Impact of Entrepreneurial Curriculum and Co

Report
Impact of Entrepreneurial Curriculum
and Co-Curricular activities on
Entrepreneurial Leadership
Development among Female University
Students in Pakistan
by
Dr.khalid Rashid
Zaheer Asghar
Background of the study
• Education is taken as corporate
enterprise
• Private sector shares the responsibility of
education (policy 1998)
• Disciplines are market and need oriented
• Women as a dynamic and prolific group
have started undertaking male dominant
areas
Background of the study contd.
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An obligation to address 52% of the population
Concept of sustainable development is to be addressed by education
Millennium goal development is a challenge for education
Women rely less on government resources and opportunities
About 3% women are self employed
Women entrepreneurs are growing and were 15.7 (United Nation’s
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against
Women in Pakistan 2002-03)
• Entrepreneurship education within the United States has improved
considerably over the last decade (Moutray, 2006).
• Entrepreneurship Education research shows a positive correlation
between level of education and entrepreneurial orientations (Brush &
Hisrich, 1991). Dolinsky, Caputo, Pasumarty, and Quazi (1993), (Dolinsky et
al., 1993).
Research questions
• Is there an impact of entrepreneurship education, on
entrepreneurial leadership development, amongst female university
students in Pakistan?
• The major question is further subdivided into two questions
• Q1- Whether there exists an impact of entrepreneurship education
on female entrepreneurs?
• Q2- What leadership style is being followed by women
entrepreneurs
Method of attack
• Qualitative way adopted
• Case study method was supposed to be the most
tangible
• Female leaders of university entrepreneurship
clubs formed the population of the study
• Sample comprised 4 female leaders and directors
of university, entrepreneurship clubs from
Lahore, Punjab
• Data collection methods included observations,
analysis of previous documents, interviews, and
reflections upon activities and relations.
Theoretical Framework
• Islamic perspective taken as foundation stone
The empowerment and the impetus and grit of the
women in Pakistan have been the result of the
precedent and the Role Model of Prophet
Muhammad’s (SAW) wife Khadija (RA).
“The most important point to mention is that there
is nothing in the Qur’an or in the Hadith which
prevents women from working outside the home
Theoretical Framework contd.
• In fact the Qur’an extols the leadership of
Bilqis, the Queen of Sheba for her capacity to
fulfill the requirements of the office, for her
political skills, the purity of her faith and her
independent judgement (Al Naml, 27:23-44).
Theoretical Framework
Hadith as the another footing of women
entrepreneurship
• There is another hadith which states that 9/10
of our sustenance comes from business. For
those who are able and are competent, Islamic
society should encourage them to become
entrepreneurs or get involved with other types
of business activities.” (Hibri, 1982; Roomi,
2009)
Theoretical Framework
Social theories as a support to the concept of
women entrepreneurship
• A correct interpretation of the perceptions of
Islamic values have played a role in allowing
spatial mobility, access to transport, and
interaction with male members at school,
college, university and office level, has helped
them grow confident and to venture in
business (Roomi: 2009)
Theoretical Framework
• Accepted statements of different scholars;
• Mwasalwiba (2010) argues that impact
assessment in entrepreneurship education is
currently receiving increasing attention from
various stakeholders, i.e. donors, policymakers, students and scholars. Effectiveness
of entrepreneurial education can be measured
in several ways. Barbosa, Kickul and Smith
(2008)
Theoretical Framework
• Psychological theory of self efficacy;
• entrepreneurial intent and its antecedents like
attitudes, self-efficacy or perceptions of control,
applies theory of planned behaviour,
• findings of Fayolle and Degeorge (2006) indicate
that although effectiveness can be measured also
by the number of ventures created or by number
of jobs generated it is not the most appropriate
way as the simplest or most obvious indicators
often fail.
Review of related literature
Impact of education on female entrepreneurs?
• Weeks (2007) opines that female- led business can play a
major role for the economy development.
• US statistics reveals that over the last twenty years female
self employment have been developed at a rate of near
twice to one of other business and have made further vital
effect on employment statistics.(Centre for Women’s
Business Research, 2007).
• Allen, Langowitz, Elam and Dean (2007) proved impact of
women entrepreneurship on economic growth as they
distribute the benefits achieved through entrepreneurial
activity with members of their family and the wider group
of people. (Henry and Kennedy, 2003).
Review of related literature contd
Educational factors;
• The women entrepreneurs well demonstrate a higher
educational level than their male counterpart (Madsen
et al, 2003).
• Brush et al (1991) successful female entrepreneurs
have a higher standard of education,
• Brush et al (1991) recognized the value of subject
selection in improving the success of women new
business creation.
• Watkins et al (1984) supposed subject selection makes
a distinction between the male and female
entrepreneurs.
Review of related literature contd
• Menzie et al (2003) and Madsen et al (2003) recognized
that females were less inclined to study science and
computer subjects and were more likely to major in social
sciences.
• Women entrepreneurs were motivated to study non
practical subjects with only a marginal holding degrees in
business, sciences or technical discipline (McCelland et al,
2005).
• Watkins et al (1984) and McCelland et al (2005)
approximately nothing that has been researched in the
educational system per se by the female student was
directly linked to the type of business they eventually
started.
Review of related literature contd
• female commonly start businesses in what are seen as
traditional women areas such as health, education.
(Buttner et al, 1997; Fitzsimons et al, 2004; Still et al, 2006).
• Rae and Carswell (2000), entrepreneurial learning is taken
by women as “a dynamic process of awareness, reflection,
association and application that involves transforming
experience and knowledge into functional learning
outcomes” Rae (2006) (p. 42) ,”
• entrepreneurial learning is “ a dynamic and constant
process of acquiring, assimilating, and organizing the new
information and knowledge with pre-existing structures”
(Cope, 2005; Harrison & Leitch, 2005; Minniti & Bygrave,
2001; Rae & Carswell, 2000).
Review of related literature contd
• Self efficacy;
• Lack of self efficacy is main issue for women to run a
new business, Richards (2005), (Chaudhury & Endris,
2005). Brindlay supported deficiency of self efficacy
showed a bad impact on female starting their business.
• Another author believed deficiency in self efficacy as
female based, may impact basic venture creation
performance for example reaching financing institution
(Filden & Dawey, 2004).
• According to Williams deficiency of self efficacy
encourage to look for proper training.
Review of related literature contd
Women leadership styles
• (Eagly et al., 2003; Eagly & Carli, 2003). Brush and
Hisrich (1991) propose women entrepreneurs who
discover to successfully run their business by line up
assistance from others and attain entrepreneurship
sensation.
• Leadership styles differ between male and (Eagly et al.,
2003; Eagly & Johannesen-Schmidt, 2001; Eagly & Carli,
2003).
• Female exhibit an extra participatory style of
leadership as contrast to the task oriented style of their
male counterpart (Brush, 1992; Chaganti, 1986).
Analysis, Discussion and Suggestions;
Participation in entrepreneurship education and activities
increase entrepreneurial skill and self-efficacy among
students
• Gender equity is being addressed in terms of economy
through education
• Women Entrepreneurship Education instills basic skills of
initiative, leadership, self-confidence and opportunity
seeking, in female to foster and nurture a renewed
inspirit of Entrepreneurship.
• Women Entrepreneurship in academia promotes the
concept of education for better life
Analysis, Discussion and Suggestions;
• Reliance of private sector universities is more
on arranging co-academic activities for
developing;
– Open mind
– Decisiveness
– Exercise of choice
– Socialization
– Generate, share, mature and sell the ideas
Analysis, Discussion and Suggestions;
• Pakistani universities are offering;
– Need and market based curricula
– Switching over from agrarian schedule, to
industrial agenda for an age of individual
enterprise;
– Knowledge strengthened to mint money
– Re-cycle process for ISO coincidence
– Curricula economy based; for an age of
discontinuity and rapid change.”
Analysis, Discussion and Suggestions;
• The academic, co-academic, focused on
creativity, innovation hence a changed style of
thinking
• Academics fashioned for open ideas
encouraging risks taking
• Valuing developing contacts and networks for
implementation of ideas and mobilization of
resources
Analysis, Discussion and Suggestions
• Participation to co-curricular activities have
made the women more courageous in
undertaking self employing assignments not
only to support themselves but for social
status as well
Analysis, Discussion and Suggestions;
• entrepreneurship education makes the women
more decisive and firm leaders as innovators
and confident.
Suggestions
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Showcasing of theoretical ideas
Trainings in ideas selling
Encouragement in expo
Inter provincial contingent exchanges
Crash programs for indigenous products and their
show casing
• Interactive sessions with successful
entrepreneurs
• Inter universities business plan competition

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