IV. Andean Civilizations, 600-1500 A. Cultural Response to Environmental Challenge 1. Geography • Andes Mountains - High altitudes - frosts • Arid climate of the coast - Little rainfall • Hot & humid jungles of the Amazon IV. Andean Civilizations, 600-1500 2. Technology • Accurate calendar - Time planting and harvest of crops • Domestication of frost resistant potatoes and grains • Terraced hillsides • Freeze-drying • Domestication of the llama and alpaca - Meat - Wool - Long distance transportation IV. Andean Civilizations, 600-1500 3. • • - Record Keeping No system of writing Khipus or quipus A system of knotted colored cords Used for administration: to record population counts, tribute obligations, etc Warm Up: What geographic challenges did Andean civilization face? Andean Civilizations, 600-1500 4. • • - Labor Structure Family The clan, or ayllu (aye-You) Held land communally Clan members obligated to assist each other in common labor • Ayllu provided labor and goods to chief Andean Civilizations, 600-1500 5. Mit’a • Each ayllu contributed a set number of workers for specific tasks each year - Rotational labor draft • Members of ayllu work the fields, care for llama and alpaca herds - Owned by religious establishment, courts, aristocracy • Built and maintained roads, bridges, temples and large irrigation and drainage projects • Produced textiles and essential goods Andean Civilizations, 600-1500 6. • • • Gender roles Work divided along gender lines Men- Hunting, military service, government Women- textile production, agriculture, and the home IV. Andean Civilizations, 600-1500 B. Moche 1. Identity • North coastal region of Peru in about 600 C.E. • No formal empire of unified government • Identity based on culture IV. Andean Civilizations, 600-1500 2. Agriculture • mit’a labor system • extensive irrigated agriculture - produced maize, quinoa, beans, sweet potatoes and manioc • Alpaca and llama herds - Transportation, wool for textiles, meat. IV. Andean Civilizations, 600-1500 3. Moche Society • Stratified and theocratic. • Wealth and power were concentrated in the hands of an elite - priests and military leaders who lived atop large platforms - decorated themselves with magnificent clothing, - jewelry, and tall headdresses. IV. Andean Civilizations, 600-1500 3. • • • - - Continued Commoners cultivated their fields supplied mit’a labor to the elite. Moche artisans were skilled in the production of textiles, ceramics, and metallurgy. Gold and silver were used for decorative purposes, copper and copper alloy for farm tools and weapons. IV. Andean Civilizations, 600-1500 4. Decline • may be attributed to a series of natural disasters in the sixth century • and to pressure from the warlike Wari people in the eighth century. IV. Andean Civilizations, 600-1500 C. Tiwanaku and Wari 1. Tiwanaku Civilization • Centered in modern Bolivia • High elevation (13,000 ft) • experienced increased agricultural productivity and urbanization in the years following 200 C.E. • cultivated potatoes and grains on raised fields reclaimed from marshland. IV. Andean Civilizations, 600-1500 2. Urbanization • urban construction included a large terraced pyramid, walled enclosures, and a reservoir. • Construction was done with large stones - quarried, moved, and laid by thousands of laborers - working with simple technology and copper alloy tools. IV. Andean Civilizations, 600-1500 3. • • • • Tiwanaku Society highly stratified, ruled by a hereditary elite, included specialized artisans. Not a large city Political and ceremonial center. IV. Andean Civilizations, 600-1500 4. The Wari • was located near the city of Ayucucho, Peru. • Wari had contact with Tiwanaku but was a separate culture; • the city being built without central planning, • with different techniques, • and on a much smaller scale than Tiwanaku. • Both Tiwanaku and Wari declined to insignificance by 1000 C.E.