Scottish Culture Food and Drink It is not documented when whisky first started to be produced in Scotland and it's first mention is in 1494 Whisky when it was already a well-established practice. The Gaelic 'usquebaugh', meaning 'water of life' was pronounced 'usky' which then became 'whisky' in English. Whisky is produced all over Scotland and our local distillery is just 3 miles from here at Glengoyne Distillery. The distillery recently featured in a successful Scottish film based on whisky -The Angels' Share. No one really knows just where Haggis originated, Haggis but it is generally attributed to Scotland. It is in fact considered the national dish of Scotland. This is mainly attributed to Robert Burns’ poem Address to a Haggis written in 1787. Haggis is traditionally eaten with neeps and tatties which is mashed potatoes and turnip. Tablet Tablet is a Scottish sweet. It is first noted in the early 18th century and is made from sugar, condensed milk and vanilla. It is often served with coffee. Porridge is made from oats Porridgewhich make up a large part of traditional Scottish food. This is mainly because oats were a reliable crop in many areas. Porridge is simply slowly boiled oatmeal. It is often eaten for breakfast is known for it's filling effect. Many people eat it with fruit or syrup. Shortbread is a traditional Scottish biscuit. It's was Shortbread originally made from leftover bread which was then dried out to make shortbread. However, butter was gradually added to it until it became what is not known as shortbread. Shortbread is made of flour, sugar and considerable amounts of butter. Language The original language of Scotland was Gaelic. Gaelic is still spoken in some parts of Scotland, mainly in isolated parts of the highlands and the islands. However, the majority of Scots do not speak Gaelic. Nowadays, English is spoken in Scotland with some Scottish slang words commonly used. Aye – Yes Wee – Little Lass/ Lassie - Girl or Woman Ken – Know Auch aye – Oh yes Eejit – Idiot Scottish Dancing Ceilidh Dancing Ceilidh dancing is a form of social dancing which involves one couple or many couples. Some popular ceilidh dances include: The Gay Gordons, The Military Two-Step, The Flying Scotsman, and Strip the Willow. Highland Dancing Highland Dancing is a more competitive solo dance. It is often performed at Highland Games and is accompanied by the bagpipes. Religion Religion has greatly shaped the culture and history of Scotland. However, today it is a less dominant and influential part of society. Christianity is the largest religion in Scotland and as of the last census 65% of Scotland was Christian. Scottish Art Scotland has a large art culture. It ranges from fine art to street art. The Glasgow School of Art The Glasgow school of art is one the most famous places in Glasgow. It was built from 1897 to 1909 and was designed by Charles Rennie Mackintosh, a Scottish artist. It is situated in the city centre of Glasgow and attracts many tourists. At GSA students can study: fine art, design or architecture. You can study up to doctorial level. There are also Saturday classes, which include: drawing and painting, Black and white photography and sculpture. Charles Rennie Mackintosh Mackintosh was born on the 7th of June 1868 He was a Glaswegian architect He designed many buildings in Glasgow including: The Glasgow Herald Building Hill House, Helensbough Scotland Street School The Kelvingrove Museum The Kelvingrove museum was built in 1888 It first opened its doors to the public on 2nd June 1901. It hosts various types of artwork; from natural history to fine art. Collections include: Rembrandt, Monet and Van Gogh. Questions 1.When was the Glasgow school of art built? 2.Who was it designed by? 3.Where is it situated? 4.What level can you study up to? 5.What Saturday classes can you take? 6.When was Charles Rennie Mackintosh born? 7.What type of artist was he? 8.Name three buildings he designed. 9.When did the Kelvingrove Museum open its doors? 10.Name three famous artists whose work hangs in the museum. Scottish Literature Robert Burns He was born on the 25th January 1759. His parents made sure that he got a relatively good education Alexander Pope, Henry Mackenzie and Laurence Sterne's works were a great inspiration. He was particularly interested in relationships with the opposite sex He was the father of twins, and his wife was Jean Armour, however the relationship wasn't going too well He nearly ended up emigrating to the West Indies with his lover Mary Campbell. However Mary's sudden death and the sensational success of his first published collection of verse kept him in Scotland. At the age of 27 he had already become famous thanks to poems like “To a Louse”, “To a Mouse” and “The Cotter's Saturday Night”. Handsome Nell, for Nellie Kilpatrick, was his first song Robert Burns died on the 21st July 1796 aged just 37 and his funeral took place on the very day his son Maxwell was born. Burns' Works Burns wrote hundreds of songs and poems His style is very unique and so it still continues to influence Scottish literature. Burns liked to travel and he collected many songs and tales and adapted them to fit his style. He is well known for his thoughtprovoking and romantic works as well as his humorous works “Auld Lang Syne” Across the globe on New Year’s Eve people join hands and sing “Auld Lang Syne” at midnight The poem is an encouragement to put the previous year behind us and look forward to the new year ahead. This is the chorus: “For auld lang syne, my dear, For auld lang syne. We'll tak a cup o' kindness yet, For auld lang syne.” Tam O'Shanter This poem tells the tale of a man who stayed too long in a pub and witnessed disturbing visions on his way home. It is perhaps one of Burns' most famous works and it is a good example sense of humour. This is a description of one of the visions the man witnessed: “Warlocks and witches in a dance: Nae cotillon, brent new frae France, But hornpipes, jigs, strathspeys, and reels, Put life and mettle in their heels.” Sir Walter Scott Born on 15th August 1771 in Edinburgh and died on 21st September 1832. Waverley Novels was a series of his novels in which he included and popularised many of his historical novels. Scott arranged the plots and characters so the reader enters into the lives of both great and ordinary people Scott’s works greatly reflect the influence of the 18th century enlightenment. His views explain why tolerance is a major theme in his historical works. Another one of his beliefs was: the need for social progress that does not reject the traditions of the past. He was the first novelist to portray peasant characters sympathetically and realistically, and was equally just to merchants, soldiers, and even kings. Many of Scott’s novels are based around the idea of a conflict between opposing cultures, e.g. The Talisman, Ivanhoe His novels about Scottish history effectively show clashes between the new English culture and the old Scottish. Scott's other great novels include “Old Mortality” (1816), “The Heart of Midlothian” (1819), and “St. Ronan's Well” (1824). His Waverley series includes “Rob Roy” (1817), “A Legend of Montrose” (1819), and “Quentin Dunward” (1823). Scott’s amiability, generosity, and modesty made him popular with his contemporaries. He was also famous for entertaining on a grand scale at his Scottish estate, Abbotsford. MUSIC OF SCOTLAND Bagpipes The use of the bagpipe was spread by Highland regiments of the British Army. They are used either by a solo piper or as part of a pipe band. Well known bagpipe tunes include: Amazing grace Scotland the Brave Highland Cathedral Ceilidh A traditional Gaelic social gathering, may have included poems, songs and stories. Now includes mainly dancing to lively Scottish music. Ceilidh’s are still social gatherings, attract all ages and are used as celebrations. This instrument has been played in Scotland Accordion since the 19th century. Piano Accordion There are two main types of accordion, the piano accordion and the button accordion. Both fulfil the same purpose and usually carry the tune in the band as they are easy to follow. Fiddle The fiddle is the same instrument as the violin but instead of classical pieces is used to play traditional Scottish, or folk music. The fiddle can be played in different styles, as shown in different areas of Scotland: Shetland - Lively, Norwegian influenced style Borders – Music influenced by hornpipes Pop and rock music started to become popular in Modern Scottish Music the 1950’s and ‘60’s. One of the most famous Scottish bands is the Proclaimers, with their song “500 miles”. The Edinburgh Festival Established A History in 1947 by Orchestre des Champs-Élysées Rudolf Bing, general manager of the Glyndbourg Opera and Henry Harvey Wood head of the British Council in Scotland They wanted a festival which, in the wake of the Second World war would enliven and enrich the cultural life of Scotland, Britain and Europe. And if it was successfully, the festival would also become a major source of Tourism revenue for Scotland. These founding principles are as relevant today as in 1947 Today…. Ranked as one of the most important cultural events in the world. Programme decided by festival director (currently Jonathan Mills) who invites performers. Range of genres – classical music, opera, dance, theatre…. All at the highest standard. Performers come from all over the world A History Started at around the same time as the EIF. It began when several theatre companies turned up in Edinburgh to take advantage of the crowds who were there for the first international festival. Anyone can perform, not invited like the EIF Today…… It is the largest festival of its kind in the world. In the 2012 Fringe there were 2695 shows – including some that are truly bizarre! Wide range of genres. Street performance. Free shows. A Street Performance Gary McNair’s “Crunch” First took place in 1950 More than 12 million have attended the Tattoo. Generates about £7.6 million in box office sales. Takes place in August. Performers from many different countries take part. Impact… Massive economic impact. Tourism benefits. Significant contributions to national identity generated over a quarter of a billion pounds worth of extra tourism revenue for Scotland in 2010. 85% of all respondents agree that the Festivals promote a confident, positive Scottish national identity.