Welcome to the Intensive Behavioral Intervention Professional

Report
Welcome to the Intensive
Behavioral Intervention Professional
Certification Course
Instructor: Lindsay Olsen, MA, BCBA
Email: [email protected]
1
3 Part Certification Process

Level 1: IBI Course
◦ Present for each session, pass each standard
quiz with minimum score of 80% and
participate in activities, assignments and group
work

Level 2: State Exam
◦ Pass exam with minimum score of 80%

Level 3: Student Project
◦ Complete project with minimum score of
85%
2
IBI STUDENT PROJECT
3
STANDARDS 1-4
Standard 1: Introduction to
Developmental Disabilities
 Standard 2: Professionalism and Ethics
 Standard 3: Coordination of Family,
School and Community
 Standard 4: Requirements for IBI

4
Group Activity

Group Introductions

Research and present on disability
◦ Include: What it is, symptoms, incidence,
treatment, etiology, learning barriers
◦ Designate 1 person as group presenter
5
QUIZ
Quizzes 1-4
 20 minutes to complete
 Send to:
[email protected]

6
Standard 5:
Foundations of Applied Behavior
Analysis
1)
Define basic behavioral terms and
concepts
 PWOP Chapter 2 and 9
2) Differential reinforcement
 PWOP chapters 6,7,8
3) Writing behavioral objectives
7
Standard 5
Explanations of Human Behavior
Disorder
Genetic
Hereditary
+/- of
substances
in the body
ENV
influence
Other
factors
Epilepsy
some cases traced
to single gene
Imbalance of
neuro
transmitters
Exposure to lead
and carbon
monoxide
Infectious disease
that affect blood
supply
Down Syndrome
Excess of genetic
material (47
chromosomes)
MR
Genetic and
chromosomal
abnormalities
Metabolic
disorders
Toxic exposure
and malnutrition
Autism
Suspect 10-30 genes
Compromised
immune system
Body unable to
process
Exposure to
neuro toxins
**3 tier insult
8
9
Standard 5: Biological Explanations
10
Behavioral Explanation 1
The Behavioral Explanation states that both adaptive and maladaptive behavior is
learned and that learning results as a consequence of behavior.
**Behavior that results in pleasing consequence more likely to be repeated
**Behavior that results in unpleasing consequence is less likely to be repeated
The Behavioral Theory makes three important assumptions:
1) 3 part behavioral sequence
2) Behaviors/responses are result of antecedents
3) Changes to behaviors/responses can be done by manipulation of A/C
Antecedent
• Stimuli/events
that occur just
before behavior
Behavior
Consequence
• Observable
response
• Stimuli/events
that happen
after behavior
11
Behavioral Explanation 2
Antecedent
• Phone rings
friend
Antecedent
• Phone rings
unknown
800#
Behavior
• Push answer
button and
talk
Behavior
• Push ignore
button
Consequence
• Pleasant
conversation
Consequence
• Avoid
unpleasant
conversation
12
Behavioral Explanation 3
Antecedent
• Teacher sitting
across from you
asking you
questions
Antecedent
• Teacher sitting across
from you
Behavior
Consequence
• Answering
questions
• Sitting and engaging
• Raising hand
• Pleasant interaction,
easy tasks
• Access to
reinforcement
Behavior
• Avoidance- laying on
floor
• Crying, tantrum
• Looking away
• Running away
Consequence
• Unpleasant
interaction, difficult
tasks
• Removal of
reinforcement
13
Behavioral Explanation 4
Antecedent
• Entering library for
class
Behavior
•
•
•
•
Engaging rules
Reading
Laughing
Making choices
Antecedent
• Entering library for
class
Behavior
•
•
•
•
Tantrum
Screaming
Head banging
Locking doors
Consequence
• Access to
reinforcement
Consequence
• Constant difficult
demand
• Removal of
reinforcement
14
Behavior Change Process
Antecedent
• 2) What are
precursor events
Antecedent
• Teacher request to
sit at desk
Antecedent
• Therapist request to use
the restroom
Behavior
• 1) What is the
target behavior
Behavior
• High pitched
screaming
(maladaptive)
Behavior
• Enter bathroom and
complete required tasks
(adaptive)
Consequence
• 3) What is the
pay-off
Consequence
• Removal of teacher
and demand -Placed
in time out area
Consequence
• Internal relief and
comfort, praise, sucker,
high five
15
Terms and Concepts
What is and is not behavior?
Raise hand
Non-compliant
Scream
Put away pencil
Follow directions
Head down on
desk
Read
Off task
Calm body
Thinking
Irritated
Frustrated
Fall on floor
Processing
Deep breath
16
Terms and Concepts
CONSEQUENCE=
Bad
unpleasant
bummer
Hurt
not good
loss
Dreadful
unlikable
terrible
17
Terms and Concepts
Behavior
Behavior
Positive Reinforcement
18
The Science of “WANTING”
Primary AKA:
Unconditioned R+
Becomes more valuable
when……
Evokes Behaviors that have resulted in……….
Food
Deprived of food
Getting food in the past (grocery store, asking,
ordering, foraging)
Sleep
Deprived of sleep
Sleeping in the past (laying down, getting into bed,
crying)
Increase of Painful
Stimulus
You are in pain- have a headache
Removal of pain in the past (taking aspirin)
Primary AKA:
Unconditioned R+
Becomes less valuable when……
Decreases or stops behaviors that have
resulted in……….
Food
Have just consumed food
Getting food in the past (grocery store, asking,
ordering, foraging)
Sleep
12 hours of sleep
Sleeping in the past (laying down, getting into bed)
Decrease of Painful
Stimulus
You are no longer in pain or have no
pain
Removal of pain in the past (taking aspirin)
How to Kill a Reinforcer 101

Do not attend to balance between effort and
reinforcer (quality/quantity)

Do not select reinforcers that compete with
reinforcers maintaining problem behaviors

Do not attend to the principles of ABA
(schedules of reinforcement, errorless teaching,
short ITI’s, prompting, functional skills)
20
Types of Reinforcers
Primary
(Unconditioned)
Secondary
(Conditioned)
Basic Human needs
Food, water, air, sleep,
reduce pain,
temperature, activity
etc…
Generalized r+:
Tokens, money, tickets,
poker chips
Sensory reinforcers:
includes self
stimulatory behaviors
Social reinforcers:
Verbal praise,
participation in
activities, attention, NV
expressions
Positive (+) Reinforcement
Antecedent
situation
Behavior
Consequences
Future
Occurrence
Jonny sitting
alone at snack
time (8
minutes)
Throws food
on floor,
squishes food,
rubs on peers
next to him
Peer yells and
Therapist runs over
and tells to stop,
redirects to clean up
and sits next to him
Jonny food
throwing, squishing
and rubbing on
peer increases
Antecedent
situation
Behavior
Consequences
Future
Occurrence
Attention from peer
and Tx (eye contact,
physical proximity,
verbal engagement)
Behavior increases
Has not had
Engages in
attention for 8 behavior that
minutes
has resulted in
attention in
past
Schedules of Reinforcement
2 categories of schedules
1) Continuous
2) Intermittent
Ratio
(Number)
Interval
(time)
1) Fixed
2) Variable
1) Fixed
2) Variable
Fixed- Ratio
A worker receives a pay credit after
assembling 15 pieces of equipment
 A student receives a sticker on their
chart after completing 5 math problems
 A student receives a personal size pizza
after reading 3 books

Variable -Ratio



Hitting the jackpot playing the slots. After a
varying number of lever pulls (behavior)
money delivered (reinforcer)
Scammers sending out emails requesting for
bank information so they can wire you
money. After so many responses (sending
email) someone gives account information
(reinforcer).
Door to door salesman. After so many
responses (knocking on doors)
reinforcement occurs (someone buys item)
Fixed- Interval



Mail is delivered approximately 4:00 each day.You
could check the mailbox (response) all day but
your response will only be reinforced after 4:00
(passage of time)
Picking up your paycheck. Going to accounting
and asking for check (response) will only be
reinforced after a fixed passage of time (every 2
weeks)
Teachers setting a 2 minute interval timer and
each correct answer on a math worksheet after
the passage of time results in reinforcement
Variable- Interval

Jenny’s therapist assessed Jenny’s on task
behavior (writing, reading a page or
calculating problem) an average of every 6
minutes (4,5,6,7,8). If Jenny was on task
she would receive 1 point. Points can be
redeemed for extra recess time.
Terms and Concepts- Consequence
Behavior
Behavior
Positive Reinforcement
A-B-C
Negative Reinforcement
A-B-C
28
Antecedent
situation
Behavior
ESCAPE:
Aversive stimulus
present
Behavior that
Removal of aversive
has removed
stimulus
stimulus in past
Increase in behavior
that terminated
stimulus
AVOID:
Condition where
aversive stimulus
could occur
Behaviors that
have delayed in
the past
Avoid or delay
aversive stimulus
Increase in behavior
that terminated
stimulus
ESCAPE:
Give rice
Baby crying in back cookie
seat while driving
Baby stop crying
Keep rice cookies in
car and give when
fussy
AVOID:
Carseat + Baby +
caride =
Avoid crying
When need to ride
in car give cookie
Give cookie
Consequences
Future
Occurrence
Antecedent
situation
Behavior
Consequences
Future Occurrence
put on seat belt
Removal of alarm
Increases-Putting on
seatbelt when alarm
sounds
Put seat belt on
Avoid alarm sounding
increases-Putting on
seat belt when first get
in car
ESCAPE:
Seat belt alarm in
car
AVOID:
Stimulus situation
where alarm will
sound (getting in
car)
Therapist asking
child to engage in
activity
Scream run away Removal of demand
bite scratch
and possibly therapist
(time out)
Increases- engages in
behavior more
frequently whenever
similar situation arises
Terms and Concepts
Behavior
Positive Reinforcement
Behavior
Punishment type I
(Positive punishment)
Negative Reinforcement
31
Antecedent
situation
Behavior
Consequences
Future
Occurrence
Hungry and in
candy store
Eat lots of
candy
Stomach ache (+)
Decrease eating
candy when hungry
Skiing in -20
degree weather
Take off
mittens
frost bite (+)
Decrease taking
mittens off when
cold
Sally has the ball
Grab the ball
from Sally
Bite on arm (+)
Decrease in taking
ball from Sally
Closing the door
Hand stays on
door
Hurt finger (+)
Decrease leaving
hand on door
Access to lighter
Set a fire
1 hour hard labor
(+)
Decrease fire setting
Adult direction
Follow
direction
Hug, smile high five
(+)
Decrease following
directions
Terms and Concepts
Behavior
Behavior
Positive Reinforcement
Punishment type I
(Punishment by contingent
stimulation)
Negative Reinforcement
Punishment type II
(Punishment by contingent
withdrawal)
Time out, response cost
33
Antecedent
situation
Recess playing on
slide
Behavior
Consequences
Future
Occurrence
Smoking
Donate 1$ to
disliked organization
(-)
Decrease in smoking
from 85/day to 5/day
Call to 411
$.20 charge to bill
(-)
Decrease in calls to
411
Interrupting
class
lose 3 minutes of
computer time
(-)
Decrease in
interruptions
Kick peer
Sit on bench for 3
minutes- Time out
(-)
Decrease in kicking
peer on slide
Response Cost
Behavior
Response Cost
Target behavior want to decrease
Lose 1 minute of preferred activity
(15 minutes available each day)
Behavior
Bonus Response Cost
Target behavior want to decrease
Lose 1 minute of bonus activity
(15 minutes of extra activity available
each day)
35
Terms and Concepts
Behavior
Behavior
Positive Reinforcement
Punishment type I
(Punishment by contingent
stimulation)
Negative Reinforcement
Punishment type II
(Punishment by contingent
withdrawal)
Recovery from Punishment
36
Recovery from Punishment
Behavior
Consequence
Biting
Dad put in room
Biting
Dad gone not put in
room, mom engage in
verbal corrections
Going through red light
Effect on Behavior
Red light camera
installed- ticket
Going through red light
Camera removed- no
ticket
Stealing food from peers
Sarah removes all food
for 3 minutes and child to
sit at different table, alone
Stealing food from peers
Jane gives verbal
correction “stop, not
yours”
37
Terms and Concepts
Behavior
Behavior
Positive Reinforcement
Punishment type I
(Punishment by contingent
stimulation)
Negative Reinforcement
Punishment type II
(Punishment by contingent
withdrawal)
Recovery from Punishment
Extinction
38
Antecedent
Behavior
Consequence
Mom on phone
Scream and pull
cord
“STOP! I am on the
phone!” (R+)
Mom on phone
Scream and pull
cord
Continue to talk
ignore behavior
Antecedent
Behavior
Consequence
Math worksheet
Ask for help
Receives help (R+)
Math worksheet
Ask for help
“you can do it” no help
Antecedent
Behavior
Consequence
Snack time
Sign cracker
Get cracker (R+)
Snack time
Sign cracker
no cracker
Effect on
Behavior
Effect on
Behavior
Effect on
Behavior
39
Verbal
interaction
Exaggerated
facial
expression
Maintaining
R+:
Attention
Physical
interaction
People
looking
40
Antecedent
Situation
Behavior
Consequence
Nap time mother lays
child down in bed
Crying
Mother goes in and lays
with child and verbally
soothes (R+)
Nap time mother lays
child down in bed
Crying
Terminate consequenceparent does not go in
room
Crying = no
mom
Scream + throw+
cry= mom
41
Antecedent
“potty”
Pull-up
Teacher leading
you to bathroom
Scream
Runaway
Head bang
Claw
Alligator roll
Removal of
aversive stimulusallow to stay in pull
up
Antecedent
“potty”
Pull-up
Teacher leading
you to bathroom
Scream
Runaway
Head bang
Alligator roll
Physical assistance
to bathroom and
team up to change
TB +
Claw, spit, bite,
vomit
42
Differential Reinforcement
Behavior1
Reinforcement
Behavior 2
Extinction
Scream
Attention
from mom
Color in
coloring book
No attention
from mom
Antecedent
Mom on
phone
43
Differential Reinforcement
Independent work
time
No attention
Independent work
time
No attention
Throw book on
floor
Attention from
teacher
Complete problem
in book
No attention from
teacher
Complete problem
in book
Attention from
teacher
Throw book on
floor
Ignore/no
attention
44
DR group activity- fill in chart
A
B
C
A:
B1:
B2:
R+/-:
Ext:
45
DR Practice (1)

Lacee is a non-vocal 6 year old with autism.
She has 4 signs which include milk, cereal,
candy and ball. During 1:1 instruction with her
tutor she will engage in a few tasks and then
will start throwing materials and scratching
her aide. Her aide quickly cleans up the work
items and throws her hands up saying she is
not paid enough for this. Work time is then.
Lacee’s scratching and throwing behavior
increases and begins to occur each time 1:1
instruction begins with her aide.
46
Differential
R+ Strategy
What is it?
Variation of Schedule
DRO
Reinforcement provided when
learner does not engage in a target
behavior. Pay learner off for doing
any OTHER behaviors except the
target behavior
1) DRO Reset
2) DRO fixed Interval
3) DRO Increasing
Interval
4) DRO Progressive
DRL
Used to decrease high rate
behaviors to a more manageable
rate by providing reinforcement for
lower rates of responding
1) DRL-IRT
2) DRL- Below criterion
DRA
Choosing a behavior that is
topographically different from
target behavior and providing
reinforcement for the alternate
behavior
1) DR Incompatible
behaviors
2) DR Competing
behaviors
47
DRO
Antecedent
A
Behavior
Consequence
Behavior1absence of
target
R+:
Behavior2
Extinction
Less value r+
48
3 Factors for DR Success!
Select and define the target behavior
• List and prioritize!
Determine the right time interval
•
•
•
•
observation time
# of responses
IRT
2
(60) = IRT (12)
(5)
(12) = DRO interval (6)
(2)
Identifying and selecting reinforcers
• What maintains problem behavior can we use it?
• What reinforcers will compete with reinforcers
maintaining problem behavior
49
DRO Reset
Timer is RESET each time target behavior
occurs
 R+ delivered at end of each interval (as
determined by IRT) target behavior is
absent
 When target behavior occurs no R+
delivered (extinction procedure applied)
and interval RESET
 PWOP example page 72 (figure 6.1)

50
DRO Reset Schedule (2)

Kalee engages in self talk where she will yell out movie phrases or
words very loudly and then laugh hysterically.This behavior is
contributing to Kalee’s isolation in that her family doesn’t like to
take her in public and the school won’t allow her to be in the
general education classroom because it is so disruptive.You
observe Kalee for 60 minutes during centers time. During your
observation she engages in self talk 20 times. When she engages in
self-talk the therapist redirects her back to the task and asks her to
be quiet and must repeat this several times before Kalee attends to
her therapist. During 15 of the self talk episodes, the therapist is
cleaning up and prepping stations and does not provide a
consequence for the behavior. During your observation she is being
asked to engage in puzzles, tracing letters, sorting beads, and
counting activities.You also note that when given free choice, Kalee
chooses activities such as self talk, singing, listening to music,
humming, placing toys that vibrate to her ears, and snapping her
fingers by her ears or clapping loudly.
51
DRO Fixed-Interval
Interval schedule is fixed and R+ delivered
at end of interval during which the
response does not occur
 Must go for the entire interval with no
occurrence of behavior to receive R+
 If target behavior occurs, no R+ delivered
at end of the interval and student gets
another chance at next interval
 PWOP page 73-74 figure 6.3

52
DRO FI Schedule (3)

Amy frequently engages in removing her clothes. She
takes off her shoes, pants and shirt while at school or
in the community with her family. She has identified
sensory needs as identified by an Occupational
therapist and Sensory Integration Specialist. Amy has to
keep her clothes on for longer periods of time on in
order to be in environments outside of her home. You
observe Amy in her home for 3 hours during which she
removes her clothing 3 times. During your observation,
Amy is engaged in activities of her choice such as
computer, self stimulatory play with a fan and rocking
back and forth while humming. Amy’s family states she
removes clothes when she is alone, when engaged in
preferred and un-preferred activities and even in her
sleep.
53
DRO Increasing Interval
Way of thinning or fading R+
 As student can refrain from engaging in TB
over several intervals, slowly increase the
interval size
 Must increase reinforcer quality or quantity
as intervals increase
 PWOP 74 figure 6.4

54
DRO Increasing Interval Schedule
(4)

Jack was doing really well on his DRO FI30min schedule. He currently has 5 30
minute intervals in a row where he has
refrained from spitting. Each 30 minutes Jack
refrains from spitting he gets to play 1 round
of angry birds. The amount of time spent
accessing his reinforcer is starting to
interfere with routines in the day because
activities are stopped every 30 minutes to
deliver the reinforcer.
55
DRO Progressive








Useful for learners who need frequent feedback
regarding performance to maintain a level of responding
Used for low rate behaviors
Allows for shorter intervals, frequent feedback and
increasing amounts of R+
Interval size remains the same but as student refrains
from TB for more consecutive intervals the R+ gets
bigger and better
Requires use of reinforcers that can be given in
increasing units (tokens, minutes on activity, beverage,
etc…)
Transition from FI to DROP schedules
PWOP 74 figure 6.5
Free access rule!!!
56
DRO Progressive Schedule (5)

Mike has Asperger’s and is working on gaining more
appropriate social skills. Mike’s IBI provider has been
using a token system with Mike that has been very
effective in modifying various behaviors. Mike’s IBI
provider wants to use a token system where Mike
can earn points when he refrains from kissing and
hugging strangers. He wants to reward Mike for
going longer periods of time without engaging in this
behavior. He wants a system his family can easily use
as well when Mike is not with him. Mike can trade
points earned for activities and items that he does
not otherwise get access to. Create a DROP
schedule for Mike using a 1 hour interval.
57
Differential
R+ Strategy
What is it?
Variation of Schedule
DRO
Reinforcement provided when
learner does not engage in a target
behavior. Pay learner off for doing
any OTHER behaviors except the
target behavior
1) DRO Reset
2) DRO fixed Interval
3) DRO Increasing
Interval
4) DRO Progressive
DRL
Used to decrease high rate
behaviors to a more manageable
rate by providing reinforcement for
lower rates of responding
1) DRL-IRT
2) DRL- Below criterion
DRA
Choosing a behavior that is
topographically different from
target behavior and providing
reinforcement for the alternate
behavior
1) DR Incompatible
behaviors
2) DR Competing
behaviors
58
DRL-IRT Example
Target behavior: Asking for help
 IRT= 10 minutes

Working on
assignment
Ask for help
@<10 min
(R+)
Receives help
Ask for help
>10 min
Extinction
No help delivered,
restart interval
59
DRL-IRT(6)
Charlie is a non-verbal 8 year old boy who used to scream and
bite his aide whenever she asked him to sit and do work. His
previous IBI provider did some analysis and discovered when he
engaged in this behavior the task was removed and he was
placed in time out. His behavior of screaming and biting
increased over time. She was able to teach Charlie a
replacement behavior of asking for a “break” which resulted in
removal of the task for a period of time. She also made his
work time less difficult and made sure Charlie had lots of
reinforcers available. If Charlie does engage in the problem
target behavior, he is redirected back to his assignment and the
task remains in place. The problem now is Charlie asks for a
break all the time and it is difficult to teach Charlie any new
skills.
 During a 1-hour observation, Charlie asks for a break 20 times

60
DRL- Below Criterion
Target behavior: knocking materials off
table
 Criteria for R+= 3 times or less/ hour

Table swipe
occurs 3,2,1 or 0
times in an hour
(R+)
Table swipe
occurs 4 or more
times in an hour
Extinction
No R+ delivered
61
DRL- Below Criterion (7)

Ava engages in finger play that occurs so frequently it is
beginning to cause damage to her joints. She will twist
and pop her fingers and her family is worried about the
continued damage she is doing. It is reported she does it
most when in the community with her family or
therapist. You observe Ava at the store with her parents
for 30 minutes. During your observation she engages in
finger play a total of 30 times. You do not see any
patterns that suggest this behavior is maintained by
attention, escape from task or to obtain anything from
her parents. You suspect the behavior is resulting in
internal consequences for Ava, possibly sensory related
or to reduce anxiety. You also observe that she enjoys
being piggy backed by her dad or riding on the front of
the cart.
62
Differential
R+ Strategy
What is it?
Variation of Schedule
DRO
Reinforcement provided when
learner does not engage in a target
behavior. Pay learner off for doing
any OTHER behaviors except the
target behavior
1) DRO Reset
2) DRO fixed Interval
3) DRO Increasing
Interval
4) DRO Progressive
DRL
Used to decrease high rate
behaviors to a more manageable
rate by providing reinforcement for
lower rates of responding
1) DRL-IRT
2) DRL- Below criterion
ALT-R
(DRA, DRI)
Choosing a behavior that is
topographically different from
target behavior and providing
reinforcement for the alternate
behavior
63
DR of Alternate and Incompatible Behaviors
(ALT-R)
 Alternate
Ask for break
Difficult task

(R-)
Break deliveredtask removed
tantrum
Extinction
No break
delivered
typing
(R+)
music
Hand flapping
Extinction
No R+ delivered
Incompatible
64
DRA/DRI (8)

Joe almost exclusively engages in playing, twirling, twisting
and pulling on his hair or anyone else’s hair who happens to
be nearby. It is determined through analysis that this
behavior serves as a stimulation behavior and the aspects
that Joe likes are the repetitive motion and the input from
the hair on his fingers. Since he will do it to others as much
as on himself, it is not thought that the feeling on his head
has a reinforcing component. This behavior is preventing Joe
and his family from accessing typical environments and is
keeping Joe isolated from his peers and community. If his
parents or anyone tries to remove the hair or stop him he
grabs it hard in an effort to keep the hair which causes pain
to the other person and makes people scared of Joe.
65
Behavioral Objectives:The Big Picture
PROBLEM
Liz is unable to
communicate her wants
and needs in an
appropriate manner. Liz
uses tantrum behavior to
let others know when she
needs something.
GOAL
Liz will learn functional
communication skills to
appropriately
communicate her wants
and needs so she can be
understood by others
OBJECTIVE
When given a choice
between two food items,
Liz will point to the item
she wants without
screaming or grabbing the
item at 100% success for 4
out of 5 trials
66
Operational Definition: Is it a public
or private event
Behavior
Operational Definition
Understands
Points
Extends pointer finger to touch item or if item is out of
reach extends pointer finger in direction of item
Whispers
Uses a volume of voice that is lower than common
conversational volume and is audible for a distance no
greater than 2 feet away.
Feels
67
Complete the following activities:
1) Components of a Behavioral Objective
2) Writing Behavioral Objectives
Worksheet
3) Write Objectives from Sample
68
QUIZ
Standard 5 quiz
 15 minutes to complete

69
STANDARD 6
Material needed for this standard:
What do I need?
SELECT TARGET STUDENT FOR
PROJECT!
Where do I find it?
•Diagnosis?
•Problem behaviors, functional skill
deficits?
•Available for duration of project
•Consent to video?
1) A copy of IBI Student Project
Manual, printed and in binder
2) IBI Project Grading rubric
Appendix A in project manual
3) Copy of Functional Assessment
Observation Form
Appendix C in project manual
4) Copy of Behavior Path: FBA
visual Diagram
Appendix D in project manual
5) Copy of Prevent, Teach and
respond Visual path forms
Appendix G in project manual
6) Copy of Behavior Support Plan
Observation Form
Page 37-39 in project manual
70
Standard 6: Positive Behavioral
Support
Decrease
Problem
Behaviors
Functional
Assessment
Increase
Adaptive Skills
Therapeutic
Plan
Use of
PROVEN
effective
approaches
Individualized
Comprehensive
71
Information Gathered from FA
Problem
Behaviors
Consequences
Antecedents
Setting Events
• Operational Definition
• What is maintaining the
behavior? What is the pay off?
• Conditions under which behavior
will AND will not occur
•Establishing operations OR
motivating operations
72
Maintaining Consequences
Antecedent
Behavior
Consequence
Antecedent
Hand flapping
(SS)
Internal
stimulation
feels good
Scream
External:
People leave me
alone
Antecedent
73
Triggers for Behavior
Antecedent
Behavior
Consequence
Request to sit
down for
reading group
Run away
scream
fall to floor
Sit in break are
to calm (task
removal/delay)
“write name on
paper.”
(Difficult task)
Scream &
throw pencil
Head down
(difficult task
removed)
74
Identifying Antecedent Events
Playing word mash
on computer
Eating snack
with 2 peers
Recess time
hanging on bars
upside down
Smiling, answering
questions,
humming
Eating food
rocking in chair
laughing
Laughing,
hanging on bar
Continuation of
activity (visual and
auditory stimuli)
Satisfying
hunger, oral
stimulation
Proprioceptive
input, visual
input,
75
Setting Events: the 4th contingency
Antecedent
EO- setting
event
Behavior
Antecedent
Consequence
Behavior
Consequence
76
Antecedent Events (Sd’s)
Setting Events (EO’s/MO’s)
Precede behavior
Precede behavior
Evoke Behavior
•That have been associated with
reinforcement in the past
Evoke Behavior
•Because a particular consequence
is wanted or NOT wanted
Have to do with availability of a
particular reinforcer
Have to do with effectiveness of a
reinforcer
Waitress
Asking for
food
Food
delivered/eat
No waitress
Asking for
food
No food
delivered
Have not
eaten for 5
hours
Waitress
Asking for
food
Food/ eating
77
Setting Events: Altering Reinforcer
Value
Setting event
Hunger- food
deprivation
Increase/Decrease
effectiveness of ………..
Effect on behavior
Food as reinforcer
behavior that
results in getting
food
No hungersatiation
Food as reinforcer
behavior that
results in getting
food
Headachepainful
stimulation
Aspirin as a reinforcer
Behavior that
results in getting
aspirin
No headache- no
painful
stimulation
Aspirin as a reinforcer
Behavior that
results in getting
aspirin
78
Classroom Examples of SE
EO- setting
event
Antecedent
Behavior
Consequence
Child did not
sleep well
Typically easy
teacher
demand
Any
behavior to
remove
demand
Removal of
demand is
WANTED
reinforcer
Sensory
system understimulated
Nylon body
sock
Put sock on
body
Sensory
stimulation
Sensory system
over- stimulated
Nylon sock
Scream and
throw self on
floor
Remove/avoid
Sensory
stimulation
79
1) When asked about her medical history, Ava’s mother
reports that Ava often experiences urinary tract
infections. Because Ava is non-verbal she can not
verbalize when she is in pain or feeling discomfort. Ava
is currently working on potty training as a goal. Ava will
hold her urine for so long OR will not empty her
bladder completely when she urinates which can cause
bladder infections. Fill in the 4 part behavioral sequence
from the scenario given:
It was snack time and Ava was shown her visual schedule.
He teacher pointed to the toilet picture indicating it
was time to go potty and wash her hands before snack.
Ava ran around the room screaming, arching her body
and flopping to the floor.
What is the EOsetting event?
What
Antecedent
event evoked
behavior?
What is the
behavior?
What is
valuable as a
reinforcer?
80
2) During the functional assessment interview, Raj’s
mom indicated that her son is sometimes very
sensitive to sound. He will cover his ears and mom
is not sure why until shortly after when she hears a
siren or other loud noise approaching. Fill in the 4
part behavioral sequence from the scenario given:
Raj’s family uses a pressure cooker to cook rice in
their kitchen. It is always left out on the stove even
when not in use. When it is time to go outside to
play you must go through the kitchen to get to the
back door. You say to Raj “let’s go outside” as you
point to the back door. He screams and runs away
from you into the basement.
What is the EOsetting event?
What
Antecedent
event evoked
behavior?
What is the
behavior?
What is
valuable as a
reinforcer?
81
Steps to Conducting a Functional
Assessment
STEP
How to Collect Information
1. Define the target behaviors and
pattern of occurrence
•Review of daily schedule and routine
2. Develop a hypothesis about the
target behavior
•Conduct interview
•Direct observation
3.Validate your hypothesis
•Functional Analysis: can you turn TB
on and off?
82
Results of
assessment
and analysis
Contextual
fit
PBS
plan
Make
problem
behaviors
irrelevant
and
ineffective
Alter
patterns of
behavior by
manipulating
A+C
Based on
principles of
ABA
83
Contents of Quality Behavior
Support Plan
Address ALL problem behaviors
Implemented across multiple
settings
Use multiple methods of
Intervention
Use Functional Assessment as
foundation
84
Positive Behavior Support
Prevent/A
• Changing
antecedent
conditions
that lead to
behavior
Teach/B
• Teaching
replacement
skills
Respond/C
• Manipulating
consequences
to Increase or
decrease
behaviors
85
Antecedent Interventions
Redesign
Environment
Positive
rapport
Offer
Choices
PREVENT
Behavioral
Momentum
NonContingent
Attention
86
Teaching New Skills
Functional
Skills
Skills that are
easy to
perform
TEACH
Skills that
Produce
same
consequence
Skills that
are Effective
and Efficient
87
Manipulating Consequences
Designed from
FBA
Individualized
RESPOND
Manipulation
of
Consequences
Produces
quality
reinforcers
88
Standard 7: Skill Acquisition
Discrimination
learning
Barriers to learning
Behavioral Approach to teaching
Instructional Procedures
Selection of target skills
89
Discrimination Learning
Stimulus
(Become antecedent/Sd
and S-deltas)
Stimulus
(Become consequences
that affect behavior)
Mom
Needs met
Stranger
Needs not
meet
90
Relevant
Irrelevant
Features which must
be attended to in
order to make
discrimination
Features which
should be ignored
and do not
contribute to making
discrimination
SHOE: Shoelaces,
shape, tongue, foot
opening, heel shape,
toe shape
SHOE: color, size,
location
MOM: Body size
facial features, eye
color, voice, smell
MOM: 2 arms, 2
legs, clothing
91
Stimulus event (Sd)
Prompt
Response
Correct
Reinforcement
Incorrect
Natural Correction
Punishment
Extinction
Inadvertent R+
92
Add pops up: “you
won $100”
Warning/ secure
site
Click on add
Correct
Receive 100$
Incorrect
Natural
CorrectionComputer blocks
virus
93
Sitter calls and
cancels for the
week
Ask my mom
ask your mother in
law
Correct
verbal praise, cooks
dinner, does dishes
Incorrect
Natural
CorrectionShe declines
Criticizes how you
do things, makes a
mess, asks for food
94
Something happens
(stimulus event)
???Prompt???
Not sure what to
do- random
response
Something happens
Who cares
Something happens
Something happens
Not sure what that
was
95
Fire alarm
Prompt????
1) Go out door
2) Play with trains
1) Correct
Safe from fire praise
Social approval
2) incorrect
False alarm -shuts
off
Cough eyes burn
but not sure why
96
Behavioral Approach to Cognition
Antecedent
Stimulus event
Response
Red light
Apply brake
“what is 8x8?”
“64”
Bladder full- internal
signal
Void in toilet
97
Discrimination Training
Antecedent Stimulus:
Event that occurs in environment. Gives us clues about what response to
emit
Friendly Professor
Smile and wave
Pompous Professor
Look down walk other direction
Library with friend
Whisper/ nonverbal
communication
Car with friend
Talk loudly, laugh
Church
Tell clean joke
Bar
Tell offensive joke
98
Discrimination Training
Antecedent
situation/Stimulus
event 1
Reinforcement
Behavior A
Antecedent
situation/Stimulus
event 2
Extinction
99
Discrimination Training Example
Sd: Light on
Food Delivered
Neck Stretching
S delta: Light off
No Food
delivered
100
Discrimination Training Example
Sd
Door with Exit
sign
Outside on way
home
Open the door
S
Door with Room
#443 sign
In another
classroom- not
outside
101
Discrimination Training Example
Attention:
“honey stop
don’t do that!”
Sd
Mom
Bang on table
S
Dad
No response
No attention
102
Discrimination Training Example
Sd
Purple square
Clothes offnaked
undress
S
No purple square
Clothes remain
on
103
Discrimination Training Activity
Sd
Start group 3
Reinforcement
Behavior
S
Extinction
104
Group Presentations activity#15
Sd
Reinforcement
Behavior
S
extinction
105
Simple Discrimination
Response 1
Reinforcement
Response 2
No Reinforcement
Sd
Simple Discrimination
Stopping behavior
R+
“Stop”
Movement
No R+
Simple Discrimination
Sitting
R+
“sit down”
standing
No R+
106
Simple Discrimination
Response 1
Reinforcement
Response 2
No Reinforcement
Sd
Conditional Discrimination
Sd
Response 1
Reinforcement
S
Response 2
No R+
Stimulus A
107
Examples of Conditional
Discriminations
Sd
R1: touches
R+
Verbal: “find baby”
S-delta
R2: touches
No R+
3 stimuli to attend to:
1. Verbal direction “find baby”
2. Picture of baby
3. Picture of shoe
108
Sd
R1: touches
R+
Verbal: “find shoe”
S-delta
R2: touches
No R+
3 stimuli to attend to:
1. Verbal direction “find shoe”
2. Picture of baby
3. Picture of shoe
109
Barriers to Learning
1)Attention
2)Motivation
Stimulus over
selectivity
Unmotivated
by natural
reinforcers
Focus on
irrelevant
features
Deficits in
internal
motivation
110
Basic Instructional Unit
Antecedent
• Stimulus
material
• Teacher request
• Environmental
stimulus
Antecedent
• Home page/
Sign in page
for you tube
Behavior
• Learner
response
Behavior
Consequence
• Outcome
• Natural or
artificial R+
• Correction
procedure
Consequence
• Chance responding:
click on incorrect link
• wrong page, lost, can’t
get to video
• Guided: click on
correct link
• Get to video complete
assignment on time
111
112
You are ready to teach when….
Learner
Cooperation
Is learner approaching you? Are you paired with good
outcomes? Are they willing to learn from you?
Competing
Reinforcers
Identified what purpose behaviors serve? What
consequences does individual want? Do you have
reinforcers that will keep value of escape low?
Preventions
Identified what antecedents trigger desired and
undesired behavior? Are you incorporating these into
teaching model?
Functional Skills
What are you teaching? Are the skills functional?
What next?
Do you know where skills are going? Where is plan
going for this person? What’s the big picture
113
Building on the instructional unit
Discrete Trial
Sd
response
Consequence
Prompt (faded)
114
Student Project: Activity #7

2 part Video demonstration of skills.

Segment 1: Behavior reductiondemonstration of PBS for problem behavior.
Prevent Teach Respond

Segment 2: Skill building- demonstration
of discrete trial teaching
115
Problems with PROMPTs
Too early
Too late
Don’t know
how to fade
out
Forget use
of DR
Prompt
dependency
116
Order of Prompts
Full physical assistance
Partial physical assistance
Gesture/model
Prepositional
Verbal
117
2 ways to Fade a Prompt
TIME: increase time
delay from Sd to
prompt
TRIAL 1 (0-1 sec)
Sd..Prompt response
TYPE: reduce
intensity or prompt
or move to next level
of assistance
Trial 1: FP
Sd….prompt response
TRIAL 2 (2 sec)
Sd….Prompt response
Trial 2: PP
Sd….prompt response
TRIAL 3 (4 sec)
Sd…..Prompt response
Trial 3: M
Sd….prompt response
118
2 ways to transfer prompt to Sd
1) Extra
Prompt
2) Within
Stimulus
Prompt
Anything you do or
add to help person
respond
Using already
present stimulus
and exaggerating or
defining in some way
Examples: Help
person perform,
model, point, move,
verbal, raise eyebrows
Examples: Pivotal
response training
(PTR), make features
bigger or more
pronounced,
distinctive feature
119
Extra Vs Within Stimulus Prompts
Example skill
Extra Prompt
Teaching site words, reading,
letters
Sd: written word
Prompts: Verbal, mimetic,
gesture (sign or other visual
support)
Sd: written word
Prompts: Fade in and highlight
letter formation, word shaped like
label
Sd: “go play”
Prompts: point to kitchen
center, physically guide to
kitchen center, “go play at
kitchen center.”
Sd: “go play”
Prompt: Distributed several articles
child liked such as flashing toys,
mirrors, etc, to “lure” child to go to
the center.
Sd: enter into play with
peers
Prompts: pointing to friends,
physical guidance to friends,
indirect/direct verbal ‘what
are your friends doing/go
with friends.”
Sd: enter into play with peers
Prompts: Place squares around
table for peers to stand on, one left
empty for child. Empty square
signals to child the correct
response. Fade out square by
making smaller and smaller until
gone
Study:
Teaching child to branch out
from repetitive play to
experience and play with
various centers in school.
Wanted child to play in
dramatic play area- kitchen
Study:
Teaching child to engage in
same activity that peers are
engaging in instead of
withdraw and repetitive selfstimulatory behaviors. Using
a sensory table
Within Stimulus Prompt
120
Instructional Procedure #2:
SHAPING
Procedure to teach NEW behavior or
strengthen a WEAK one
 What is the SKILL and how can you break
it down into smaller attainable parts?
 Focus is on reinforcing successive
approximations of behavior
 Uses differential R+

121
Origins of Shaping

Behavior is behavior- animals, people all
organisms
Antecedent
Criticize
findings
Behavior
Consequence
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
Left hand moves
Raise off table
Raised in air
Raised at tilt
Raised and lowered Skinner turn
in consecutive
toward and nod
motions
6) Chopping air with
left hand
122
Shaping examples
Antecedent
Behavior
Tv flickers
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
Flick it
Flick harder
Hit with palm
Hit with fist
Beat tv
Exercise time
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
Walk 10 minutes
Walk 20 minutes
Walk/jog 20 minutes
Jog 10 minutes
Jog 20 minutes
Jog/run 30 minutes
Run 30 minutes
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Dimmer on 10
Dimmer on 8
Dimmer on 6
Dimmer on 4
Dimmer on 2
Dimmer on 1
Dimmer on 0
Time for bed
Consequence
tv back on
Endorphin
increase, lose weight,
clothes fit
Verbal praise, extra
story, added R+ next
morning
123
Misuse of Shaping
Antecedent
Child hungry
Dinner cooking
Behavior
1)
2)
3)
4)
Whine
Whine and cry
Whine cry and scream
Whine cry scream and
hit
5) Fall to floor and
tantrum
Consequence
Cookie
124
Group Presentations: Shaping
Antecedent
light off/ no light
Behavior
Close light
Jump to light
Scratch at light
Turn on light
Consequence
clicker/ food
Directions:
1) Select a target skill (single behavior)
2) Break down into successive approximations
3) Outline differential reinforcement procedure
125
Instructional Procedure #3: Chaining
Teaching a series of behaviors in a specific
order
 Linking together a series of already
mastered responses
 Completion of a step serves as cue for next
step
 Requires a task analysis

126
Forward
Backward
Global
1. Finished eating/dirty
dish
2. Take all dishes to sink
3. Plug drain
4. Turn on warm water
and fill to line
5. 2 squirts of soap
6. Place dishes in sink
7. Wipe food from dish
with sponge
8. Place dish in
dishwasher (repeat 78 till dishes gone)
9. Open soap drawer
10. Take out detergent
11. Open detergent
12. Fill dispenser with
soap
13. Close drawer
14. Close dishwasher
15. Push start button
15. Finished eating/dirty
dish
14.Take all dishes to sink
13. Plug drain
12. Turn on warm water
and fill to line
11. 2 squirts of soap
10. Place dishes in sink
9. Wipe food from dish
with sponge
8. Place dish in dishwasher
(repeat 8-9 till dishes
gone)
7. Open soap drawer
6. Take out detergent
5. Open detergent
4. Fill dispenser with soap
3. Close drawer
2. Close dishwasher
1. Push start button
4. Finished eating/dirty
dish
5. Take all dishes to sink
9. Plug drain
10. Turn on warm water
and fill to line
2. 2 squirts of soap
6. Place dishes in sink
8. Wipe food from dish
with sponge
7. Place dish in dishwasher
(repeat 7-8 till dishes
gone)
11. Open soap drawer
12. Take out detergent
13. Open detergent
1. Fill dispenser with
soap
14. Close drawer
15. Close dishwasher
3. Push start button
127
Group Activity
1.
2.
3.
4.
Perform a task analysis
Indentify Sd, behavior Consequence
Prompts you will use and fading
procedure
Forward, Backward or global
128
Instructional Procedure #4: Errorless
Learning
Keep value of reinforcer high and value of
escape/avoidance low
 Keep learner successful and
teaching/learning an improving set of
conditions
 Systematically sequence discriminations in
an easy to difficult method

129
EL method: Errorless Sequencing

Teach maximally different discriminations first then fade to more
difficult
Level of difficulty
Discrimination
Easy
Milk
triangle
Medium
Milk
soup
difficult
Milk
juice
130
Type of
Discrimination
Avoid
EL method
Auditory stimuli
Stimuli that Sound alike
• head - hand
•Nose - toes
•Put away - throw away
•Head - tummy
•nose - elbow
•Put away - give me
Proximity and
Movement
Visual stimuli
Close together discrimination
•Nose - mouth
•Sign eat - sign drink
•hit to get attention- tap to get
attention
•Stand up - Jump
•Point - touch
Stimuli that look alike
•Pen - pencil
•Tennely - Talon
•Circle - oval
•Nose - ankle
•Sign eat- sign cookie
•Hit- vocal sound
•Stand up- clap
•Point- go get
•Pen- eraser
•Tennely- Mom
•Circle - triangle
131
Group Activity
Choose one discrimination task that a
member of the group is currently working
on with a student
 Order steps to teach the discrimination in
an easy to hard sequence
 Present to class (designate 1 person to
speak and 1 person to write out steps on
public white board)

132
Instructional Procedure #5:
Intermixing trials
Intermixing Trials
1) Keep child motivated
and responding
2) Expand discrimination
learning set
1) Intermix easy and hard tasks
2) Intermix response categories
1) Using systematic stimulus
rotation
133
Behavioral momentum OR High-P Request
E(r+) EE(r+) EHE (r+) EHHEE (r+) =
Value of reinforcer
Value of escape
Not using Behavioral momentum sequence
HH (error/correction) HH (error/correction)=
Value of reinforcer
Value of escape
134
Intermix response categories
Response Category
Example Responses
Receptive (listener)
Following a direction, identifying a
spoken object/word,
Expressive/verbal (speaker)
Labeling, answering questions
Motor
Gross or fine motor movements
Imitation (echoic)
Doing what another person is doing
Requesting
Stating a want/need independent of
being asked
VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVRRMMVVVVVVVVVVVV
VVLMIMR…….LVMMIVVLLMVR…………..VVLVMIIMVVVR…...
135
Example of intermixing
Objective: When given a math concept such as counting
out a specified number, Jack will count out that number of
items from a larger set with 100% success for 4 out of 5
session.
T1: (receptive/motor) jump and hit hanging ball 5 times
T2: (expressive) what number is this?
T3: (receptive) write the number 12?
T4: (imitation) do this ….number sign on fingers
T5: (receptive) give me 12
T6: (expressive/IV) 1,2,3,……,5,6,7……
T7: (motor/receptive) jump on ball 12 times
136
Intermixing example
Process
What this looks like
Step 1. Teach new skill in isolation
X= identify water
XXX
Step 2. Intermix new skill with
easy/mastered skills
a= imitation skill
xxAxxA
Step 3. Intermix new skills with
multiple easy/mastered skills
b= Tact/Label
Xxaxxabxxabaxxbxabxxaxxab
Step 4. Fully Intermix new skill with
entire set of mastered/easy
skills
c= textual/ reading
xabxxcbxabxxcbaxaxxbcxaxxcbxc
137
Repeated Vs Distributed
Repeated
*Therapist lead
*Contrived/Structured teaching
situation
*Allows for controlled process
Typical examples: learning to
write, math worksheets, learning
musical instrument
Distributed
*Incidental teaching
*Environment dictates practice
*Natural opportunities
Examples: coat/shoes on to go
outside, requesting for fork to
eat
138
Repeated Practice
139
Selecting Therapy Targets

Foundational and functional skills

Discrepancy analysis
Review behavior path what is the ultimate
desired skill(s) how do we get there?
 VB-MAPP , ABLLS, Maurice and Green
Interventions for Children with Autism,
Work in Progress Ron Leaf

140

Group activity: S7_definition activity.17

Standard 7 quiz
141
Standard 8: Data Collection
Gather
information
Conduct
Functional
Behavior
Assessment
Create PBS
based on
results of
FBA
Create
team to
Implement
and
support
PBS
Data
collection
and analysis
142
4 Reasons Measurement Necessary
1.
2.
3.
4.
Establish current level of performance
Monitor progress
Guide instructional decisions
Communicates progress to team
143
Lacee Signing for Help
Episodes of Head Banging
% correct of Signing for help
100
100
100
100
100
96
89
80
80
4
4
80
40
20
18
15
14
12
12
8
0
1
0
2
0
3
2
0
4
5
6
7
8
9
2
10
1
11
0
12
0
13
0
14
0
15
0
16
144
1) Learner
WHO collecting data on
2) Condition
WHEN collecting data
3) Behavior
WHAT collecting data on
4) Criteria
HOW well will they perform
Example 1: When given a difficult task such as zipping coat, reading sight
words, or cleaning up materials, Jessica will request for adult assistance by saying
the persons name and asking for assistance using phrases such as “Can you help
me/ I need help/ help me please” with 100% success for 2 out of 3 consecutive
days.
145
Request for Help
100
Baseline
90
InterventionPH1
INT PH-2
INT PH-3
Phase change line
80
% correct asking for help
70
60
50
Data point
Series1
40
30
20
10
Probe
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34
Sessions
146
Provides
Greatest
amount of
Information
Is meaningful
when
interpreting
performance
Choosing
a Data
Collection
Method
Accurately
reflects
purpose of
instruction
Easily and
efficiently
collected
147
4 Types of Data Collection Methods
Type of
recording
System
Type of information
obtained
1. Event Based Count of discrete
behaviors that have
clear beginning an clear
end.
Types of
recording
system
Ways to
Perform
1) Live count
2) Permanent
product
1) Occurrence
2) Duration
3) Latency
2. Time Based
3. Levels of
Assistance
4.TaskAnalytic
148
Event Based Recording
Episode count
Start/Stop time
Total Duration
1
9:04-9:14
10 min
2
9:42-10:02
20 min
3
10:22-24
2 min
4
10:46-50
4 min
Total: 4 episodes
Total duration: 36 min
149
4 Types of Data Collection Methods
Type of
recording
System
Type of information
obtained
1. Event Based Count of discrete behaviors
that have clear beginning an
clear end.
2.Time
Based
Time based/interval
recording. Observing
behaviors for specified
length of time and
recording occurrence of
behaviors
Types of
recording
system
Ways to Perform
1) Live count
2) Permanent
product
1) Occurrence
2) Duration
3) Latency
1) Whole interval
2) partial interval
3) momentary
3. Levels of
Assistance
4.TaskAnalytic
150
Time Based Recording System
Whole interval: 30 min observation, 1 minute intervals
1
2
3
4
5
6
X
7
8
9
1
0
1
1
1
2
1
3
1
4
1
5
1
6
X X X X
1
7
1
8
1
9
2
0
2
1
2
2
2
3
2
4
X X X X
2
5
2
6
2
7
2
8
X
2
9
3
0
X X
Partial Interval: 30 min observation, 1 minute intervals
1
2
3
4
5
X X
6
7
8
9
1
0
1
1
1
2
1
3
X X X X X X
1
4
1
5
X
1
6
1
7
1
8
1
9
2
0
2
1
2
2
2
3
X X X X X X X
2
4
2
5
2
6
2
7
X X
2
8
2
9
3
0
X X X X
Momentary: 30 minute observation, time sample every 5 min
1
2
3
4
5
N
6
7
8
9
1
0
Y
1
1
1
2
1
3
1
4
1
5
Y
1
6
1
7
1
8
1
9
2
0
N
2
1
2
2
2
3
2
4
2
5
Y
2
6
2
7
2
8
2
9
3
0
Y
151
4 Types of Data Collection Methods
Type of
recording
System
Type of information
obtained
1. Event Based
2. Time Based
3. Levels of
Assistance
Types of
recording
system
Ways to Perform
1)
2)
1)
2)
3)
Occurrence
Duration
Latency
1)
2)
3)
Whole interval
partial interval
momentary
Live count
Permanent
product
Records occurrence of
behavior and level of
assistance (prompt)
required to complete
4.TaskAnalytic
152
Levels of Assistance Recording
Trial:
request
Break
(sign)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Prompt
FP+
FP+
PP-
FP+
PP+
M+
M+
I-
M+
Reasons to use this method of recording:
1. Ensures systematic fading of prompts
2. Can analyze if student has been at level of prompt too long (avoid prompt
dependency)
3. Tells you at what prompt student is performing successfully so you can ensure
errorless learning (minimize errors)
153
4 Types of Data Collection Methods
Type of
recording
System
Type of information
obtained
1. Event Based
2. Time Based
Types of
recording
system
Ways to Perform
1)
2)
1)
2)
3)
Occurrence
Duration
Latency
1)
2)
3)
Whole interval
partial interval
momentary
Live count
Permanent
product
3. Levels of
Assistance
4.TaskAnalytic
Record
correct/incorrect
responding to steps in
a chain/task
154
Task Analytic Recording
Steps
Level of assistance/ Performance
Trial 1
Trial 2
Trial 3
Trial 4
Trial 5
Trial 6
1. A
FP +
PP+
PP+
M-
M+
M+
2. U
I+
I+
I+
I+
I+
I+
3. D
I+
I+
I+
I+
I+
I+
4. R
PP+
PP+
PP+
M-
M+
M+
5. E
I+
I+
I+
I+
I+
I+
6.Y
I+
I+
I+
I+
I+
I+
155
More types of Data Collection Methods
Type
Type of Information Obtained
Use when
5. Scatter-plot
Data
Reflects occurrence and nonoccurrence of person’s behavior
across a number of environmental
variables
Consistent schedule and
can not identify
consistent, predictable
pattern of A-C relations
6. Anecdotal
Descriptive information about
learner and environmental variables
Need to back up other
sources of data or relay
additional information
7. Trail by Trial
Indicates learner performance
(correct, incorrect or correct with
prompt) for each trial
Performing discrete trial
156
Summarizing Data: 1) Frequency
Data Set without Standard Time
Base
Data Set with Standard Time Base
Episodes of head banging per session
Episodes of Head Banging per 4 hour
session
S1 (4hrs) = 39
S2 (2 hrs) =15
S3 (6 hrs)= 57
S4 (1 hr)= 3
S5 (5 hrs)= 22
S5 (2 hrs)= 5
S1 = 39
S2 =32
S3= 30
S4 =25
S5 =22
S5 =24
In order to accurately compare frequency data you MUST have a standard time
base
157
Summarizing Data
Summary
Type
When to use it
Variations/
how to report
data
1) Frequency
Events
When concerned about
1) Count
number of times behavior 2) Rate
occurs
3) Percentage
Procedure
Rate= response
time
%= response
time
Practice 1): Jonny hits his aide 12 times during a 60 minute observation.
Report this data set as count, rate and percentage. Which way BEST
represents data set
Count=
Rate=
Percentage=
158
Summarizing Data
Summary
Type
When to use it
Variations/
how to report
data
Procedure
2) Percentage
To describe accuracy
of performance or
portion of time a
behavior occurs
1) Correct
responses
2) Proportion of
time
% correct= Correct response
# of opportunities
% time= minutes engaged in TB
total # of minutes
Practice 2): Erika was able to identify 20 of her visual choice board cards
correctly out of 48 presented to her.
Practice 3): During her 20 minute computer class, Erika was on task (defined
as copying text, typing, reading directions, eyes on computer, hands on mouse
or keyboard) for a total of 12 minutes.
159
Summarizing Data
Summary
Type
When to use it
3) Rate
Determine frequency of
behavior in relation to time. Can
also reflect accuracy, speed or
fluency of behavior
Useful when # of opportunities
to perform skill vary across
sessions or time varies across
session
Variations/ Procedure
how to
report data
Rate= # of responses
total time
Practice 4): Jon threw his book 15 times during a 30 minute math class=
Practice 5) Jose stacked 15 trays in 5 minutes in job training class=
Practice 6) Beth took 25 bites of food in 2 minutes=
160
Summarizing Data
Summary
Type
When to use it
Variations/ how
to report data
Procedure
4) Duration
To measure how long a
student engages in a
behavior within a
limited time period
1)Total duration
2) Percentage of
time
Total duration= duration of TB/within
specified observation time
% of time= duration of TB
X 100
length of observation
Practice 7): During a 30 minute observation you are collecting data on how
long Daniel spends engaging in self stimulatory behaviors that include: rocking
and finger play typically done in conjunction. At the end of your 30 minute
observation you stopwatch total is 22 minutes
Total duration=
% of time=
161
Summarizing Data
Summary
Type
When to use it
5) Latency
To assess duration of
each occurrence of
response and time
between responses.
Variations/ how
to report data
Procedure
1)
2)
3)
Clearly define TB
Start stop watch when TB begins and
stop when TB ends
Record total duration of that
occurrence then reset stop watch
Practice 8): Summarize the following information:
Target Behavior: on-task during job training (defined as stacking trays, putting left over
milk in fridge, wiping tables, throwing away trash). During 30 minute observation .Fill in
total duration per incident and time between responses, what would your
objective be based on your analysis of data?
Start
Stop
1) 0:00
5:00
2) 8:00
10:00
3) 15:00
20:00
4) 23:00
26:00
5) 28:00
30:00
Total duration/
incident
latency
162
Request for Help
100
Baseline
Intervention- PH1
INT PH-2
INT PH-3
90
Phase change line
80
% correct asking for help
70
60
Data poiint
50
Series1
40
30
y- axis
20
10
X-Axis
Probe
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34
Sessions
163
1) SELF STUDY: review part F in manual regarding
how to analyze data and plan for interventions.
Know instructional decisions and example graphs
2) Standard 8 Quiz to me Wed by 8:00pm
3) Complete and email How to Teach Children with
Autism and Other Severe disabilities:12-16
(Complete activities)17-30 (Complete activities)
number each question in order they occur and
submit in email or word document
4) Once receive standard 8 quiz score respond to me
how many bonus points you will use and for
which quiz. I will then submit final P/F to ITC
164

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