Looking at Lawmaking

Report
LOOKING AT LAWMAKING
Click the pic for the Federalism
Facts of Congress!
Levels of
Government
In our federal
system of
government,
the government
shares powers
between three
levels:
Government
Federal
State
Local
Branches of Government
Each level of
government is then
divided into three
branches of
government.
The legislative,
executive, and
judicial branches all
have different powers,
responsibilities, and
requirements.
Executive
Branch
Judicial
Branch
Legislative
Branch
Federal
State
Local
What does the legislative
branch do?
Who serves in the
Legislative Branch?
Congressmen/Congresswomen
U.S. Representative
U.S. Senator
Florida Legislator
Florida Representative
Florida Senator
Commissioner
Councilman/Councilwoman
Legislative Branch
Makes the law
What does the executive
branch do?
Who serves in the
executive
branch?
President
Vice President
Cabinet Members
Governor
Lieutenant Governor
Cabinet Members
Mayor
Executive Branch
Enforces the law
What does the judicial
branch do?
Who serves in the
judicial branch?
Justices of the United
States Supreme Court
Appellate Judges
Trial Judges
Justices of the Florida
Supreme Court
Appellate Judges
Trial Judges
On your worksheet, you will need to correctly identify
each branch of government, the role of the branch,
and the titles/offices of government officials for each
level of government. For the judicial branch, you will
need to identify the levels/types of courts.
Who Does What?
Who Does What?
Branch of
Government
Legislative
Executive
Judicial
Role of this branch
Make law
Enforce law
Interpret and apply
the law
Federal
• Congressman/
Congresswoman
• U.S. Senator
• President
• Vice President
• U.S. Supreme
Court
• U.S. Circuit Courts
of Appeal
• U.S. District Courts
• Florida Senator
• Florida
Representative
• Governor
• Lieutenant
Governor
• Florida Supreme
Court
• District Courts of
Appeal
• Councilman/
Councilwoman
• County/City
Commissioner
• Mayor
• Circuit Court
• County Court
•
State
Local
U.S.
Representative
LOOKING AT LAWMAKING
How are laws made in the
legislature?
Conversation Starter:
• Individually write 2-3 sentences for
each question. In your group, discuss
and compare your responses.
– What did Locke say would happen if
there was no government or social
contract?
– What would our country be like without
laws?
The Hierarchy of Law
United States
Constitution
If there is a
conflict between a
lower law and a
higher one, the
higher one
“prevails”.
Acts of Congress
Florida
Constitution
State Statutes
(laws)
City and County
Ordinances
The U.S.
Constitution is
the “Supreme
Law of the
Land.”
Where does it come
from?
• Where does Congress get
the power to make acts?
• Where does the Florida
legislature get the power to
make laws (statutes) for the
state?
• Where does the local
government get the power
to make ordinances?
Click the pic to see a Fact of
Congress on how a bill becomes
a law!
The Bill Begins
• Laws begin as ideas from individual citizens,
groups, or Representatives .
• What kinds of ideas important to Florida
would a congressman/congresswoman bring
up during session?
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Immigration
National security issues
Healthcare
Human trafficking
Tax laws
Minimum wage
NASA funding
The Bill is Proposed
• When a Representative has written a
bill, the bill needs a sponsor.
• Once a bill has a sponsor and the
support of some of the U.S.
Representatives, it is ready to be
introduced.
The Bill is Introduced
• In the U.S. House of
Representatives, a bill is
introduced when it is placed
in the hopper—a special box
on the side of the clerk’s desk.
• The bill clerk assigns it a
number that begins with H.R.
• A reading clerk then reads the
bill to all the
Representatives, and the
Speaker of the House sends
the bill to one of the House
standing committees.
What is a
committee?
Committees
• Groups of Representatives or Senators who are
experts on topics such as agriculture, education,
or international relations
Some Congressional Committees:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry
Appropriations
Armed Services
Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs
Budget
Commerce, Science, and Transportation
Education and the workforce
Energy and Natural Resources
Environment and Public Works
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Ethics
Finance
Foreign Relations
Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions
Homeland Security and Governmental
Affairs
Judiciary
Rules and Administration
Small Business and Entrepreneurship
Veterans' Affairs
The Bill Goes to
Committee
• When the bill reaches committee, the
committee members review, research, and
revise the bill before voting on whether or
not to send the bill back to the House floor.
The bill may be sent to
a subcommittee if more
information is needed.
Here, the bill is closely
examined and expert
opinions are gathered
before it is sent back to
the committee for
approval.
The Bill is Reported
• When the committee has approved a
bill, it is sent—or reported—to the
House floor. Once reported, a bill is
ready to be debated by the U.S. House
of Representatives.
The Bill is Debated
• When a bill is debated, Representatives
discuss the bill and explain why they
agree or disagree with it.
• Then, a reading clerk reads the bill
section by section and the
Representatives recommend changes.
When all changes have been made, the
bill is ready to be voted on.
The Bill Is Voted On
There are three methods for voting on a bill
in the U.S. House of Representatives:
1. Viva Voce (voice vote): The Speaker of
the House asks the Representatives who
support the bill to say “aye” and those
that oppose it say “no.”
2. Division: The Speaker of the House
asks those Representatives who support
the bill to stand up and be counted, and
then those who oppose the bill to stand
up and be counted.
3. Recorded: Representatives record their
vote using the electronic voting system.
Representatives can vote yes, no, or
present (if they don’t want to vote on the
bill).
If a majority of the Representatives say or select yes, the bill
passes in the U.S. House of Representatives. The bill is then
certified by the Clerk of the House and delivered to the U.S. Senate.
The Bill is Referred to
the Senate
• When a bill reaches the U.S. Senate, it goes
through many of the same steps it went
through in the U.S. House of Representatives.
The bill is discussed in a Senate
committee and then reported to the
Senate floor to be voted on.
• Senators vote by voice. Those who support
the bill say “yea,” and those who oppose it
say “nay.” If a majority of the Senators say
“yea,” the bill passes in the U.S. Senate and
is ready to go to the President.
The Bill Is Sent to the
President
When a bill reaches the President, he has three
choices. The President can:
1. Sign it—the bill becomes a law.
2. Veto (refuse to approve) it —the bill is sent back
to Congress.
3. Do nothing —if Congress is in session, the bill
automatically becomes law after 10 days. If
Congress is not in session, the bill does not
become a law.
Is a veto the end of a
bill?
• Not quite…
– If the U.S. House of Representatives and
the U.S. Senate still believe the bill
should become a law, they can hold
another vote on the bill.
– If two-thirds of the Representatives and
Senators support the bill, the President’s
veto is overridden and the bill becomes
a law.
Using Handout B and the index cards provided, you will be
creating puzzle study cards on how a bill becomes a law on the
federal level.
On the side with lines, summarize the steps in the process. On
the opposite side, illustrate the step of the process.
Put It In a Puzzle
Idea and Drafting
Bill Proposed
Bill Introduced
Idea from citizen, group or
Representative is drafted into
a bill.
The bill needs a sponsor
and support. Once this
happens, it is ready to be
introduced.
A bill is introduced when it is
placed in the hopper. It is
assigned a number and the
bill is read to all
Representatives.
.
Bill is Debated
Bill is Reported
Committee
Representatives discuss the bill and
explain their stance on it. The clerk
then reads the bill , accepts edits,
and then finalizes the changes.
Once approved by a
committee, the bill is sent, or
reported, to the House floor.
Committee members review, research and
revise the bill and then vote on whether it should
be sent to the House floor. May be sent to a
subcommittee if more information is needed.
Vote on Bill
Bill Referred to the Senate
Sent to the President
LAW
The bill is then voted on. A
majority is needed for the bill
to pass the House. If it passes,
it is certified by the Clerk and
delivered to the Senate.
The bill goes through the same
processes as in the House. It is
reviewed in committee and
reported to the Senate floor
where it is voted on.
If the President vetoes the
bill, the Legislature may
override his/her veto by a
2/3 vote.
If the President does not
veto the bill, the bill
becomes law.
HOW DOES A BILL
BECOME A LAW IN
FLORIDA?
Let’s look at the
process…
IDEA
DECISION
BILL DRAFTED
1ST READING
From citizen, group or
legislator
The legislator decides if
the idea should be a bill.
Bill written by staff and
assigned a number..
Published in Chamber
Journal.
3RD READING
2ND READING
Same process as original
Chamber.
Final reading of the bill. The
bill is voted on and may die
if it does not receive a
favorable vote.
Bill is read on floor of
Chamber and may be
placed on Special Order
Calendar by vote.
COMMITTEE
ASSIGNMENT
/MEETING
Return to Original
Chamber
GOVERNOR
CONSIDERATION
GOVERNOR FINAL
ACTIONS
Final versions of the bill
must be identical in both
Chambers.
Governor can sign the bill into
law, allow the bill to become
law without signing, or veto
the bill.
If the Governor vetoes the
bill, the Legislature may
override his/her veto by a
2/3 vote.
.
Consideration by
Opposite Chamber
Bill is reviewed, voted on, and
can be placed on calendar or
allowed to die in committee.
LAW
If the Governor does not
veto the bill, the bill
becomes law.
In summary, this is how a
law is made:
IDEA
From citizen, group or
legislator
.
GOVERNOR
CONSIDERATION
Governor can sign the bill into
law, allow the bill to become
law without signing, or veto
the bill.
BILL DRAFTED
Bill written by staff and
assigned a number.
COMMITTEE
ASSIGNMENT
/MEETING
Consideration by
Opposite Chamber
Bill is reviewed, voted on, and
can be placed on calendar or
allowed to die in committee.
Same process as original
Chamber.
GOVERNOR FINAL
ACTIONS
If the Governor vetoes the
bill, the Legislature may
override his/her veto by a
2/3 vote.
LAW
If the Governor does not
veto the bill, the bill
becomes law.
Check For Understanding
What are some important words to look for in this
question?
Which answers can we eliminate?

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