NOTES FOR Test ON FRIDAY 3/12/10

Report
The Jungle
In Class Essay- How does Upton
Sinclair’s The Jungle reflect the
progressive movement?
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4
5
W-workers
F- food safety
I=immigration
PC= political
corruption
BC= business
corruption
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UP=Urban poverty
CL=Child labor
P=prostitution
A=Alcohol
In Class Essay
• How does Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle reflect
the progressive movement?
• Breen’s six characteristics of progressivism
1 Concern about effects of industrialization and
conditions of industrial life
2 Optimism about human nature, belief in
“expert” study of a problem followed by
education of the public
In Class Essay
• How does Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle reflect
the progressive movement?
• Breen’s six characteristics of progressivism
3 Willing to intervene in people’s lives
(paternalistic)
4 Turned to government authority at all levels to
institute reform (local, state, federal)
In Class Essay
• How does Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle reflect
the progressive movement?
• Breen’s six characteristics of progressivism
5 Evangelical Protestantism and natural/social
science approach- idea that environment key to
reform- change the environment- change the
individual!
6 National reach (nationwide movement) and a
mass base (lots of ppl)
Examples of Progressivism- 2nd
• Professions became more standardized,
regulated: doctors had professional exams,
AMA, lawyers had bar exam, teachers formed
NEA, social workers formed NFS (p. 656)education, health, child labor
• Temperance Movement worked to stop
drinking, 2,3,4,6 alcohol- 657-658 WCTU
Examples of Progressivism- 2nd
• Alice Hamilton- one of few female grads of med
school, worked at Hull House, studied workrelated illnesses, discovered disease caused by
fumes/dust lobbied states to regulate factories to
prevent this disease
• Social Justice Movement
– General Federation of Women’s Clubs had Industrial
Section & Committee on Legislation for Women &
Children, pushed for laws safeguarding women &
children workers, National Child Labor Committeechanges in 28 states for kids/39 for women, OFTEN
overruled by courts
Examples of Progressivism- 2nd
• Social Justice Movement
– General Federation of Women’s Clubs had
Industrial Section & Committee on Legislation for
Women & Children, pushed for laws safeguarding
women & children workers, National Child Labor
Committee- changes in 28 states for kids/39 for
women, OFTEN overruled by courts
– Farmers joined National Farm Bureau Federation
to spread information about farming, improve
their lives
Progressives 2nd
• Charity Organization Society of NY- Spring
1900 held house expo, presented new
sociological data (pix, maps, stats, etc) on
tenements and slum districts
• Politicians- Cleveland, OH Tom Johnson had
panel of advisers, outdoor meetings to
educate the public, began to enact public
ownership of utilities (water, gas, electric,
transportation) “gas & water socialism”
Progressives 2nd
• Robert LaFollette- WI idea established 1st industrial
commission to regulate factory safety & sanitation,
improved public education, worker’s compensation,
public utility controls, & resource conservation
• LaFollette lowered railroad rates, raised RR taxes,
pushed for direct primaries for governors in Wisconsin
(voters would get more say), state income tax in WI.
• Creation of state regulatory commissions to hold
hearings and take action on business practices that
were hurting the public (set maximum prices, etc.)
• National Conference of Social Work- share methods,
establish sw as a separate field
Progressives 2nd
• Women’s Christian Temperance Union- ¼ million
member, largest women’s org, joined anti-saloon
league, eventually succeeded in banning alcohol
in 19 states & finally helped pass 18th
Amendment- Prohibition of Alcohol
• Meat Inspection Act- set rules for sanitary meat
packing reaction to The Jungle read by Roosevelt,
he commissioned study of plants that
corroborated details in TJ,
• social justice in form of women’s rights- American
Women’s Suffrage Assoc
Examples of Progressivism- 6th
• Amoskeag welfare & efficiency programprovided playgrounds, visiting nurses, home
buying plans; dinners/picnics, baseball teams
• Professions- began to create standards,
professional organizations- lawyers created bar
association/bar exam,
• Women’s suffrage movement• Women’s Christian Temperance Union- wanted to
prohibit alcohol, women also lobbied to eliminate
prostitution
Examples of Progressivism- 6th
• Amoskeag welfare & efficiency program- provided
playgrounds, visiting nurses, home buying plans;
dinners/picnics, baseball teams
• Professions- began to create standards, professional
organizations- lawyers created bar association/bar
exam,
• Women’s suffrage movement- in social justice
movement argued needed right to vote to influence
elected officials to reform/purify societypudge
• Women’s Christian Temperance Union- wanted to
prohibit alcohol, women also lobbied to eliminate
prostitution
Examples of Progressivism- 6th
• Early 1900’s reform leagues in major cities, 1 leader
advised by experts to manage various problems #4, #2
• #4 (govt reform) created Natl. Municipal League forum
for debate over civic reform, changes in tax laws, public
ownership of utilities
• La Follette’s Wisconsin Idea- regulated factory safety &
sanitation, Governor of Wisconsin, later Senator #4, #1
• Alice Hamilton studied lead poisoning & other indus.
Diseases, IL passed state law providing compensation
for diseases caused by poisonous fumes & dust #2, 4,
#1
Examples of Progressivism- 6th
• John Dewey education reform, less focus on rote
learning, more focus on experiential education,
discovery with aid of teacher
• 1910 Mann Act (cong) prohibited transportation of
women for immoral purposes (anti-prostitution) #6, 4,
3
• Social Justice reformers formed Natl. Conference of
Charities & Corrections became Natl. Conf of Social
Work, formed magazine to spread ideas, created
professional schools for SW #6, 3, 2
• States created regulatory commissions to look over
large corporations, prevent corruption #4, 6
Examples of Progressivism- 6th
• General Federation of Women’s Clubs supported
reforms to safeguard women and children
workers, improve schools, insure pure food,
beautify the community #1, 5, 6
• Roosevelt supported Elkins Act 1903- prohibited
railroad rebates, increased powers ICC, 6, 4, 1
• Judge Ben Lindsay concluded children not
inherently evil, shaped environment, sentenced
them to education, supported playgrounds, slum
clearance, public baths, technical schools
Examples of Progressivism- 6th
• Women’s suffrage movement changed argument from natural
rights to idea that women needed to vote so they could reform &
purify society
• Tom L. Johnson (mayor of Cleveland) improved taxation, prisons,
regulated utilities, cut down corruption #1, 4
• 1906 Meat Inspection encouraged by TR, set rules for sanitary meat
packing & govt. inspection of meat products enc. By The Jungle
• Pure Food & Drug Act- b4 passed many pharmaceutical drugs used
alcohol, were “undiluted frauds”, American Medical Association
joined with TR to pass act requiring mfg. to list ingredients in labels
#4, 6, 2
• Alice Paul & Lucy Burns (congressional Union) more militant than
Carrie Chapman Catt, focused on appealing to congress rather than
states & picketed white house for women’s suffrage #6, 4
Examples of Progressivism- 6th
• WCTU- encouraged passage of 18th AmendmentProhibition (mfg/sale of alcohol) #4,3
• Square Deal
– Coal miners demanded fewer hours, more pay in
strike, Coal co’s refused
– TR sent military told companies they had to give
better wages, encouraged them to raise prices to
offset wage increase #4ppl
– #4
• the
Examples of Progressivism- 8th
• #1- Wisconsin Idea of Bob La Follette – regulated
factory safety & sanitation, also reformed
taxation system WI 1st state income tax, (Senator,
later Governor)
• TR reform program regulated RR’s, protected
employers #1, 4
• Alice Hamilton went to med school, concerned
about workers, studied diseases (lead poisoning)
contracted in industry, traced typhoid to flies, IL
passed first state law providing worker’s comp for
diseases contracted fumes & dust
Examples of Progressivism- 8th
• National American Woman Suffrage Associationlobbied for passage of 19th Amendment
(women’s right to vote) #6, 4
• Women changed argument from natural right to
more pragmatic argument (a la William James)women more moral, needed to vote to purify
society #4, 5
• TR trust busting- sued Northern Securities
(upheld by Supreme Court) dissolved company,
also suits vs. RR, tobacco, oil #4, #3
Examples of Progressivism- 8th
• WCTU (Women’s Christian Temperance Union)
over ¼ million members #6, #3
• Passed 18th Amendment- Prohibition (mfg., sale,
transport of intoxicating liquors) #4
• American Medical Association (AMA) set
educational requirements/standards for practice
for doctors #3, #2
• National Child Labor Committee- lobbied for leg.
To regulate the employment & working
conditions of children #1, #3, #4
Examples of Progressivism- 8th
• Ivy Levy- incorporated public relations in PA
Railroad & Standard Oil, wanted to improve
relations between workers & management #1
• Social Justice Movement- hoped to make laws for
child labor & improve working conditions for
women #3, #1
• Industrial Workers of the World (IWW)- trying to
unite all workers regardless of race, gender, skill
to overthrow capitalist system #1 but wanted to
overturn capitalism
Examples of Progressivism- 8th
• Gas & water socialism- public ownership of
utilities #1, by 1915 almost 2/3 of American cities
owned their own waterworks
• TR helped pass Meat Inspection Act 1906 after
reading The Jungle, appointed commission to
study packing industry, required sanitary
meatpacking, govt. inspection
• Pure Food & Drug Act- experimented with
medicines, exposed dangers of patent medicines,
required drugs to list ingredients
Election of 1912
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Dem- Wilson
Bull Moose (3rd Party)- Teddy Roosevelt
Republican- Taft
Socialist- Eugene V. Debs
Woodrow Wilson-won due to split of the
Republican Party (Progressives vs. business
conservatives)
Election of 1912
• Roosevelt’s platform- New Nationalism
– demanded a national approach to affairs & a strong
president to deal with them,
– efficiency in government & society,
– exalted executive & expert,
– urged social justice reforms to protect workers, women,
and children
– accepted “good trusts”
• Woodrow Wilson- New Freedom
– emphasized business competition,
– small government (states’ rights,
– rein in federal authority & only use it to destroy privilege,
release individual energy & restore competition)
Wilson as President
• Federal Reserve Act• Race relations- favorite movie was Birth of a
Nation, Progressives, African-Americans both
disappointed by his record

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