has been, must not be understood as meaning that Pakistan will not be hit by severe floods again. Indeed, the progressively declining storage, if not replaced, will eventually mean that flood peaks on Indus and Jhelum will be even higher due to loss of attending ability of the reservoir. FLOOD MANAGEMENT IN PAKISTAN In order to safeguard the Indus Valley and other flood prone areas from inundation, 5,822 Km (3,600 miles) of embankments have been constructed along major rivers and their tributaries in Pakistan. The protect embankment, to channelize flows through barrages and bridges, and to save lands and areas from erosion, 577 spurs have so far been constructed. FLOOD MANAGEMENT IN PAKISTAN The nature and need of flood protection facilities very according to specific physiographic characteristics and local conditions in different parts of Pakistan. In Punjab Province, the problems of inundation and land erosion are both prevalent. In Sindh, the river bed is generally higher than the adjoining lands and the river slopes are milder due to which the problem of inundation is far more serious. This is why almost throughout in Sindh, a double line of flood protection embankments has been constructed along both the banks of Indus. Wherever river current is anticipated to attack the embankments, heavy stone pitching and aprons have been provided as protective measures. In Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Balochistan, besides river flooding, hill torrents create havocs due to their steep slopes which result in flashy sudden flows of high magnitudes. In these areas, flood abatement/dispersion structures FLOOD MANAGEMENT IN PAKISTAN ISSUES: and retaining walls have been constructed covering parts of area. Despite huge investment made in this sector, breaches in embankments and failure of structures frequently lake place causing heavy loss of life and property. As the impact of such damages is progressively becoming more intense with higher levels of development and economic activities, there is a need to review the existing design and maintenance standards. The latter is particularly in a deficient state, and a lack of budgetary funds is given as the main reason. In the case of Indus and Jhelum, where some flexibility is available in the form of flood control because of Tarbela and Mangla Reservoirs, a prudent operation can optimize flood benefits without significantly sacrificing the water and power benefits. FLOOD MANAGEMENT IN PAKISTAN ISSUES: In Pakistan; both structural and non-structural measures have been used to mitigate flood losses. Principal non-structural measures include flood forecasting and warning, permanent relocation of people, flood insurance and land-use regulations. Under FPSP-I, considerable work has been done in the field of non-structural measures including flood plain mapping of some major river reaches. However, there is lot of room for carrying out more work in this field. FLOOD MANAGEMENT IN PAKISTAN Although considerable strengthening of flood forecasting work in the form of additional weather radar ad telemetric system, has been done, still greater emphasis is required on accurately forecasting precipitation in catchment areas, and on the development of an early warning system. CAUSES OF FLOODS IN PAKISTAN 12 FLOOD CONTROL & OBJECTIVES 13 TYPES OF FLOODS IN PAKISTAN 3. -------------------------------- 14 ORGANIZATIONS DEALING WITH FLOOD MANAGEMENT AT NATIONAL & REGIONAL LEVEL There is a strong likelihood that total amount of precipitation in Pakistan during monsoon season 2012 (be +05-15% of the long term average. However, erratic spread of monsoon on temporal and spatial scale is likely to be a prevalent feature; as such the possibility of very heavy localized rainfall, at times resulting in flash flooding, may not be ruled out. Further, such localized rainfall events may cause localized flash flooding over the hill torrents of Suleman Range & Rod-Kohi area in Rajanpur, D.I. Khan & D.G. Khan.” “ 15 “There is a strong likelihood that total amount of precipitation in Pakistan during monsoon season 2012 (July-September) will be +05-15 “There is a strong likelihood that total amount of precipitation in Pakistan during monsoon season 2012 (July-September) will be +05-15 PAKISTAN METEOROLOGICAL FORECAST FOR MONSOON SEASON 2012 3. -------------------------------- 16 COMPARISON OF INFLOWS & OUTFLOWS OF MAJOR RESERVOIRS Reservoir Current Year (2012) Last Year Average of Remarks (2011) last 10 Years Inflows 36.65 47.42 46.57 Outflows 20.79 26.33 24.57 (From Reservoirs) COMPARISON OF WATER LEVELS OF MAJOR RESERVOIRS Reservoir Current Year Last Year (12.7. 2012) (12.7.2011) Average of Remarks last 10 Years Tarbela 1441.70 feet 1441.92 feet 1462.04 feet Mangla 1134.20 feet 1187.60 feet 1176.33 Chashma 647.20 feet 647.90 feet 645.50 feet COMPARISON OF WATER STORAGE OF MAJOR RESERVOIRS Reservoir Current Year Last Year Average of Remarks (12.7. 2012) (2011) last 10 Years Tarbela 1.413 MAF 1.513 MAF 2.175 MAF Mangla 1.445 MAF 3.773 MAF 3.011 MAF Chashma 0.186 MAF 0.212 MAF 0.140 MAF 3.044 MAF 5.498 MAF 5.326 MAF Total: INTEGRATED FLOOD MANAGEMENT Construction of Flood Protection Works along major & other Rivers: i. Construction of new Flood Protection Infrastructure in vulnerable reaches along major & other rivers. ii. Up-gradation/Remodelling of flood protection infrastructure that provide protection to the urban areas/main cities and important installations such as power stations, oil refineries, industries etc.; iii. Flood Management of Hill Torrents through construction of; (a) Small Dams/Delay Action Dams (Water storage structures); (b) Flood Management Structures for mitigating flood flows and Agriculture development. iv. Adequate budget allocation by the Provinces each year for proper maintenance of existing flood management facilities. v. Recommend options for safety inspection and real time monitoring of flood protection and River Training Works and Barrages using Satellite services of SUPARCO. INTEGRATED FLOOD MANAGEMENT FLOOD PLAIN MAPPING/ZONING i. Flood Plain Mapping/Zoning along all the Indus river and its major tributaries (Jehlum, Chenab, Ravi & Sutlej, Kabul, Swat, Panjkora) for restricting/prohibiting by law permanent settlements in high and medium flood risk areas; ii. Provinces to prepare and pass an Act/River law and ensure its implementation; iii. Develop Web-GIS based inventory showing the complete history of existing flood protection and River Training Works along main rivers, secondary & Tertiary rivers including Hill Torrents/local nullahs of the entire country. iv. Submergence plans for critical reaches along flood embankments; v. Identification, resettlement and relocation of villages in flood plains to safe areas outside the flood bunds; vi. Identification of low flood risk areas for future cities, towns and villages, industrial areas etc.; vii. Management for effective control on Flood Plain Development. viii. Urban planning for flood resilient communities; ix. Community participation in cost sharing of flood projects and awareness campaigns. INTEGRATED FLOOD MANAGEMENT Provision of Escape Channels/Breaching Sections: Identification of flood escape channels to desert areas/off channel storages that would provide major reduction in flood peak discharge in Indus River System. Also identify possible sites for underground reservoirs, retarding basins, etc.; THANKS STEPS TAKEN BY FEDERAL FLOOD COMMISSION TO MITIGATE FUTURE FLOODS LOSSES IN THE COUNTRY • FFC organized Post Flood Meeting on December 19, 2011 under the chairmanship of Honourable Federal Minister for Water & Power, wherein certain directions were issued to the flood management related organizations. • Work on Preparation of Comprehensive Flood Management Plan on countrywide basis for next 10 years (based on integrated & innovative approach) has been initiated through World Bank funded Water Sector Capacity Building & Advisory Services Project (WCAP). The study is likely to be completed by June 30, 2013 STEPS TAKEN BY FEDERAL FLOOD COMMISSION TO MITIGATE FUTURE FLOOD LOSSES IN THE COUNTRY • A High Level Flood Management Committee having representation from FFC, NDMA, WAPDA, PMD, PCIW and Engineer Directorate, GHQ, Rawalpindi has been renotified for Monsoon Season 2012 as done in the previous Monsoon Season (2011). Objectives of the Committee: • The main objectives of the Committee are be to oversee and ensure proper operation of Tarbela, Chashma and Mangla reservoirs during Monsoon Season 2012, besides coordination for Flood Forecasting and Management activities. The Committee shall meet as frequently as needed during Monsoon Season 2012. STEPS TAKEN BY FEDERAL FLOOD COMMISSION TO MITIGATE FUTURE FLOOD LOSSES IN THE COUNTRY • The Flood Communication Cell (FCC) established in FFC has started working on round the clock basis from June 15, 2012, which would work upto 15th October 2012. The Flood Communication Cell obtain rainfall data and weather information from Flood Forecasting Division (FFD), Lahore and other Flood Warning Centers set up in the Provincial Headquarters, besides data relating to river discharges at RIM stations and other important control points including flood flows data of Eastern Rivers through PCIW and its transmission to concerned organizations. • FFC is better flood management of Lai Nullah during Monsoon Season. For that purpose FFC organized consultative meetings and site visits with WASA and other concerned authorities. The desilting works in critical sections has been completed by June 30, 2012. STEPS TAKEN BY FEDERAL FLOOD COMMISSION TO MITIGATE FUTURE FLOOD LOSSES • The impounding water level of Mangla Dam Project is being raised from 1210 feet (Max. Conservation Level of last year) to 1242 feet for Monsoon Season 2012, which will enhance the flood mitigation role of the dam project, besides additional water storage of 2.90 MAF and 12% more electricity i.e. 644 Gwh per annum. • SOPs of Tarbela Dam are being revisited for enhancing its role in mitigating future floods.