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CHAPTER 4
ELECTRICITY
4.1 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICITY
4.2 ELECTRICITY IN COSMETOLOGY
CHAPTER 4 ELECTRICITY | ADVANCE ORGANIZER
FOLLOWING THIS LESSON, YOU WILL BE ABLE TO:
• Define the 10 major terms used in electricity
• Describe the safety measures to be followed when using
electrical appliances
• Explain the 3 kinds of effects that can be created by
electric current
• List the effects that can be created by special current
(modalities) used during electrotherapy and light therapy
treatments
CHAPTER 4 ELECTRICITY | ADVANCE ORGANIZER
4.1 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICITY
VOCABULARY OF ELECTRICITY
ELECTRIC CURRENT
SAFETY MEASURES
CHAPTER 4 ELECTRICITY | PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICITY |
ADVANCE ORGANIZER
ELECTRICITY AND ELECTRIC CURRENT
Electricity: a form of energy that produces light, heat,
magnetic and chemical changes
CHAPTER 4 ELECTRICITY | PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICITY |
VOCABULARY OF ELECTRICITY
LOADS, CONDUCTORS AND INSULATORS
Loads: electrically powered appliances
Silver
Copper
Graphite
CONDUCTOR
INSULATOR
Wood
Material that best
transports electricity
Material that does not
allow a current to pass
through it
Plastic
Carbon
Water-Containing Ions
CHAPTER 4 ELECTRICITY | PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICITY |
VOCABULARY OF ELECTRICITY
Rubber
Alcohol
Pure Distilled Water
ELECTRICITY AND ELECTRIC CURRENT
Cords on appliances should be kept straight and
free of knots, kinks and tangles to prevent breaks.
WARNING!
A break in any electrical cord
can put you or your client in
contact with an active current,
causing electrical shock.
CHAPTER 4 ELECTRICITY | PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICITY |
VOCABULARY OF ELECTRICITY
VOCABULARY OF ELECTRICITY
AMP
Strength
VOLT
Pressure
• Power box to • Measures how
house
hard electrons
supplies amps are pushed by
the source
• Conductors
carry limited
number of
amps
• Amp rating is
the number
of electrons
flowing on
a line
• 110/220 volts
• 220 volt has
“V” prongs on
plug
• Large motors
need 220 volts
OHM
WATT
HERTZ
Resistance
Amount Used Frequency
• Impedance
• 1 watt =
small
amount of
energy
• Measures how
difficult it is to
push electrons
through a
conductor
• OHM’s rating =
resistance to
the motion of
electrons in a
conductor
• Hertz = Hz
• Number of
cycles, per
second, a
• Blow dryer = generator
1,000 watts
alternates
per second
the current
from the
• 1,000 watts
source
= one
kilowatt
• 1 hertz =
one
cycle/secon
d
CHAPTER 4 ELECTRICITY | PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICITY |
VOCABULARY OF ELECTRICITY
ELECTRIC CURRENT
TWO FORMS:
• Direct Current (DC):
Electrons move at an even rate in
only one direction
DC
• Alternating Current (AC)Electrons
flow first in one direction and
then the other
AC
CHAPTER 4 ELECTRICITY | PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICITY |
ELECTRIC CURRENT
SPECIAL INSTRUMENTS
• Converter
Changes direct current to
alternating current
DC
AC
• Rectifier
Changes alternating current
to direct current
AC
DC
CHAPTER 4 ELECTRICITY | PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICITY |
ELECTRIC CURRENT
SOURCES OF ELECTRIC CURRENT
Source: provides the force to move electrons through
a conductor
BATTERY
• Produces direct current
• Has electrons that flow
toward the positive
terminal in a circuit
GENERATOR
• Produces alternating current
• Uses mechanical energy to
produce flow of electrons
• Used in salons most often
DC
CHAPTER 4 ELECTRICITY | PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICITY |
ELECTRIC CURRENT
AC
HOW ELECTRIC CURRENT IS PRODUCED
TWO CONDITIONS NECESSARY FOR AN ELECTRIC CURRENT:
• Source
• Generator producing alternating current
• Battery producing direct current
• Circuit
• Closed path through which electrons travel to
operate an appliance
CHAPTER 4 ELECTRICITY | PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICITY |
ELECTRIC CURRENT
HOW ELECTRIC CURRENT IS PRODUCED
ELECTRON FLOW
switch is on
• Closed Path (Circuit):
path on which electrons • Open Circuit: path of
leave the source and
electron flow is broken;
operate an appliance;
switch is off
CHAPTER 4 ELECTRICITY | PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICITY |
ELECTRIC CURRENT
HOW ELECTRIC CURRENT IS PRODUCED
PARALLEL AND SERIES WIRING
• Parallel Wiring
• Powers several loads at once or at different times
• Install only parallel wiring in a salon
• Series Wiring
• Runs all loads at the same time
• Circuit travels from one load to the next
CHAPTER 4 ELECTRICITY | PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICITY |
ELECTRIC CURRENT
OVERLOAD AND SHORT CIRCUIT
Overload: occurs when too many
appliances on one circuit are being
operated at the same time; line has more
current than it is designed to carry
Fires can occur when an extension cord
with multiple plugs attaches 4 or 5
appliances to one wall socket
CHAPTER 4 ELECTRICITY | PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICITY |
ELECTRIC CURRENT
OVERLOAD AND SHORT CIRCUIT
Short Circuit: occurs when a “foreign conductor” comes in
contact with wire carrying current to a load
CHAPTER 4 ELECTRICITY | PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICITY |
ELECTRIC CURRENT
FUSE
Fuse: safety device containing a fine metal
wire that allows current to flow through it
• Connected directly to the
circuits in the power box
• Melts wire to break current
if overload occurs
• Cannot be reused
CHAPTER 4 ELECTRICITY | PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICITY |
ELECTRIC CURRENT
CIRCUIT BREAKER
Circuit Breaker: reusable device that breaks the flow of
current when an overload occurs
• Connects directly to the circuits in
the power box
• Breaks the flow of current when
an overload occurs
• Contains two pieces of metal that
make contact and allow current to flow
• Separates the pieces with
a heat-sensing device if the flow
of current is too high
CHAPTER 4 ELECTRICITY | PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICITY |
ELECTRIC CURRENT
GROUNDING WIRE
Grounding Wire: wire in the three-wire system running
directly to the ground that protects you when operating
certain kinds of appliances
• Prevents excess flow of current from going to user
• Found on any appliance requiring this protection, which
has a three-prong plug
CHAPTER 4 ELECTRICITY | PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICITY |
ELECTRIC CURRENT
SHOCK
Shock: occurs when a human has contact with an
electric current
1
Knock person out of circuit by using an insulator
(broom, plastic brush or plastic garbage pail)
2
Unplug appliance using insulator to avoid circuit
3
Rush to power box and turn off all circuit breakers
CHAPTER 4 ELECTRICITY | PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICITY |
ELECTRIC CURRENT
SHOCK
LOCAL SHOCK
Electricity passes through a
small part of the body
• Immerse burn in cool
water immediately
• Take person to the hospital or
physician if burn is severe
GENERAL SHOCK
Electricity passes through the
entire body
• Break the circuit before
touching person
• Dial 911
• Start CPR; continue until
emergency team arrives
CHAPTER 4 ELECTRICITY | PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICITY |
ELECTRIC CURRENT
ELECTRICAL FIRES
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES FOR ELECTRICAL FIRES
• Do NOT put water on it
• Turn off the circuit
• Smother the fire with rug, towel, powder
or use fire extinguisher
CHAPTER 4 ELECTRICITY | PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICITY |
ELECTRIC CURRENT
KNOW YOUR EQUIPMENT
The 3 types of electrically powered equipment typically
used in the salon are:
• Thermal – used to generate heat
• Mechanical – has a motor
• Combination – generates heat
and produces a flow of air
CHAPTER 4 ELECTRICITY | PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICITY |
ELECTRIC CURRENT
SELF-CHECK
On a sheet of paper numbered 1-8, answer the
following questions.
1. T or F
Materials that best transport electricity are
called conductors.
2. T or F
Materials that DO NOT allow a current to pass
through them are called prisms.
3. T or F
The unit of electric strength is called an amp.
4. T or F
The unit of electric pressure is called an ohm.
CHAPTER 4 ELECTRICITY | PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICITY |
SELF-CHECK
SELF-CHECK
5. The two forms of electrical current are:
a. AC and DC
b. AD and BC
c. AB and CD
d. hot and cold
6. The name for the measure of how much electrical energy
is being used is called ___________.
CHAPTER 4 ELECTRICITY | PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICITY |
SELF-CHECK
SELF-CHECK
7. A reusable safety device that breaks the flow of current
when an overload occurs is a:
a. fuse
b. 3-wire system
c. circuit breaker
d. grounding wire
8. A shock that passes through a small part of the body is
called a __________ __________.
CHAPTER 4 ELECTRICITY | PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICITY |
SELF-CHECK
SELF-CHECK
On a sheet of paper numbered 1-8, answer the
following questions.
1. T or F
Materials that best transport electricity are
called conductors.
2. T or F
Materials that DO NOT allow a current to pass
through them are called prisms.
3. T or F
The unit of electric strength is called an amp.
4. T or F
The unit of electric pressure is called an ohm.
CHAPTER 4 ELECTRICITY | PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICITY |
SELF-CHECK
SELF-CHECK
5. The two forms of electrical current are:
a. AC and DC
b. AD and BC
c. AB and CD
d. hot and cold
6. The name for the measure of how much electrical energy
watt
is being used is called ___________.
CHAPTER 4 ELECTRICITY | PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICITY |
SELF-CHECK
SELF-CHECK
7. A reusable safety device that breaks the flow of current
when an overload occurs is a:
a. fuse
b. 3-wire system
c. circuit breaker
d. grounding wire
8. A shock that passes through a small part of the body is
shock
local
called a __________
__________.
CHAPTER 4 ELECTRICITY | PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICITY |
SELF-CHECK
FACE THE FACTS
VOCABULARY OF ELECTRICITY
 Electricity is a form of energy that produces
light, heat, magnetic and chemical changes
 Electric current is the movement of electricity
along a path called a conductor
 Load is the technical name of any electrically
powered appliance
 Conductor is a material that allows electricity to
flow through it easily
CHAPTER 4 ELECTRICITY | PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICITY |
FACE THE FACTS
FACE THE FACTS
VOCABULARY OF ELECTRICITY
 Insulator is material that does not allow the flow
of electric current
 Amp is a unit of electric strength
 Volt is a unit of electric pressure
 Ohm is a unit of electric resistance
 Watt is a measure of how much electrical energy
is being used
CHAPTER 4 ELECTRICITY | PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICITY |
FACE THE FACTS
FACE THE FACTS
ELECTRIC CURRENT
 Electric current exists in two forms – AC and DC
SAFETY MEASURES
 Safety devices are installed in many appliances and
buildings because of the possibility of overloads and
short circuits
CHAPTER 4 ELECTRICITY | PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICITY |
FACE THE FACTS
4.2 ELECTRICITY IN COSMETOLOGY
EFFECTS OF ELECTRIC CURRENT
ELECTROTHERAPY
LIGHT THERAPY
CHAPTER 4 ELECTRICITY | ELECTRICITY IN COSMETOLOGY |
ADVANCE ORGANIZER
EFFECTS OF ELECTRIC CURRENT
3 KINDS OF EFFECTS
1. HEATING EFFECTS
Flow of current causes special conductors (heating
elements) to produce heat
2. MECHANICAL OR MAGNETIC EFFECTS
Push-pull effect causes motor to turn
3. ELECTROCHEMICAL EFFECTS
Electric current travels through water-based solution
CHAPTER 4 ELECTRICITY | ELECTRICITY IN COSMETOLOGY |
EFFECTS OF ELECTRIC CURRENT
ELECTROTHERAPY
Electrotherapy: application of special currents (modalities)
that have certain effects on the skin
FOUR TYPES OF ELECTROTHERAPY CURRENT:
• Galvanic Current
• Faradic Current
ALERT!
• Sinusoidal Current
A person with any potentially
• Tesla Current
restrictive medical condition should
always consult a physician before
receiving electrotherapy treatment.
CHAPTER 4 ELECTRICITY | ELECTRICITY IN COSMETOLOGY |
ELECTROTHERAPY
Electrode: current conductor used to bring
the current from the appliance to the
client’s skin
COMMON ELECTRODES:
• Comb
• Carbon
• Rake
• Massage Roller
• Wrist
In electrotherapy, electric current
is reduced from 120 volts to a level
safely handled by the human body
by the use of a wall plate
CHAPTER 4 ELECTRICITY | ELECTRICITY IN COSMETOLOGY |
ELECTROTHERAPY
GALVANIC CURRENT
Galvanic Current: direct current (DC) of low voltage and
high amperage
• Has electrochemical effect and is oldest form of
electrotherapy
• Needs a special appliance to convert salon’s AC to DC
• Causes a chemical effect by passing current through acid
or alkaline solutions and/or by passing current through
body tissues and fluids
CHAPTER 4 ELECTRICITY | ELECTRICITY IN COSMETOLOGY |
ELECTROTHERAPY
GALVANIC CURRENT
Phoresis: process of forcing an acid (+) or alkali (-) into the
skin by applying current to the chemical
• Is most typical application of Galvanic Current
• Referred to as “bleaching the skin”
CHAPTER 4 ELECTRICITY | ELECTRICITY IN COSMETOLOGY |
ELECTROTHERAPY
GALVANIC CURRENT
Anaphoresis: uses a negative (-) pole to force alkaline
solutions into the skin without breaking the skin
Effects on the area of the body to which it is
applied include:
• Produces alkaline reaction
• Increases blood flow
• Softens tissues
• Stimulates nerves
CHAPTER 4 ELECTRICITY | ELECTRICITY IN COSMETOLOGY |
ELECTROTHERAPY
GALVANIC CURRENT
Cataphoresis: uses a positive (+) pole to force acidic
solutions into the skin without breaking the skin
Temporary effects on the area of the body to which it is
applied include:
• Produces acidic reaction
• Slows blood flow
• Hardens tissues
• Soothes nerves
CHAPTER 4 ELECTRICITY | ELECTRICITY IN COSMETOLOGY |
ELECTROTHERAPY
GALVANIC CURRENT
Galvanic Current Electrotherapy
• Apply active electrode to the client
• Instruct client to hold the inactive electrode
• Wrap active and inactive electrodes in moist cotton
Do not use Galvanic Current over an area having many
broken capillaries.
Never use more than one milliampere of current on a client
CHAPTER 4 ELECTRICITY | ELECTRICITY IN COSMETOLOGY |
ELECTROTHERAPY
FARADIC CURRENT
Faradic Current: alternating current, interrupted to
produce a mechanical, non-chemical reaction
BENEFITS:
• Improves blood circulation
• Improves muscle tone
• Stimulates hair growth
• Increases glandular activity
CHAPTER 4 ELECTRICITY | ELECTRICITY IN COSMETOLOGY |
ELECTROTHERAPY
FARADIC CURRENT
Indirect Method: most frequently used application
of Faradic Current electrotherapy
1. Wear wrist band with moistened electrode
2. Have client hold second electrode or attach to lower neck
3. Place fingers on client’s face before turning on
current to prevent shock
4. Perform facial massage when the current reaches
desired level
5. Turn current completely off before removing fingers
from client
CHAPTER 4 ELECTRICITY | ELECTRICITY IN COSMETOLOGY |
ELECTROTHERAPY
FARADIC CURRENT
Direct Method: application used less often for Faradic
Current electrotherapy
1. Place both electrodes on client’s skin
2. Be certain that electrodes never touch
3. Turn on current and slowly increase only after
electrodes are in place
CHAPTER 4 ELECTRICITY | ELECTRICITY IN COSMETOLOGY |
ELECTROTHERAPY
SINUSOIDAL CURRENT
Sinusoidal Current: alternating current with a mechanical
effect that produces muscle contraction
• Use the indirect method application only
• Penetrates more deeply
• Provides greater stimulation to treated area
Should not be used on unhealthy and/or broken skin
CHAPTER 4 ELECTRICITY | ELECTRICITY IN COSMETOLOGY |
ELECTROTHERAPY
TESLA CURRENT
Tesla High Frequency Current: alternating current that can
be adjusted to different voltages to produce heat
• Known as the “violet-ray”
• Does not produce muscle
contractions
• Can result in relaxation
or stimulation depending on
method of application
CHAPTER 4 ELECTRICITY | ELECTRICITY IN COSMETOLOGY |
ELECTROTHERAPY
TESLA CURRENT
Three methods for using Tesla High Frequency Current:
Direct Application
• Apply electrode directly to the client’s scalp or face
Indirect Application
• Hand glass electrode to client before activating current
• Manually stimulate the area being treated
• Turn off current before client returns electrode
CHAPTER 4 ELECTRICITY | ELECTRICITY IN COSMETOLOGY |
ELECTROTHERAPY
TESLA CURRENT
Three methods for using Tesla High Frequency Current:
General Electrification
• Hand electrode to client before activating current
• Switch power on; tingling or vibrating effect is felt by client
CHAPTER 4 ELECTRICITY | ELECTRICITY IN COSMETOLOGY |
ELECTROTHERAPY
TESLA CURRENT
Cosmetology uses for Tesla Current include:
Indirect Application
• Dry skin
facial treatment
• Dry scalp
Direct Application
• Mild acne and/or
blackhead facial
treatment
• Scalp treatment
CHAPTER 4 ELECTRICITY | ELECTRICITY IN COSMETOLOGY |
ELECTROTHERAPY
ELECTROTHERAPY PRECAUTIONS
GENERAL
• Always read manufacturer’s directions and follow
them carefully
• Electrodes should never touch each other
GALVANIC, FARADIC & SINUSOIDAL CURRENT
• Never take current over 1 milliampere
• Make sure current is off before beginning indirect
application and before breaking contact with client
• Should not exceed 30 minutes for sinusoidal treatment
CHAPTER 4 ELECTRICITY | ELECTRICITY IN COSMETOLOGY |
ELECTROTHERAPY
ELECTROTHERAPY PRECAUTIONS
TESLA HIGH FREQUENCY
• Begin with mild current, increase slowly
• Keep client out of contact with metal during treatment
• Limit treatment duration to approximately 5 minutes
• Be sure if using cream that it contains no alcohol
• Turn current on only after client is holding electrode
• Turn off current before removing electrode from
client’s contact
CHAPTER 4 ELECTRICITY | ELECTRICITY IN COSMETOLOGY |
ELECTROTHERAPY
HEAT ENERGY
Heat always moves from a hotter body to
a cooler body and can be transferred by:
1. Conduction – direct contact
2. Convection – liquid or gas
3. Radiation – through a vacuum
(empty space)
EFFECTS OF HEAT
Mild – relaxes muscles, increases
blood circulation
Intense – destroys cells and tissues
CHAPTER 4 ELECTRICITY | ELECTRICITY IN COSMETOLOGY |
ELECTROTHERAPY
LIGHT THERAPY
Light Therapy: the production of beneficial effects on the
body through treatments using light rays or waves
CHAPTER 4 ELECTRICITY | ELECTRICITY IN COSMETOLOGY |
LIGHT THERAPY
LIGHT THERAPY
Wavelength: measurement of waves from crest to crest
CHAPTER 4 ELECTRICITY | ELECTRICITY IN COSMETOLOGY |
LIGHT THERAPY
VISIBLE LIGHT
Visible Light: portion of the electromagnetic spectrum
humans can see
White Light: combination
light that is broken into individual
wavelengths by a prism
CHAPTER 4 ELECTRICITY | ELECTRICITY IN COSMETOLOGY |
LIGHT THERAPY
VISIBLE LIGHT
FLUORESCENT LIGHT
An economical and long-lasting
light source
INCANDESCENT LIGHT
A kind of light provided by an
ordinary light bulb
CHAPTER 4 ELECTRICITY | ELECTRICITY IN COSMETOLOGY |
LIGHT THERAPY
INVISIBLE LIGHT
Invisible Light: range of light not visible to the human eye
Eighty percent (80%) of sunlight is
composed of invisible rays beyond
red (infrared)
Eight percent (8%) of natural sunlight
s composed of invisible rays beyond
violet (ultraviolet)
CHAPTER 4 ELECTRICITY | ELECTRICITY IN COSMETOLOGY |
LIGHT THERAPY
INFRARED LIGHT
Infrared Light: produces heat
Benefits include:
• Increased circulation
• Increased skin gland secretions
• Relaxation of muscles
• Stimulation of cell and tissue activity
ALERT!
Wear protective eyewear during UV light therapy treatments.
CHAPTER 4 ELECTRICITY | ELECTRICITY IN COSMETOLOGY |
LIGHT THERAPY
ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT
Ultraviolet light (UV): also known as actinic rays; have
shorter wavelength and can be more damaging than
infrared rays
POSITIVE EFFECTS
NEGATIVE EFFECTS
• Aids in production of
• Sunburned skin, damaged
Vitamin D
eyes, photochemically
• Kills bacteria that causes
damaged hair
skin infections(germicidal)
• Can result in skin cancer
• Promotes healing and is used • Excess tanning causes
in the treatment of acne
dry, leathery skin, peeling,
itching, wrinkling, sagging
and permanent discoloration
CHAPTER 4 ELECTRICITY | ELECTRICITY IN COSMETOLOGY |
LIGHT THERAPY
SELF-CHECK
On a sheet of paper numbered 1-8, answer the
following questions.
1. T or F
Tesla is the Direct Current used in
electrotherapy treatments.
2. T or F
Cataphoresis uses a positive electrode to force
acidic solutions into the skin without
breaking the skin.
3. T or F
Treatment with light rays is called light therapy.
CHAPTER 4 ELECTRICITY | ELECTRICITY IN COSMETOLOGY |
SELF-CHECK
SELF-CHECK
4. T or F
The chemical breakdown of the skin caused
by intense heat is called vaporizing.
5. Which type of light can create blue or cool tones?
a. invisible
b. sunlight
c. fluorescent
d. incandescent
CHAPTER 4 ELECTRICITY | ELECTRICITY IN COSMETOLOGY |
SELF-CHECK
SELF-CHECK
6. Eighty percent (80%) of sunlight is composed of:
a. visible rays
b. natural light
c. incandescent light
d. invisible rays beyond red
7. Which of the following types of light has the
shortest wavelength?
a. red
b. violet
c. Infrared
d. ultraviolet
CHAPTER 4 ELECTRICITY | ELECTRICITY IN COSMETOLOGY |
SELF-CHECK
SELF-CHECK
8. Overexposure to what type of light can result in
skin cancer?
a. visible
b. ultraviolet
c. fluorescent
d. incandescent
CHAPTER 4 ELECTRICITY | ELECTRICITY IN COSMETOLOGY |
SELF-CHECK
SELF-CHECK
On a sheet of paper numbered 1-8, answer the
following questions.
1. T or F
Tesla is the Direct Current used in
electrotherapy treatments.
2. T or F
Cataphoresis uses a positive electrode to force
acidic solutions into the skin without
breaking the skin.
3. T or F
Treatment with light rays is called light therapy.
CHAPTER 4 ELECTRICITY | ELECTRICITY IN COSMETOLOGY |
SELF-CHECK
SELF-CHECK
4. T or F
The chemical breakdown of the skin caused
by intense heat is called vaporizing.
5. Which type of light can create blue or cool tones?
a. invisible
b. sunlight
c. fluorescent
d. incandescent
CHAPTER 4 ELECTRICITY | ELECTRICITY IN COSMETOLOGY |
SELF-CHECK
SELF-CHECK
6. Eighty percent (80%) of sunlight is composed of:
a. visible rays
b. natural light
c. incandescent light
d. invisible rays beyond red
7. Which of the following types of light has the
shortest wavelength?
a. red
b. violet
c. Infrared
d. ultraviolet
CHAPTER 4 ELECTRICITY | ELECTRICITY IN COSMETOLOGY |
SELF-CHECK
SELF-CHECK
8. Overexposure to what type of light can result in
skin cancer?
a. visible
b. ultraviolet
c. fluorescent
d. incandescent
CHAPTER 4 ELECTRICITY | ELECTRICITY IN COSMETOLOGY |
SELF-CHECK
FACE THE FACTS
EFFECTS OF ELECTRIC CURRENT
 Effects of electric current are heating, mechanical
or magnetic and electrochemical
ELECTROTHERAPY
 Electrotherapy is the application of special currents
(modalities) that have certain effects on the skin
CHAPTER 4 ELECTRICITY | ELECTRICITY IN COSMETOLOGY |
FACE THE FACTS
FACE THE FACTS
ELECTROTHERAPY: GALVANIC CURRENT
 Direct Current of low voltage and high amperage
 Chemical effects are caused by passing the current
through particular acid or alkaline solutions and/or
passing current through body tissues and fluids
ELECTROTHERAPY: FARADIC CURRENT
 Alternating current, interrupted to produce
a mechanical, non-chemical reaction
 Stimulates nerve and muscle tissue
CHAPTER 4 ELECTRICITY | ELECTRICITY IN COSMETOLOGY |
FACE THE FACTS
FACE THE FACTS
ELECTROTHERAPY: SINUSOIDAL CURRENT
 Alternating current with a mechanical effect
 Produces muscle contractions
ELECTROTHERAPY: TESLA CURRENT
 High frequency current known as violet ray
 Relaxation or stimulation, depending on
method of application
 Does NOT produce muscle contractions
CHAPTER 4 ELECTRICITY | ELECTRICITY IN COSMETOLOGY |
FACE THE FACTS
FACE THE FACTS
LIGHT THERAPY
 Production of beneficial effects on the body through
treatments using light rays or waves
 Visible light is the portion of the electromagnetic
spectrum that humans see
 The wavelengths that produce red are the longest waves
of the visible spectrum
 Fluorescent and incandescent light are two kinds of light
produced in the salon
CHAPTER 4 ELECTRICITY | ELECTRICITY IN COSMETOLOGY |
FACE THE FACTS
LESSONS LEARNED
 Using electricity safely ensures the well-being of
the salon professional and the client
 Electric current may result in heat, mechanical or
magnetic and electrochemical effects
 Electric currents used during electrotherapy and
light therapy treatments include Galvanic Current
to produce chemical effects, Faradic and Sinusoidal
Currents to produce mechanical, non-chemical reactions
and Tesla Current to produce heat
CHAPTER 4 ELECTRICITY | LESSONS LEARNED
SELF-TEST
CHAPTER 4 ELECTRICITY | SELF-TEST

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