Colton Hinckley

Report
AS/RS Hardware
Colton Hinckley
11/10/14
What is AS/RS?
Automated Storage and Retrieval
Systems are computer-controlled
systems used for automatically
placing and retrieving loads from
defined storage locations [1].
[2]
Basic System Layout
Computer Commands
Crane moves to
desired
horizontal and
vertical
location
Crane moves to Deposit
station (usually
conveyor)
Crane retrieves
load(s)
Crane deposits
item at deposit
station
What is the layout of the system?
- Two robotic cranes to move horizontally and vertically
- Main server, generally not located on the robots
- Computer workstations for operators to control what is stored/retrieved
and where.
- Power comes from rechargeable NiMH batteries, with option for power
regeneration coming from lowering loads and using friction to produce
power. [3]
Sensors
- Bump sensors to indicate end of aisles
- Long and short range proximity sensors to help system to where it
needs to go
- Barcode scanner to verify correct pallets/loads [4]
Different types of AS/RS
Fixed Aisle [5]
• One machine to move
horizontally and vertically
• Same unit can extend/retract
loads to and from shelves
Carousel Storage System [5]
• Horizontal and vertical
• Items loaded and unloaded at
specified station
[6]
AS/RS
Fixed-Aisle
Unit Load
Deep-Lane
Carousel
Mini Load
Unit-Load AS/RS
[2]
• Most common
• Unit = pallet, standard container
• One unit at a time, must go back and forth from conveyor to
storage racks
• 100+ ft tall
• Heavy loads – 6000+ lbs [7]
• 800 ft/min horizontal, 300 ft/min vertical
Deep-Lane AS/RS
• Used for large quantities of the same
item, but low overall different items [8]
• Loaded on one side of rack, unloaded on
other
• Different machines for storage and
retrieval
• Speeds and load capacity similar to Unit
Load AS/RS
Mini-Load AS/RS
• Carries several smaller loads at once
• Loads generally are delivered to a human worker at a
pickup station
• AS/RS crane may have walls to ensure safety of small
objects
• 600 + lbs capacity
• 600 ft/min horizontal, 350 ft/min vertical [9]
Carousel Storage Systems
• Generally NOT AS/RS, simply
transports products to unload/load
station [3]
• Smaller products that humans can lift,
although cranes can be used
• Horizontal and vertical systems
• Eliminates walking time
[10]
Horizontal Carousel
Comparisons
Unit Load
Deep-Lane
Mini-Load
Application
Large load, one
at a time
High density unit Several small
storage
loads at once
How many loads
1
1
Several
Horizontal
Speed
800 ft/min
800 ft/min
600 ft/min
Vertical Speed
300 ft/min
300 ft/min
350 ft/min
Load Capacity
6000 lbs
6000 lbs
600 lbs
Height Capacity
40-100 ft
40-100 ft
10-40 ft
Number of
cranes
1 per aisle
1 per aisle, 2
1 per aisle
needed per
operation
Cost is roughly the same independent of type…
all depends on size and load requirements!
Roughly $2 million-10 million+
Is AS/RS worth it?
Comparing standard Very Narrow Isle (VNA) warehouse with manned
forklifts to AS/RS equipped warehouse. Technical Paper credit to
Howard Zollinger, P.E.
[11]
Estimated initial investment of $1.2 million, but saves
$650,000 per year. Less direct labor!
Supporting Technology
- Sensors
- Conveyors (to place loads on)
- Servomotors
Standards
- Mostly have to do with operator safety
- ASME B30.13 – Markings, lights, alarms, as well as qualifications and trainings for
operators.
Main Vendors
Conveyor and Unit
Load AS/RS
Unit, Deep Lane,
and Mini-Load AS/RS
Mini-Load and Unit Load AS/RS
Horizontal and
Conveyor S/RS
Video
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1fqDujqPNrM
Class Problem: Sizing an AS/RS system
See page 327 of textbook for reference [12]
Each aisle of a four-aisle AS/RS contains 60 storage compartments in the length
direction and 12 compartments vertically. All storage compartments are the same
size to accommodate standard-size pallets of dimensions: x = 42 in, y = 48 in. The
height of a unit load is z = 36 in. Using the allowances a = 6 in, b = 8 in, and c =
10 in, determine how many unit loads can be stored in the AS/RS.
Solution: Storage capacity = 2*length compartments*height compartments
= 2*60*12
= 1440 unit loads
For 4 aisles, 4*1440 = 5760 unit loads
References
1. “Material Handling Industry of America – Glossary.” www.mhi.org/glossary
2. www.dynamicstorage.com/asrs
3. Utah State Archives AS/RS. http://dts.utah.gov/service-levelagreements/documents/CopyofArchivesASRSPD-4217.04.15.pdf
4. Chung, Albert. University of Florida Intelligent Machines Design Laboratory.
http://mil.ufl.edu/5666/papers/IMDL_Report_Spring_05/chungalbert/asrs.pdf
5. Automation Textbook, 4E, Groover. Page 319
6. https://www.wieseusa.com/carousels-vertical-lifts.html
7. http://www.daifukueurope.com/products/9/44/112/ManufacturingDistribution/Automated-Storage-Retrieval-System-AS-RS/Unit-Load
8. Automation Textbook, 4E, Groover. Page 320
9. http://www.interlakemecalux.com/automated-storage-retrievalsystems/stacker-cranes-for-boxes
10.http://www.whsystems.com/warehouse-automation/carousels-verticallift-modules/
11.http://www.mhi.org/downloads/industrygroups/asrs/technicalpapers/asrswhitepaper2.pdf
12.Automation Textbook, 4E, Groover. Page 327
References

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