Egyptian Gods

By: Andrea Tobing
Fast Facts
Mother: Nefertiti’s mother
was Tiy, the Royal Nurse for
the pharaoh and his family.
Father: Aye/Ay (there were
different spellings) was the
Grand Vizier of Ancient
Sibling: Nefertiti had a
sister- Mutbenret. There is,
however, a theory that
Mutbenret was identical to
the wife of the pharaoh
The Great Royal Wife
Nefertiti’s husband was a
pharaoh named
Amenhotep IV, who
ruled in the 18th Dynasty.
 Together they tried to
change Egypt’s belief in
 Amenhotep believed
that the only real god
was Aten, the actual sun
 To worship him, both
Nefertiti and Amenhotep
changed their names.
Remember: Polytheism is the belief in many gods
The Great Royal Wife
Nefertiti’s name was
and Amenhotep’s name
was Akhenaten.
 They had six daughters,
but no son.
Symbols that Ancient Egyptians used
Symbols represented different things
Created 3500 BCE
Extinct 394 CE
Hieroglyphics was the key to
understanding Ancient Egypt
In 1799, Napoleon’s Army found
something called the Rosetta Stone
The Rosetta Stone was an artifact
that had 3 languages on it: Greek,
Demotic, and Hieroglyphics
They all said the same message
So if you could read one language,
you could read the others
In 1822, a man named Jean
Francois Champollion decoded
From him, we know a lot about
Ancient Egypt
Fun Facts!
There were over 700
Scribes were the people
who could write
There was a shorter form
of Hieroglyphics, called
They were also called
“The words of the Gods”
• Tombs were for the wealthy
• Tombs help them pass to the afterlife
• The tombs have all their belongings
• The Egyptian tombs were in pyramids
• The coffins would be located in the
tombs inside the pyramid
• They were mummified in the coffins
Some tombs have not been touched for 3000years
Tombs have great leaders in them
Their mummified bodies housed in coffins where
preserved in the tombs for 1000s of years
Romans also used tombs just like the Egyptians to
bury the dead
Some tombs were raided since these chambers
contained expensive belongings from great
leaders to be carried to the afterlife
Tombs stopped being built during the Renaissance
Egyptian Women: “Mistress of the House”
By: Julie Sung 6C
Daily Life:
• Noblewomen could become
priestesses and government officials.
• Few women worked full-time.
• Rarely there were women that
became pharaohs.
• Women were expected to be a good
daughter when young, and a good
mother and wife when older.
• Lower class women could become
• Women were equal to men, but not as
• Peasant women could be nannies for
upper class children.
• Women had more power and freedom
than other women in different times.
• Peasant women could also be
domestic servants to the upper class
and personal attendants to a
• Women were in charge of household
• Noblewomen were highly respected
and enjoyed freedom and continuity.
Fast Facts
Egyptian Women
• Weaving was an important activity for
Egyptian women to participate in.
• Music was an important part of a
woman’s religious life.
• Girls USUALLY got married around the age
• Women would get custody of her children
if she decided to have a divorce.
• The wife would put 1/3 of the money she
made towards her children.
• Women mostly took care of indoor
household activity.
• Women could remarry when divorced.
• Woman played harps, lyres, lutes, clapper
sticks, hand-held drums, flute-like
instruments, and oboe-like instruments.
 Senet (The game of passing) was played when someone died.
 The game was played because it was believed it would help
the person successfully go to the afterlife.
 Senet can be seen as a primitive form of chess, since there
were 3 rows of 10 squares and figures called spools and cones.
 The exact rules are unknown; we can only take our best guess
from hieroglyphics.
 Senet was usually played after a pharaoh’s passing.
Ancient Egyptian Hockey
 Ancient Egyptian Hockey was played with palm tree branches bent at end.
 The ball was made from papyrus fibers and two pieces of leather.
 A referee was used to keep the game going and to keep score.
Tug of Hoop
 Two players were required to play Tug of Hoop.
 The players had curved staffs that they used to try to take the hoop from one
 In order to win this game, it was always crucial that you performed many
physical maneuvers.
 The hoop was also forbidden in the game to fall on the floor!
Ancient Egyptians used economy to survive.
By:Keith Mency
• The Three pyramids are located in ancient Egypt
• Today pyramids teach people how ancient Egypt was
• Did you know that there are about 88 pyramids in ancient
• Pyramids were made By Egyptians, Pyramids
were made for Pharaohs and queens
• Pyramids were made for the Pharaoh and queen
to get buried in the pyramid when they die
• Only three pharaohs used there Egyptians to
build the three main pyramids
By:Michelle Kazbanov 6-C
What is Mummification?
• Mummification is the process that dries a corpse that could afford to be
• The process would take 70 days to finish
• Mummification steps:
• Remove all organs
• Dry all organs
• Rinse the body with wine spices
• Cover the body with salt for 40 days (to take out all the moisture)
• Wrap the body with linen
• Wrap the body in bandages from head to toe
• Put the mummy in a sarcophagus (coffin)
Mummification Details and extra
• People used to believe if you would get mummified you would use your
coffin in the afterlife
• The people would put the organs of the mummy in canopic jars
• There were four canopic jars and each jar had an egyptian god on it, Imesty
protected the liver, Qebehsenuf protected the intestines, Hapy protected the
lungs, and Duamatef protected the stomach
• All of those gods were the sons of Horus
• The poor egyptians were buried in the sand and the rich were buried in
• But pharaohs were taken into pyramids
• Some great mummy discoveries that people found were:
• Ginger, Hatshepsut, King Tutankham ( King Tut), and Ramses II
Egyptian Religion Information
Egyptian’s Religion:
The ancient Egyptian religion had
guided every aspect of their lives.
It was based on polytheism, which
means they worshipped many gods
and goddesses. The Egyptians
worshipped as many as 2,000 gods
and goddesses. Some gods like
Amon-Ra were worshipped
throughout Egypt. Their gods and
goddesses are represented as part
human, part animal. Think of a
person with animal wings or with a
jackal head. Egyptians created
temples so the gods could dwell
within them. Temples are found
everywhere in Egypt. Also,
Egyptian cities had special temples
devoted to their god/goddesses.
Their temples were used by men to
communicate with the gods.
Egyptian’s Priests had
become more
powerful since they
communicated with
the gods and cared for
them. Priests also
performed funeral
rites and taught at
schools. Furthermore,
they advised the
people on problems as
well as supervising the
artisans and works.
Egyptians saw death as a transitional stage in route to a
better life. If they were able to reach the afterlife, they
would start a new life and reach their full potential.
Egyptians’ bodies were mummified after death and
buried with everything necessary to reach the afterlife.
This was considered essential to preserve the body.
The Ancient
Egyptian sun god
Ra is represented
by life and rebirth.
They had said that
once the sun sets,
he dies, but gets
“reborn” when it
rises again. This
widely known god
eventually gets
“morphed” with
Amon, the father of
gods. The merge
made the two gods
into one called
Egyptian Gods
Osiris is the god of the
dead as well as being the
ruler of the underworld.
He is represented as a
mummified man wearing
white clothing. He is
also the god of
resurrection and fertility.
Egyptians had believed
that he gave them barley
which was an important
Horus is Osiris and Isis’s son
and also the god of the sky.
He is represented with a head
of a hawk and the body of a
man. This probably was to
represent his control of the
sky and the fact that they are
most of the time shown with
a human part. He is wellknown for being the
protector and ruler of Egypt.
Anubis is the god of embalming and the dead. He is
represented as a man with a jackal head. Since those are
often in the cemeteries, Egyptians believed that he
always watched over the dead.
The god of wisdom, learning, writing, and also the patron of
scribes is called Thoth. The Egyptians thought that this god was the
one who had given them the gift of Hieroglyphics, which is their
form of writing.
Interesting Fact: Since
the Egyptians, like the
Mesopotamians, didn’t
know what caused
certain things like
flooding, they’d blame
the gods and tried
different ways to make
them happy and in
return, bless them.
Iris was a
goddess, and used
powerful magical
spells to help
Egyptians in
need. Isis is also
the wife Osiris.
Sources: Notes on Religion from 3/21/14
Slides by Matthew D. Snyder
Ancient Egyptians could not explain nature and creation so they used
gods and goddesses as their explanation. As polytheists, the Egyptians
with several gods and goddesses responsible for different things, such
as life and the afterlife.
 Ra was the Sun god, riding a chariot during the day
 Geb , the god of the Earth, caused earthquakes when he laughed.
 Anubis was the original god of the dead and has
the head of a jackal
 Later, Osiris became the god of the dead
 Isis was the goddess of magic and the sister of Osiris.
Image from:
Tefnut was Ra’s daughter, the goddess of air
Shu was a son of Ra, the god of the space between heaven & earth
Hapi was the god of the Nile River & responsible for annual flooding
Set was the god of violence, the desert & of storms
 Horus was the sky god, fought Set & lost his left eye
 That left eye is the Egyptian symbol of healing and restoration
 The prescription symbol comes from the eye of Horus
Image of Eye of Horus RX from
Created by: Jason Kim
Battle between Seth
and Horus
Back then Egypt wasn’t that peaceful due to fighting over the Nile
river for water.
Most Egyptians caused warfare to expand their lands or gain more
(List of weapons they used in warfare)
-bows and arrows, and javelins
(some weapons Egyptians used)
Their was both the upper and lower Egypt had a Conflict between both
They had different crowns one was red like a bowl and the other was white
like a bowling ball pin
both lower and upper kingdom had different customs needs and interests
Until one day a man named NARMER MENA joined both Egypt's putting
together both hats to show how both Egypt's are equal now
The two crowns were united and turned into this>
Pharaoh & Vizier
The Pharaoh was believed to be a God on
earth and had the most power. He was
responsible for making laws and keeping
order, ensuring that Egypt was not
attacked or invaded by enemies and for
keeping the Gods happy
The Vizier was the Pharaoh's chief advisor
and was sometimes the High Priest. He was
responsible for overseeing all official
documents to have his seal of approval. He
was also responsible for the supply of food,
and the Pharaoh's household.
Nobles & Priests
Nobles where wealthy and powerful
with lots of land.normally nobles
would be born into such large
wealth and power but occasionally
people traded goods to have
surplus of everything so they can
sell and have leftovers for
priests were responsible for keeping
the gods happy.they spent there time
performing rituals and ceremonies for
the god in there temple.
Jewelry- Male and female Egyptians wore jewelry to show their wealth
since only the rich were able to afford gold. They also wore gold jewelry
to be more attractive to the gods.
Some types of gold jewelry the Egyptians wore are rings, earrings,
bracelets, decorated buttons, neck collars and pendants.
Make Up- both men and
women wore make up.
Mostly black and green
eye shadow.
Henna dye was used to
color their lips, nails, and
Made by: Simone Hodara 6-C
Egyptians wore light clothes made from linen (linen is made of flax - a plant)
The richer the people were the nicer material they had
Egyptian men wore - a wrap around a skirt that was tied with a belt.
The length depended on the fashion of the time.
Old Kingdom- Short garment
Middle Kingdom- Calf length garment
New Kingdom- Pleated garment
Egyptian women wore –
a full length straight
dress with one or two
shoulder straps
Children wore - they did not were clothing until the age of six
Made by: Simone Hodara 6-C
Egyptian medicine was thought to be the most successful at the time.
 Conclusions involved with medicine were thought to be the works of gods,
demons, and spirits.
Doctors thought these spirits blocked ‘channels’ in the body, creating diseases and
tried to unblock them.
Doctors knew basic things and gave practical advice, but also gave odd
advice that harmed people.
For example, some prescriptions contained animal waste.
 Others were to avoid raw poultry and fish.
Ancient Egyptian doctors never did anything deep inside the body.
They did it near the surface.
When reasonable, the surgery did work most of the time.
Amputees (Cut off)
Prosthesis (Artificial device)
Tools they used:
Egyptians used magic/alchemy, herbs, and prayers to treat patients.
 Thought religion would banish all evil demons and spirits causing this.
Used resources such as…
Ancient Egyptians used this method to classify each injury…
 Treatable- Dealt with immediately.
 Contestable- Observed patient without interfering.
 Untreatable- Doctor will not be involved.
Egyptians also were very hygienic to be healthy and also because of religion.
 Egyptians didn’t take good care of their teeth, so they usually had…
 Wire to connect fallen out teeth.
They also had ‘braces’ for your feet and such to keep it in place if broken or sprained.
Is a piece of papyrus including much information in the
medical industry from ancient Egypt.
Over 700 remedies.
 Written in about 1500 B.C.E.
 110 Pages!
Greg Moritz Ebers, a German Egyptologist, discovered
the document in Thebes (Luxor), Egypt in 1873-1874.
Is currently in the library of the University of Leipzig in
Written in hieroglyphics, for example…
Six vessels reach the soles of our feet.
 Baldness is caused by four vessels to the head.
The “After” Life
By: William Shin
Date: 3/24/2014
 Believed to be a continuation of life after bodily death
 Was considered the greatest honor to live on in death
 Did not enjoy death, but enjoyed life
 If living on in death, it would be normal life without the negativity (No death,
sicknesses, etc.)
The Weighing of the Heart
 Process of weighing one’s heart against the feather of truth /Ma’at on a golden
 Process done by God of The Underworld; Osiris, assisted by Inpu, God of Death
 The greatest dishonor; having your heart weigh more than the feather
 Heart devoured by Amenti, if heavier than Ma’at’s feather
 Soul cast into an “abyss of non-existence” if the heart is heavier= worst punishment

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