EI Literature Study

Emotional Intelligence
in School Leadership
Mrs. Shawn E. Mark, M.Ed.
November 5, 2011
Purpose of Literature Review
 Bensalem Township School District and TELEOS
 What is Emotional Intelligence (EI) and how is it
relevant to leadership?
 What effect does the EI of a school leader have on
student achievement/school performance?
What is
Emotional Intelligence (EI)?
 Multiple definitions of EI exist to fit needs of research
 Each of the ten articles in this literature review
referenced Daniel Goleman’s research in the field of
Emotional Intelligence
 “Emotional intelligence is the ability to perceive
emotions; to access and generate emotions so as to
assist thought, to understand emotions and emotional
knowledge, and to reflectively regulate emotions so as
to promote emotional and intellectual growth.
Qualities of EI include: self-awareness, self-regulation,
motivation, empathy and social skills.” (Goleman 1998b,
Hyatt, Hyatt & Hyatt, 2007)
Competency Framework for
Emotional Intelligence
 Self Awareness – emotional self-awareness, accurate
self-assessment & self-confidence
 Self-Management – emotional self-control, transparency,
adaptability, achievement orientation, initiative &
 Social Awareness – empathy, organizational awareness &
service orientation
 Relationship Management – developing others,
inspirational leadership, influence, conflict
management & teamwork/collaboration
(Bipath, 2008)
Why is EI Important in Leadership?
 Working in social contexts is unavoidable – empathizing
with others and understanding their perspectives is a
critical component of effective working relationships
 “Regardless of how intellectually gifted we might be,
sometimes our emotions overtake our intellect.”
(Maulding, et.al, 2010)
 “IQ today gets you hired, but EI gets you promoted.”
(Goleman, 1998a, Stephens, 2009)
 Leaders with high emotional intelligence have stronger
relationships with their followers. (Moore, 2009)
 Changes in life are expected and the process of change
has emotional implications – “In a culture of change,
emotions frequently run high” (Moore, 2009).
 Emotionally intelligent leaders can help manage the
emotions involved with change and help facilitate desired
outcomes in organizations (Maulding, et.al. 2010).
 Loss and fear are emotions that typically manifest
themselves during periods of change (Moore, 2009).
 Leaders must develop relationships with followers so they
(followers) feel safe making the desired change that is
needed in organizations (Arif & Sohail, 2009).
 Leaders with a high degree of emotional intelligence and
maturity are more capable of effecting desired social
change (Moore, 2009).
EI in Educational Leadership
 There is conflict in the field of educational research
about the impact of EI on student achievement and
school effectiveness – this is evidenced in the various
results of the 10 studies included in this literature study
 “Principal leadership may be the most important factor
in sustainable educational reform.” (Shouppe, 2010)
 Leaders have little direct effect on student outcomes,
but they do have a great indirect influence on student
achievement (Arif & Sohail, 2009; Shouppe, 2010)
 “Being aware of the emotions and moods of staff
members during school reform initiatives or while
leading change, will enable the principal to support and
coach teachers during the change process.” (Moore,
 “A happy educator is a productive one because there is
a readiness and enthusiasm to complete tasks and to
strive to the attainment of goals.” (Singh & Manser,
 A school leader’s ability to control his or her emotions
inspires confidence and contentment in teachers. (Singh
& Manser, 2008)
 “Individuals who are strong in emotional intelligence
skills appear to achieve the positions that they strive
for.” (Cliffe, 2011)
 “School leader’s EI may be linked to variables conducive
to school improvement, turn-around actions,
transformational leadership and enhanced principalteacher relationships.” (Cai, 2011)
Conclusions and Recommendations
 Many school leaders are not skilled with how to deal
with the negative emotions associated with change professional development about EI would be beneficial
to all educational leaders.
 Educational leaders need to become aware of their own
emotions and be able to regulate them appropriately when leaders are secure with their own emotionality
they are better prepared to invest into others’ lives and
professional development.
 Empowering and equipping teachers to assume
leadership roles and make decisions helps to
communicate trust, encourage growth, and promote a
desire to make positive change in schools.
 Arif, S. & Sohail, A. (2009). What really works in leading
a school? The International Journal of Learning, 16(10),
 Bipath, K. (2008). The emotional intelligence of the
principal is essential in the leadership of a functional
school. International Journal of Learning, 15(10), 57-63
 Cai, Q. (2011). Can principals’ emotional intelligence
matter to school turnarounds? International Journal of
Leadership in Education, 14(2), 151-179.
 Cliffe, J. (2011). Emotional intelligence: a study of
female secondary school headteachers. Educational
Management Administration & Leadership, 39(2), 205218.
 Goleman, D. (1998a). What makes a leader? Harvard
Business Review, 76, 93-104.
 Goleman, D. (1998b). Working with Emotional
Intelligence. New York: Bantam.
 Hyatt, L., Hyatt, C. & Hyatt, J. (2007). Effective
leadership through emotional maturity. Academic
Leadership, 5(3), 3.
 Maulding, W., Townsend, A., Leonard, E., Sparkman, L.,
Styron, J. & Styron, R. (2010). The relationship between
emotional intelligence of principals and student
performance in Mississippi public schools. Academic
Leadership, 8(4), 67.
 Moore, B. (2009). Emotional intelligence for school
administrators: a priority for school reform? American
Secondary Education. 37(3), 20-27.
 Shouppe, G. & Pate, J. (2010). Teacher’s perceptions of
school climate, principal leadership style and teacher
behaviors on student academic achievement. National
Teacher Education Journal, 3(2), 87-98.
 Singh, P. & Manser, P. (2008). Relationship between the
perceived emotional intelligence of school principals
and the job satisfaction of educators in a collegial
environment. Africa Education Review, 5(1), 109-130.
 Stephens, T. & Hermond, D. (2009). The level of
emotional intelligence in principals of recognized and
acceptable schools. Academic Leadership. 7(3), 3.

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