Training Kit : Personalised Social Support 2012 Module 7: Social work tools with individuals and groups Shirin Kiani and Annie Lafrenière (Technical Resources Division) Handicap International 2012 Overview Individual and small group level 1. Creating a Sociogram 2. Advocacy: focus on self-advocacy 3. Social work with groups Sociograms A diagram representing a person’s or group’s social network Family Sociograms Pattern of relationship in a family Content of sociogram • Circles with names inside: big or small, representing the different members of a family based on the importance they have in family. • Lines between the circles: solid or dashed lines representing the strong or wear links between family members, can be of different color if link is negative. • Arrows pointing one or both ways: showing whether relationship is reciprocal or only oneway where one person is providing and other person is not allowed/able to give back. Mother Sister What a sociogram looks like Like Dislike Strong Weak Reciprocal One-way Dad Mom Grandmom Older Brother Me When creating a sociogram, think… • What are the connections between the people in this family? • Who is the leader? • Who is isolated from the family? • What are the alliances? • Who do they not get along with who? • Is the family united or divided? Once again… • Mom is the leader and connected with everybody • Dad isolated and only connected with mom • There is difficulty between dad and grandma which may affect the group Dad Mom Grandmom Older Brother Me It’s your turn… Create a sociogram of your family Evaluate your sociogram… • • • • What circles did you draw first? How do the sizes of the circles compare to each other? Who is larger, and who is smaller? Why do you think you drew them that way? How are the circles placed in relation to each other (close, far away, on top, below, or next to each other)? Did you erase or change anything, why? Follow-up exercise at home • Ask one member of your family to draw their own versions of the sociogram without seeing yours first. • Do other people’s versions resemble with your version? Why? Why not? • What have you learned? Advocacy With a focus on self-advocacy Advocacy Add+voice = advocacy • Can happen at individual, local, national, international levels • Goal is to create new policy, change bad policies or implement policies. • Not just single action, series of actions (e.g. letters, meetings, street advocacy/strike, press release/media, join committee). What is self-advocacy? Knowing what you need and being able to ask for it. • Speak up, voice your opinion • Take responsibility for your equality in society More on Self-Advocacy: • Based on the concept of fairness not want. • Communicating about the importance of an issue or law to people who are in a position to change it • Although self-advocacy is a personal quest, the practice of self-advocacy may result in becoming an advocate for others. Self-advocacy and empowerment: go hand in hand • People who effectively self-advocate are also more likely to be employed, earn more, have their own savings, and live on their own. How can a social facilitator encourage self-advocacy in others? What is your role? Help people think about these questions: • Do you understand how your impairment impacts you? • What has been your experiences with society’s perception towards your disability ? • Can you explain the impact to people around you? • Do you know what things help you do a good job or to participate? • Can you ask for these things from other people? Coworker? Family? Someone in the community? Advocating for what you need: Examples: • Asking a public school to have an accessible doorway • Asking the post office to put larger signs • Asking for equal treatment in a health centre • Asking your family to include you when attending social events Barriers to self-advocacy Feeling quiet and too shy to speak Wanting to be nice to everybody Feeling frustrated and ready to explode Having too many thoughts and feelings, not knowing where to start Not wanting to draw attention to your needs and be seen as problematic Thinking no one will understand or care A successful self-advocate is… • Aware of his/her strengths and limitations • Has a sense of purpose/sense of fairness or justice • Can seek out information, resources or persons • Is organized and can problem solve • Can argue one’s case clearly with controlled emotion • Knows who is opposed and what people in power think • Has a clear message and wants a clear outcome Social work with small groups Why work with small groups? What kinds of groups How to work with groups Why work with groups? What is your role Individuals vs. groups • Human beings are strongly dependent on interactions with other humans. • This often leads to group formation (in/formal) good for individual and social development Social work practice with groups builds on the important impact of groups on individuals and utilizes group processes to accomplish individual and group goals. Benefits of social group work • For individuals: – Development of effective communication skills and coping skills – Development of problem-solving techniques • For the group: – People in a group are mutually helpful to each other; empowerment through helping others. – Many individuals may have similar needs/goals – Links between good group functioning and social functioning Some types of groups… • • • • Educational groups Socialization groups Support / Self-help groups Therapeutic groups (*) Social facilitator role, with groups • Facilitate the group (depending on the type of group chosen) – Help link the group with community resources – Helping promote fairness and good group functioning – Help group manage conflict and continue to move forward – Provide group tools and methods to achieve goals. – Etc. Groups characteristics • • • • • • • • Mixed or similar members People with and without disabilities Short term or long term Focus on therapy or task Small or large size Open or closed Structured or unstructured Purposes: Information sharing, selfexpression/sharing, achieve goals/activities, socializing, advocacy (upon type of group chosen) Examples of groups: • • • • • DPOs (disabled persons groups) Family Play groups for children Savings/micro-finance group Support group for parents of children with disabilities • Information groups to arrange basic training/information for members. Group (long-term and formal) success will depend on: • Structure/Rules: A FEW, clear and well developed RULES will help the group function better. • Leadership: that respects others and helps the group achieve its goals, also revolving leadership or shared leadership. • Purposefulness: a clear idea of why the group exists and what it want to achieve. How to work with groups What is your role? The natural cycle of groups… Role in forming • Clarifying the roles (social facilitator’s role mostly supportive, facilitating, leader less often – when necessary) • Observing group dynamics • Remain neutral • Support group members in defining / understanding the purpose of the group (depending on type of group chosen), setting realistic expectations, etc. Role in storming • Mediate neutrally by showing the different sides of the argument to the group and helping them see the dis/advantages • Ensure good communication • Promote the language ‘we’ more than ‘I’. • Help work on solving the issues not attacking individuals. • Support the leader (or lead – depending on group chosen) to know how to manage conflict. • Remind the group that stronger relationships will come out of this difficult stage. • Identify strengths/weaknesses of members. Role in Norming • • • • Monitor and offer guidance needed. Help support new leadership (if changes) Encourage constructive criticism Encourage group independence (depending on type of group chosen) Role in performing • Monitor group as needed and be available for support or information/linkages. • Make sure a clear plan of the future is present and that the group has a general idea of how to reach their future destination together. (for groups meant to last in time) Link to practice * Give participants 10 minutes to answer this question individually on a piece of paper, and then do a roundtable with each person sharing some of their answers. • Based on what you learned today, what ….is the social work tool that you think will be most useful to you? • What has been your past barriers to working with a individuals/groups?