Chapter 6 - Oxford University Press

Report
Understanding Intercultural
Communication Second Edition
Chapter 6
What is the Connection between Verbal
Communication & Culture?
Stella Ting-Toomey & Leeva C. Chung
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS
PowerPoint Slides Designed by Alex Flecky and Noorie Baig
TODAY’S MENU
I. Human Language: Distinctive Features
and Rule Patterns
II. Appreciating Diverse Language
Functions
III. Verbal Communication Styles: A
General Framework
IV. Intercultural Reality Check: Do-Ables
Do you know…
•
The Top-3 Countries with the Most Native
English-Language Speakers?
•
The Top-3 Countries with the Most Native
Spanish-Language Speakers?
•
The Top-3 Most Widely-Spoken Languages
Worldwide?
(Ethnologue Database, 2010-11)
I. Human Language: Distinctive Features
and Rule Patterns
Language:
An arbitrary, symbolic system that labels
and categorizes objects, events, groups,
people, ideas, feelings, experiences, and
many other phenomena.
Can you guess how many languages exist
worldwide?
I. Human Language: Distinctive Features
and Rule Patterns
A. Distinctive Language Features
• Arbitrariness: sounds and symbols
Ω A  €
∞
• Abstractness: concrete to abstract levels
• Meaning-Centeredness: denotative and
connotative levels of meaning
• Creativity: productivity, displacement, etacommunicative
I. Human Language: Distinctive Features
and Rule Patterns
B. Multiple Rule Patterns
•
•
•
•
•
Phonological Rules: Smallest unit of a word
Morphological Rules: Multiple sounds
Syntactic Rules: Grammar
Semantic Rules: Meaning
Pragmatic Rules: Contextual rules
II. Appreciating Diverse Language
Functions
Click here to find out the “Meaning of Love”
From 7 Billion Others from YouTube
II. Appreciating Diverse Language Functions
A. Cultural Worldview Function
•
Linear worldview vs. Relational worldview
B. Everyday Social Reality Function
C. Cognitive Shaping Function
•
•
Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis: “the shaper of ideas”
Strong Form vs. Weak Form
D. Group Membership Function
•
Code switching (Click to view related video)
E. Social Change Function
II. Appreciating Diverse Language
Functions: Cultural Worldview Function
Linear Worldview
Relational Worldview
Rational thinking
Connected thinking
Objective reasoning
Context-based reasoning
Facts and evidence
Context and relationship
Polarized interpretation
Continuum interpretation
Analytical dissecting mode
Holistic big-picture mode
Tangible outcome
Long-term relational
outcome
II. Verbal Communication Styles:
A General Framework
LCC Patterns
HCC Patterns
Individualistic values
Collectivistic values
Linear logic
Spiral logic
Direct verbal style
Informal verbal style
Indirect verbal style
Understated or animated
tone
Formal verbal style
Verbal assertiveness or
talkativeness
Verbal reticence or silence
Verbal self-enhancement
style
Self-humbling style
Matter of fact tone
II. Verbal Communication Styles: A General Framework
LCC – HCC Application Analysis:
•
The Joy Luck Club: Film Clip
•
Roommates Video
DISCUSSION QUESTIONS:
Compare and contrast the different verbal styles of the
people in the videos.
• What did the low-context communicator say/do? What did
the high-context communicator say/do?
• What recommendations do you have for these
communicators to make this conversation go better?
•
II. Verbal Communication Styles: A General Framework
Beliefs Expressed in Talk and Silence
• Silence is interpreted and evaluated differently across
cultures and between persons.
• How do you interpret silence?
Take a look at how the Japanese people use
silence to mean different things…
IV. Intercultural Reality Check: Do-Ables
When using your native language with a nonnative
speaker, to be flexible verbal communicators, try
to practice the following guidelines:
– Practice intercultural empathy
– Learn to paraphrase and perception check
– Use multiple modes of presentation
– Practice language variation usage
– Pay attention to nonverbal tone of voice
– Understand basic differences of LCC and HCC patterns
– Use nonverbal gestures to complement
– Master the language pragmatic rule function
Parting Thoughts…
If you talk to a man
in a language he understands,
that goes to his head.
If you talk to him in his language,
that goes to his heart.
~ Nelson Mandela
Learn a new language
and get a new soul.
~ Czech Proverb

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