biomass gasifier based co-generation in rice milling industries

Report
Dr D K Khare, Director
Ministry of New & Renewable Energy
www.mnre.gov.in

Present Electricity Situation in India

Opportunities in Developing Biomass based
Decentralized and Off-grid Solutions

Biomass Resource Estimation in India

Biomass Gasifier Based Mini Grids Experimented in
India – Business Models

Sustainable Business Opportunities in Future

40% population without Energy Access.
 No Grid
Or
 No / Erratic Supply
 Many Hamlets left out

Situation unlikely to improve substantially.
Continued/-
• Nearly 75 million rural households without grid connectivity nationally
• The corresponding figure for urban households is 6.5 million
• Residents of off-grid villages resort to burning kerosene in basic lanterns
to produce light at night
•
The average off-grid rural household in India spends Rs. 150 ($3) per month for
5 liters of kerosene for lighting
• Many electrified villages also face severe shortage of electricity
• 33% of the Indian population is estimated to be facing significant underelectrification-accessing less than 50 kWh of electricity per month/household
 Census of India, 2011
 Out of total 24.67
crores
households (both rural and
urban), only 16.59 crores
(67.2%) households are using
electricity for lighting.
 About
45 % (7.50 crores) rural
households do not have
access to electricity
House list Item
Absolute number
Rural
Total
Households by main source of lighting
Total number of
246,692,667
households
Electricity
165,897,294
Kerosene
77,545,034
Solar
1,086,893
Other oil
505,571
Any other
493,291
No lighting
1,164,584
 About 7.75 crores (31.4%)
Urban
167,826,730
78,865,937
92,808,038
72,435,303
916,203
407,919
361,507
897,760
73,089,256
5,109,731
170,690
97,652
131,784
266,824
Main Source of Lighting - INDIA 2011
households are using
kerosene.
1%
0%
0%
1%
31%
 About
11.64 lakh households
have no lighting sources in
India.
67%
Electricity
Kerosene
Solar Energy
Other Oil
Any Other
No Lighting
ELECTRICITY FOR LIGHTING -2011
ELECTRICITY FOR LIGHTING -2001
Biogas, 0.41

67% households use firewood/crop
residue, cow dung cake/coal etc.
(R –87%; U – 26%)
Electricity
Any other, 0.48
, 0.1
Coal, Lignite,
Kerosene, 2.9
Charcoal, 1.45
Cow dung cake,
7.95
Crop residue,
8.85
Fire-wood, 48.98

29% households use
LPG/PNG/Electricity/Biogas
(R – 12%; U – 66%)
LPG/ PNG, 28.55
Fuel used for cooking

3% households use Kerosene
(R – 1%; U – 8%)

Increase of 11 pts in use of LPG
(R – 6 pt; U – 17 pt)
1. Fire-wood
2. Crop residue
3. Cow dung cake
4. Coal, Lignite, Charcoal
5. Kerosene
6. LPG/ PNG
7. Electricity
8. Biogas
9. Any other
10. No cooking
Total
Rural
Urban
2001
2011
2001
2011
2001
2011
52.5
10
9.8
2
6.5
17.5
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.3
49
8.9
8
1.4
2.9
28.5
0.1
0.4
0.5
0.3
64.1
13.1
12.8
1.1
1.6
5.7
0.1
0.5
0.8
0.2
62.5
12.3
10.9
0.8
0.7
11.4
0.1
0.4
0.6
0.2
22.7
2.1
2
4.6
19.2
48
0.3
0.4
0.2
0.6
20.1
1.4
1.7
2.9
7.5
65
0.2
0.4
0.2
0.5
•
•
•
•
•
Scalable
No transmission losses
Demand driven and tailored to local needs
Low gestation periods
Technology ladder can help users select the
economically appropriate system
• Biomass resources are available in most of the villages

Estimated Power generation is more than
18,000 MW + from surplus agricultural
residues only.

Many unutilized biomass residues such as
pine needles, lantana etc. are also available.

In addition, possible to generate about
10,000 MW power from raising dedicated
plantations on about 2 million hectare forest
and non-forest degraded lands.
Agro-Industrial residue
Agro residue
Forest residue
Energy Plantation

Main Drivers are amongst other
 High potential - About 15,00018,000 MW
 Biomass is the only renewable,
which can generate sustainable
direct and indirect income for the
rural communities - in fact almost
half the revenue earned from sale
of power directly goes back to the
farmers.
 Diverse array of proven
technology ranging from few
kilowatt size to megawatt with
both grid and off-grid solutions.
 Higher net positive environment
benefit.

Every MW generated from such plants would be able to cover about
6000 rural household.

Thus, potentially 60 million household, about 80% of the un-served
/ underserved population of the whole country can be provided
energy access by accelerated development of biomass based
distributed power generation system - from 10000 MW

Total income potential of about Rs 1.5 crores per year per megawatt

Biomass power is the only renewable energy system, which makes
direct contribution in enhancing financial and economic benefits to
the farmers in particular and rural economy in general.

Utility would significantly benefit by promoting tail end project due
to improved utilisation of rural network, reduction in T&D losses,
meeting RPO in the most cost effective manner etc.

Study Conducted in
2009-10 to upscale the
programme.

Rice Belt – Low per
capita electricity
& Most backward
region






Biomass based power plants that uses rice husks/agricultural
residues
32 kW capacity system with producer gas engine
Current scale- 60 mini-power plants in 250 villages /hamlets
powering ~ 25,000 households
Micro-grid/Mini-grids to supply electricity
Distribution network over an area of about 2 to 3 km
Serves 3-400 households and commercial users for 6-8 hours
daily
• BOOM- Build, Own, Operate and Maintain model
• Use about 2.0 kg per kWh of rice husk and purchased at Rs. 1.0 to 1.50
per kg from rice mills
• Securing source of supply against shortages and price increase
• Households pay fixed monthly charges of Rs. 50 for 15 W CFL, or
package of two 15 W CFL's and mobile recharge for a monthly charge
of Rs. 100
• Commercial users, irrigation pumps (Rs 50/KWh) pay more
• Prepaid meters to ensure payments, prevent overloads
• Residual ash used for agarbatti making- additional revenue source
• Ministry provides Central Financial assistance of about 40% besides
support for distribution network, training and capacity building
•
•
Saran Renewables, DESI Power are other biomass mini grids
with broadly similar operations and business models
Sunderbans based Gosaba island gasifier is the largest and
oldest biomass mini grid
• 5x100 kW dual fuel biomass gasifiers
• 20 km each HT and LT network
• 100% funded by the government
• Differential pricing for households and businesses
Mini-grid models more reliable and sustainable compared to
stand-alone systems
 Build Scale to cut costs and ensure bankability and
commercial viability
 Government subsidy and bank finance/equity critical
 Battery & Grid drive costs – Solar-Biomass Hybrids ?
 Load management- anchor/enterprise load and
predictability important
 Community participation, capacity building and plant O&M

BIOMASS
GASIFIER
200 kW(th)
Drinking
Water.
400 L / Hr.
Cold
storage: 20
tn
ELECTRICITY
BIOMASS
FROM FARM
GENERATION
50kW
IRRIGATION
AGRICULTURE PRODUCTION
RURAL ELECTRIFICATON
Energy Interventions should prioritize livelihood
generation activities to increase purchasing power
of villagers
Ministry of New & Renewable Energy
Government of India
Block No. 14, CGO Complex,
Lodhi Road,
New Delhi 110022
Website – www.mnre.gov.in

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