Emotional Intelligence in School Leadership Mrs. Shawn E. Mark, M.Ed. November 5, 2011 Purpose of Literature Review Bensalem Township School District and TELEOS What is Emotional Intelligence (EI) and how is it relevant to leadership? What effect does the EI of a school leader have on student achievement/school performance? What is Emotional Intelligence (EI)? Multiple definitions of EI exist to fit needs of research Each of the ten articles in this literature review referenced Daniel Goleman’s research in the field of Emotional Intelligence “Emotional intelligence is the ability to perceive emotions; to access and generate emotions so as to assist thought, to understand emotions and emotional knowledge, and to reflectively regulate emotions so as to promote emotional and intellectual growth. Qualities of EI include: self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy and social skills.” (Goleman 1998b, Hyatt, Hyatt & Hyatt, 2007) Competency Framework for Emotional Intelligence Self Awareness – emotional self-awareness, accurate self-assessment & self-confidence Self-Management – emotional self-control, transparency, adaptability, achievement orientation, initiative & optimism Social Awareness – empathy, organizational awareness & service orientation Relationship Management – developing others, inspirational leadership, influence, conflict management & teamwork/collaboration (Bipath, 2008) Why is EI Important in Leadership? Working in social contexts is unavoidable – empathizing with others and understanding their perspectives is a critical component of effective working relationships “Regardless of how intellectually gifted we might be, sometimes our emotions overtake our intellect.” (Maulding, et.al, 2010) “IQ today gets you hired, but EI gets you promoted.” (Goleman, 1998a, Stephens, 2009) Leaders with high emotional intelligence have stronger relationships with their followers. (Moore, 2009) Changes in life are expected and the process of change has emotional implications – “In a culture of change, emotions frequently run high” (Moore, 2009). Emotionally intelligent leaders can help manage the emotions involved with change and help facilitate desired outcomes in organizations (Maulding, et.al. 2010). Loss and fear are emotions that typically manifest themselves during periods of change (Moore, 2009). Leaders must develop relationships with followers so they (followers) feel safe making the desired change that is needed in organizations (Arif & Sohail, 2009). Leaders with a high degree of emotional intelligence and maturity are more capable of effecting desired social change (Moore, 2009). EI in Educational Leadership There is conflict in the field of educational research about the impact of EI on student achievement and school effectiveness – this is evidenced in the various results of the 10 studies included in this literature study “Principal leadership may be the most important factor in sustainable educational reform.” (Shouppe, 2010) Leaders have little direct effect on student outcomes, but they do have a great indirect influence on student achievement (Arif & Sohail, 2009; Shouppe, 2010) “Being aware of the emotions and moods of staff members during school reform initiatives or while leading change, will enable the principal to support and coach teachers during the change process.” (Moore, 2009) “A happy educator is a productive one because there is a readiness and enthusiasm to complete tasks and to strive to the attainment of goals.” (Singh & Manser, 2009) A school leader’s ability to control his or her emotions inspires confidence and contentment in teachers. (Singh & Manser, 2008) “Individuals who are strong in emotional intelligence skills appear to achieve the positions that they strive for.” (Cliffe, 2011) “School leader’s EI may be linked to variables conducive to school improvement, turn-around actions, transformational leadership and enhanced principalteacher relationships.” (Cai, 2011) Conclusions and Recommendations Many school leaders are not skilled with how to deal with the negative emotions associated with change professional development about EI would be beneficial to all educational leaders. Educational leaders need to become aware of their own emotions and be able to regulate them appropriately when leaders are secure with their own emotionality they are better prepared to invest into others’ lives and professional development. Empowering and equipping teachers to assume leadership roles and make decisions helps to communicate trust, encourage growth, and promote a desire to make positive change in schools. References Arif, S. & Sohail, A. (2009). What really works in leading a school? The International Journal of Learning, 16(10), 695-707. Bipath, K. (2008). The emotional intelligence of the principal is essential in the leadership of a functional school. International Journal of Learning, 15(10), 57-63 Cai, Q. (2011). Can principals’ emotional intelligence matter to school turnarounds? International Journal of Leadership in Education, 14(2), 151-179. Cliffe, J. (2011). Emotional intelligence: a study of female secondary school headteachers. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 39(2), 205218. Goleman, D. (1998a). What makes a leader? Harvard Business Review, 76, 93-104. Goleman, D. (1998b). Working with Emotional Intelligence. New York: Bantam. Hyatt, L., Hyatt, C. & Hyatt, J. (2007). Effective leadership through emotional maturity. Academic Leadership, 5(3), 3. Maulding, W., Townsend, A., Leonard, E., Sparkman, L., Styron, J. & Styron, R. (2010). The relationship between emotional intelligence of principals and student performance in Mississippi public schools. Academic Leadership, 8(4), 67. Moore, B. (2009). Emotional intelligence for school administrators: a priority for school reform? American Secondary Education. 37(3), 20-27. Shouppe, G. & Pate, J. (2010). Teacher’s perceptions of school climate, principal leadership style and teacher behaviors on student academic achievement. National Teacher Education Journal, 3(2), 87-98. Singh, P. & Manser, P. (2008). Relationship between the perceived emotional intelligence of school principals and the job satisfaction of educators in a collegial environment. Africa Education Review, 5(1), 109-130. Stephens, T. & Hermond, D. (2009). The level of emotional intelligence in principals of recognized and acceptable schools. Academic Leadership. 7(3), 3.