Progressive Movement

Progressive Movement
Responses to the Challenges
brought about by Industrialization
and Urbanization
What problems did Progressive reformers hope to
What role did journalists and other writers play in the
Progressive Movement?
How did the Progressives work to help the urban
How did the Progressive reformers change local and
state governments?
Progressivism: Reform Movement
 Began during T Roosevelt’s Administration.
 Ended in 1917 with the US entry into WWI.
 Spirit of Active Reform dominated national,
state, and local politics.
 Wide range of issues
 Middle class city dwellers
 From the mid west and northeast.
Pressure for Reforms
 Why? Negative effects of industrialization.
 Social Darwinism
 Laissez Faire Economics
 Lack of competition: high prices
 Abuse of nation’s resources.
 Poor working conditions
 Poor living conditions
 Large gap between rich and poor.
 Rise of unions
Pressure for Reforms continued
Immigration kept wages low/rise of
Mixed Response of Government
Unresponsive to the impact of
industrialization and urbanization.
Courts did not support fair business
Reforms demanded by rising middle class
 Increased power and influence of middle
 Educated class
 Progressives supported use of government
power to bring about reform.
 Technology and science could improve the basic
institutions of America: family, education,
business and gov’t
 Strengthening capitalism and they were against
the rising tide of socialism.
 By pass the political parties.
The Muckrakers and reform
Brought public attention to reform issues.
Journalists, writers, photographers, and
Investigated and exposed corruption and
 Lincoln Steffens (The Shame of the Cities), Ida
Tarbell (History of Standard Oil), Upton Sinclair
(The Jungle movie trailer?), Jacob Riis (How the
Other Half Lives)
Specific Areas of Concern
Poverty and living conditions
Better living conditions through building codes
Social Gospel
Settlement Houses
Jane Addams Hull House
Henry Street Settlement: Lillian Wald
Provided child care, education, social activities,
and employment help.
Specific Areas of Concern
Peace Movement
Addams and Wald
Jeannette Rankin 1st woman elected to
Addams 1931 Noble Peace Prize
Specific Areas of Concern
Temperance and prohibition
Began in the 1820s
1874 Women’s Christian Temperance Union.
1920 18th amendment
Specific Areas of Concern
Women’s Movement
1848 Seneca Falls NY
Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B.
Anthony were the radicals.
Lucy Stone and Henry Blackwell were the
1900s Carrie Chapmen Catt changes
19 Amendment 1920
Specific Areas of Concern
Birth Control
Margaret Sanger
Planned Parenthood Federation
Education for Women
100,000 women in college by the 1900s.
Rights for Jews
Anti-Defamation League
Specific Areas of Concern
 African Americans
 Lynchings
 Booker T Washington: vocational training
Policy called accommodation
 W.E.B. DuBois: more radical than BTW
Niagara Movement
NAACP: National Association for the Advancement of
Colored People
 Marcus Garvey: separatist
 Ida B. Wells: journalist
Progressivism and Government
1st concentrated their efforts on local
Elect Progressive Mayors but also needed
to change the way government ran.
Popular in small and medium sized cities.
City Commissioner Plan
City manager Plan
Theodore Roosevelt and the Square Deal
Many reforms during his administration.
1st of the Progressive Presidents (William
Howard Taft and Woodrow Wilson).
Youngest man to become president
1901 William McKinley is assassinated
Elected in 1904
Used the power of the Presidency to deal
with social and economic problems
Cities respond to Urban Problems
Transportation systems, water and
sewage, sanitation, other utilities.
Modernizing Police and Fire Departments.
Constructing new government buildings.
Building Libraries and museums
Reform of State Government
Limited the control of state controlled boss
Limited powerful business interests.
To protect gains at the local level reform
was needed at the state and federal
Needed to increase citizen participation in
State reforms
Secret ballots
Direct primary
Direct Election of Senators (1913) 17th
Role of third parties
State, Social and Environmental Reform
 Wisconsin Model
Robert M. La Follette
 Regulate railroads, lobbying, banking
 Civil service reforms
 Reform tax system
 Workmen’s compensation
 Factory inspections
 Teddy Roosevelt
New State Tenement Commission
Theodore Roosevelt and the Square Deal
Youngest President to take office
1st of three Progressive presidents(
William Howard Taft and Woodrow
Stewardship: leading the nation in the
public interest, like a supervisor or
Square Deal: many reforms during his
Consumer Protection
Pure Food and Drug Act and the Meat
Inspection Act (The Jungle)
Regulation of Business
Hepburn Act 1906 Regulation of Railroad
rates. Strengthened the ICC. Also
expanded power to include regulation of
pipelines, ferries, bridges and terminals.
 Trust-busting Good and bad trusts.
 Northern Securities Case: Pacific Northwest
Railroads. Dissolved
 Beef Trust: Swift and Company v. the United States.
 Labor Reforms:
 The Anthracite Coal Strike: United Mine Workers.
 Employers’ Liability Act of 1906: provided accident
insurance for interstate railroad workers. And in
Washington D.C.
 Working Hours: Lockner v. New York ( no limiting
working hours)
 Muller v Oregon ( women working) 10 hour work day
Roosevelt was a naturalist
Influenced by Gifford Pinchot and John
Forest Reserve Act of 1891/US Forest
Service /150 Million Acres.
National Reclamation Act of 1902
Progressivism Under Taft
 1909 William Howard Taft is elected President.
 Twice as many lawsuits
 Standard Oil Co. of New Jersey v. United States.
 Rule of reason to the Sherman Antitrust Act
 Mann Elkins act of 1910/ICC/ control telephone
and telegraph.
 Payne –Aldrich Act of 1909 raise tariffs
Woodrow Wilson and the New freedom
Democrat 1912
Competition in the marketplace through
enforcement of antitrust laws.
Underwood Tariff Act: lowered tariffs/Civil
1913 16th Amendment Graduated Income
tax. 6% v 1%
Federal Reserve System created.
Federal Reserve System
12 Districts, each with a Federal reserve
The Federal Government could now:
Issue sound currency.
Control the amt of money in circulation.
Control interest rates.
Shift money from one bank to another when
Negative Aspects of the Progressive
 Rights of African Americans do not improve..
 Woodrow Wilson enact separate facilities for blacks in
Federal Government buildings.
 Jim Crows are still in existence (Plessy v Ferguson)
separate but equal.
 Women are still treated like second class citizens.
 Unequal education still exists for all races
 Child labor.
 No minimum wage, no maximum work week,
 Prohibition….Organized Crime
 No anti-lynching laws
Business Regulation
 Federal Trade Commission Act
 Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914
Price fixing
Buying stock in competing companies.
 Addams Act of 1916 8 hour work day for workers
on railroads and in interstate commerce.
 Federal Farm Loan Act 1916
 Keating – Owen Child Labor Act:
Supreme Court ruled it unconstitutional. Hammer v
 19th Amendment 1920 women the right to vote.
Causes of the Progressive
Growth of
Growth of
The Progressive Movement
Work of Muckrakers
•Direct election of
•Party primaries.
•Votes for women.
•Laws protecting
•Settlement houses
•Birth control
•Child labor laws
•consumer protection laws
•Conservation of
land and water.
•Regulation of business
•Lower tariffs
•Income tax
•Federal Reserve
Progressive Movement
Protect Social
•Pure Food and Drug Act
•Meat Inspection Act
•Conservation projects
•Settlement House
•Formation of NAACP
•Mandatory Education
Promote Moral
•18th Amendment
•Social Gospel Movement
Create Economic
Foster Efficiency
In Government
•Underwood tariff
•Federal Reserve System
•Clayton Antitrust Act
•Hepburn Act
•16th Amendment
•Federal Trade Commission
•Regulate public utilities
•17th &18th Amendment
•Civil Service reform
•Secret Ballot
•Direct Primaries
•City commission
•City manager
Progressive Pyramid
Pure food and Drug Act
Meat Inspection Act
Underwood Tariff, Clayton
Antitrust Act
FTC, Federal Reserve Bank,
Hepburn Act, NAACP, Forest
Reserve Act
Secret Ballot, Initiative, referendum,
recall, direct primaries, direct election of
City Commission, city manager, regulation of public utilities,
city beautification, settlement houses
Muckrakers: uncover corruption
Lincoln Steffens
The Shame of the Cities
Corrupt politicians
Upton Sinclair
The Jungle
Unhealthy conditions in the
Meat packing industry
Frank Norris
The Octopus
Corrupt railroad operators
& California Wheat farmers
Ida Tarbel
History of the Standard
Oil Company
John D. Rockefeller’s monopoly

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