Mr. Gunnink Survey of Literature “A father, and a gracious agèd man, Whose reverence even the head-lugged bear would lick, Most barbarous, most degenerate, have you madded.” -King Lear 4.2.41-43 Uses Archaic Language Omits parts of words Wrote scripts, not novels Uses Unusual Syntax Often uses Rhythm and Rhyme Wordplay! Anon (Now; soon) Ere (Before) Arras (Wall tapestry) Fain (ready; willing; eager) Art (Are) Hap/Haply (luck; chance) Ay/Aye (Yes) Hark (Listen) Betimes (Immediately) Hast (Have) Betwixt (Between) Hath (Has) Choler (Anger; irritability) Hence (from here) Cozen (cheat; trick; deceive) Hest (command) Cuckold (Man married to Hie (go quickly) an adulteress) Dost/Doth (Do/Does) Ho (Calls attention to) Knave (A villain) Marry (I swear by the Virgin Mary) Maugre (In spite of) Methinks (I think) Moe (more) Morrow (Tomorrow) Ne’er (never) Oft (Often) Perchance (Maybe) Prithee (I pray thee; please) Rood (Cross of Jesus) Shouldst (If ___ should) Shrive (confess sins) Sirrah (mistercontemptuous) Soft (Be quiet!) Wouldst (if ______ Thou (You, Subject) Thee (You, Direct Object) Thence (From there) Thine (Yours) Thy (Your) ‘Tis (it is) ‘Twere/’Twas (It were/It was) would) Withal (in addition; besides) Wherefore (Why?) Whence (from where?) Woo (to seek and gain) on and of= o’ Do it= do’t” in= i’ Amongst= “’mongst” The= th’ Medicine=“med’cine” It= ‘t Ever= “e’er” He= ‘a To have= “t’have” Be= b’ Whether= “Whe’r” With= wi’ “God b’ wi’ you” Them=‘em “’T may, I grant” Have= ha’ or ‘a’ “Will you ha’ the truth Be it= “be’t” on’t.” Expresses emotion Amazed Based on context Seductive Overjoyed Annoyed Surprised Scared Depressed Understanding Furious In Physical Pain Embarrassed Longing Disappointed Serious Mourning Syntax=the order of words in a sentence In English, the traditional order is Subject-Verb-Object (Direct/Indirect) The boy (S) bounced (V) the basketball (O). Ate the sandwich I. I the sandwich ate. I ate the sandwich. Ate I the sandwich. The sandwich I ate. The sandwich ate I. Which of these sentences would you use if you needed someone to understand you quickly? What is the syntax of that sentence? “That handkerchief/ Did an Egyptian to my mother give.” (Othello 3.4.55-56) Three major parts: Egyptian gave handkerchief Rearranged: “An Egyptian gave that handkerchief to my mother.” How do the two sentences read differently? “A glooming peace this morning with it brings.” (Romeo and Juliet 5.3.305) Three major parts: Morning brings peace Rearranged: “This morning brings with it a glooming peace.” How do the two sentences read differently? “And duller shouldst thou be than the fat weed/That roots itself in ease on the lethe wharf,/Wouldst thou not stir in this.” (Hamlet 1.5.32-34) Three major elements: Thou be duller Rearranged: Wouldst thou not stir in this, thou shouldst be duller than the fat weed that roots itself in ease on the lethe wharf. “The prisoners/Which he in this adventure hath surprised/To his own use he keeps” (Henry IV 1.1.92-95) Three major parts: He keeps the prisoners Rearranged: “He keeps the prisoners, which he hath surprised in this adventure, to his own use .” “The snow comes in January; wild winds blow, and the trees are bare.” Turn this sentence into two lines of poetry, one in ending in “snow”, one ending in “blow” “In January comes the snow/The trees are bare, and wild winds blow.” “Then they did weep for sudden joy, and I sung for sorrow, that a king should play bopeep and go among the fools.” Four lines, ending with weep, sung, bopeep, among. “Then they for sudden joy did weep,/And for sorrow I sung/That a king should play bopeep/And go the fools among.” Perfect rhyme: true/blue; scars/stars; lying/dying Imperfect rhyme: lap/shape; glorious/nefarious Eye rhyme: love/move/prove; why/philosophy End rhyme: Roses are red, violets are blue/Flowers are lovely, and so are you. We add emphasis to word and syllables in everything we say. Where we add the emphasis (stress) helps determine the meaning of the sentence. I didn’t say he had a tattoo. Shakespeare wrote most of his lines in iambic pentameter. Iambic= repeating iambs Iamb= two syllables, first one unstressed, second one stressed Pentameter= five units in a line Five iambs= ten syllables Shakespeare does not always follow this exactly, but usually he does. ta TUM ta TUM ta TUM ta TUM ta TUM “But soft! What light through yonder window breaks?” “But soft! What light breaks through yonder window?” “And mermaid-like awhile they bore her up.” “And they bore her up awhile, mermaid-like.” Syntax changes to better fit the rhythm Puns: words with similar sounds but different meanings Oxymorons: words with opposite meanings used together Paradox: a statement that appears to be logically impossible yet is somehow true Ambiguity: when words convey more than one meaning Sexual double-entendres: common words with sexual connotations Responding using the words previously spoken Shakespeare loved to write in sonnets He wrote stand-alone sonnets, but also included many sonnets in his plays Most sonnets within plays were soliloquies (spoken by the actor to himself with no one else on stage) Shakespearean (or English sonnet) different from Petrarchan (Italian) sonnet English Sonnet rules: 14 lines of iambic pentameter Rhyme Scheme: ABABCDCDEFEFGG 12 lines of alternating rhyme End with rhyming couplet First 8 lines (octave) usually describe a situation, problem, question Second 6 lines (asestet) usually respond to the octave In between there is often “the turn” (volta) Rhyming couplet offers final insight 1. When my love swears that she is made of truth, 2. I do believe her though I know she lies, 3. That she might think me some untutored youth, 4. Unlearnèd in the world’s false subtleties. 5. Thus vainly thinking that she thinks me young, 6. Although she knows my days are past the best, 7. Simply I credit her false-speaking tongue: 8. On both sides thus is simple truth suppressed. 9. But wherefore says she not she is unjust? 10. And wherefore say not I that I am old? 11. O love’s best habit is in seeming trust, 12. And age in love loves not to have years told. 13. Therefore I lie with her, and she with me, 14. And in our faults by lies we flattered be.