Chapter 9

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Chapter 9
Salads and Garnishes
Types of Salads
5 main types (common)
1. Appetizer salad = stimulate the appetite
and have fresh, crisp ingredients, lightly
coated with a tangy, flavorful dressing ex.
Shrimp cocktail, needs to be light enough
for a first course
2. Accompaniment salad= light and flavorful,
but not too rich, complement the meal ex
potato salad, just be careful not to serve a
starchy salad if the main entrée also
contains a starch Also a heavy
accompaniment salad goes best with a
light entree
Types of Salads
3. Main Course Salad = needs to be large enough to
serve as a full meal and also contain a protein
ingredient. Ex. Chef Salad
4. Separate Course Salads = cleanse the palate
after a rich dinner and before a dessert Ex. Bibb
lettuce
5. Dessert Salad = usually sweet and often contain
fruits, sweetened gelatin, nuts, cream, and
whipped cream. Ex. Gelatin MUST BE HEARTIE
 Vegetable Salad = contains vegetables as the
main ingredients, resting on greens
Types of Salads
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Cooked Salad = contain cooked foods as
their main ingredients – meat, poultry, fish,
eggs, starches, and vegetables (can be
marinated, all ingredients must be cut
neatly)
Fruit Salad = very popular desserts or as
part of combination lunch plates
– Most fruit salads are arrange on plate
– Some fruit discolor after they are peeled – use
lemon juice to help with discoloration
– Fruits do not hold well if they have been cut and
peeled
– Dressings for fruit and usually sweet
Types of Salads
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Combination = combinations of different kinds of
ingredients or even two different kinds of salads
ex chef salad
Gelatin = extracting it from boiled bones (pg 356)
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Acid weakens the properties of gelatin
Dissolves at about 100°F
Make gelatin set up faster use half cold water
Raw pineapple and papaya should never be added to
gelatin, it contains enzymes that dissolve the gelatin
– Add solid ingredients when the gelatin is partially set
– Always drain canned fruits well
– Too much gelatin can make the salad rubbery
Four Basic Parts of a
Salad (pg. 349)
1.
2.
3.
4.
Base or underline = usually a layer of salad
greens that line the plate (iceberg for a bowl)
Body = the main ingredient (mixed veggies or
protein based)
Garnish = adds color and appeal to the salad
and sometimes flavor
Dressing = are liquids or semi-liquids used to
flavor salads, sometimes called cold sauces
because their purpose is to flavor, moisten and
enrich foods Bound Salads = because the mayo
holds, or binds the ingredients together
Description – Crabmeat-Mayo Salad on a bed of Mixed Greens served
with Garlic Croutons and Herbed Vinaigrette
Salad Greens
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Arugula = Pungent, distinctive flavor; tender,
perishable; dark green
Belgian endive = Narrow, pointed heads, 4-6
inches long; pale yellow to green to white –
good for appetizers or base of a salad
Bibb = Smaller and more delicate, dark green
outside and creamy yellow inside, sm.
Boston = Small round heads, with soft, fragile
leaves; deep green outside, white inside,
buttery texture, does not keep well excellent for
a salad base
Salad Greens
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Chicory = Narrow, curly leaves; firm texture;
bitter flavor; outside dark green, inside
yellow or white – do not serve alone use as
a base
Chinese cabbage = Long, light green heads
with broad, white center ribs; tender and
crisp, mild cabbage
Dandelion greens = Young, tender leavers;
rich green color; best in spring
Escarole = Broad, thick leaves, also in
bunches; coarse texture, slightly bitter
flavor, needs to be mixed, can be braised
Salad Greens
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Iceberg = Most popular in America, firm,
compact head with crisp, mild tasting pale green
leaves – good underliner
Loose-leaf = Grows in bunches; soft, delicate
leaves with curly edges; green or shades of red,
wilts easily, adds color
Radicchio = Attractive red-leafed Italian variety
of chicory; white ribs and small, round heads,
crunchy texture, slightly bitter
Romaine = Elongated head with dark green,
coarse leaves, crisp texture and full sweet, mild
flavor; keeps well, easy to handle, main ing. In a
Caesar Salad
Salad Greens
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Sorrel = Small to medium-sized, semi-curly,
spade-shaped leaves; white to green stems,
can be toxic in large amounts
Spinach = Dark, leafy green leaves
Sprouts = Small, round leaves on tender
stalks; delicate texture; peppery, pungent
flavor
Watercress = Small, dark green, oval
leaves; pungent, peppery flavor
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Cleaning and Preparing
Salads
Keep greens refrigerated
Clean greens thoroughly (repeat washing)
DIP THEM IN AND OUT OF WATER – DON’T SOAK
Carefully remove the core (Iceberg) –TWIST OUT
Chill all ingredients
Dry the greens
Wash your hands thoroughly
Remove any tough stems or wilted spots
Tear or cut greens
Toss the greens (dressing)
Place the salad on chilled plates
Garnish
Clean and sanitize your knives, cutting board and other
utensils – including your sink
Keep the salad chilled once it’s prepared and the plate too
9.1 Questions (pg. 358)
Write out all Questions
1.
2.
3.
The four basic parts of any salad are
the _____,_____,______&______.
Always__________canned fruits.
To make sure the salad greens will
be crisp,_____them and store them
in a ______wrapped loosely in____
_____ and ______ ______.
9.1 Questions
Continued
Match the salad with it’s description
4.
Dessert
e) Waldorf Salad
5.
Appetizer
f) Chef Salad
6.
Accompaniment
g) Classic Coleslaw
7.
Main-Course
h) Light salad w/bibb
lettuce lightly dressed with vinaigrette
8.
Separate-Course
i) Hawaiian salad w/pineapple,
marshmallows w/whip cream and almond cookie
9.
Combination
j) Petite shrimp cocktail
10.
Fruit
k) Fresh crabmeat salad with tomato
and lemon wedges and avocados
Chapter 9.2
Dressings, Dips, and
Condiments
Salad Dressings
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Basic dressing are vinaigrette, which is
made of oil and vinegar; emulsified
vinaigrette, and mayonnaise
Basic vinaigrette includes approximately
three parts oil to one part vinegar, combined
slowly until a homogeneous mixture is
formed, serve immediately
Salad dressings should e prepared in
quantities that will last no more than three
days
Emulsified Vinaigrette dressing = thick and
coat the ingredients more heavily
How to Make Emulsified
Vinaigrette Dressing
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Beat the egg yolks until they are frothy
Add a small amount of vinegar or lemon
juice
Gradually mix in 2/3 or the oil, whipping the
mixture constantly
Add the remainder of the vinegar or lemon
juice and bland well
Gradually mix in the remainder of the oil and
any additional seasoning or flavoring
ingredients
Serve the dressing at once or store it under
refrigeration
Salad Dressings
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Mayonnaise = most stable emulsified
dressing, perfect mayo is creamy, pale ivory,
but not too thick
– Mayonnaise and mayo-based dressings coat salad
ingredients and bind them together
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Bound Salad ex. Egg salad
– When portioning out use a scoop for a more
accurate measurement
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Tarragon, balsamic vinegars and olive oil
should be used sparingly in salads because
they have a strong flavor
Homemade Mayo
1
2 T.
1 t.
1 t.
¼ t.
1 C.
Egg yolk
Lemon juice
Dry mustard
Sugar
Salt
Dash of red pepper
Veg. oil
Directions (MAYO)
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Beat egg yolk, 1 T. lemon juice, mustard,
sugar salt and red pepper with mixture
MED speed just until blended
Beat in oil, 1 drop at a time; increasing
rate as the mixture thickens
Beat in remaining lemon juice and
refrigerates
Makes 1 cup
Types of Oil
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Corn Oil – light golden color, nearly
tasteless
Cottonseed oil, Soybean Oil, Canola Oil,
Safflower Oil – bland, nearly tasteless
Walnut oil – Distinctive flavor, expensive;
used mostly in elegant restaurants with
specialty salads
Olive Oil – distinctive, fruity flavor; greenish
color (different pressings)
Winterized oil = been treated so it will
remain a clear liquid when chilled
Types of Vinegars
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Cider Vinegar = made from apples, brown
color, slightly sweet taste
White/Distilled = Neutral flavor
Wine Vinegar = red or white, wine flavor
Flavored Vinegar = flavor of other products
added to it
Sherry Vinegar = Made from sherry wine
Balsamic Vinegar = Special wine vinegar
aged in wooden barrels, dark brown color,
sweet taste
Specialty Vinegar = Malt vinegar, rice
vinegar and vinegars flavored with fruits
Dips and Condiments
Condiments = cooked or prepared
flavorings, such as horseradish,
ketchup, relishes, prepared sauces
and dips.
 Dips = can be served hot or cold and
as an accompaniment to other foods
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– Guacamole – avocado dip
– Salsa – peppers, onions and tomatoes
– Hummus – chick peas with garlic and
tahini
9.2 Questions
Write out all questions and answers
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Emulsified vinaigrette contains_____, but
regular vinaigrette does not.
The normal ratio of dressing to greens in a
salad is three parts______ to one
part_____.
Freshly-made salad dressings should be
stored for only________.
The most stable emulsified dressing
is_______.
_________ dressings are thick and coat
salad ingredients more heavily.
9.2 Continued
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Indicate whether each dressing below is an oil
and vinegar dressing or a mayonnaise-based
dressing.
Louis dressing
Basic French dressing
Thousand island dressing
Dijon vinaigrette
Russian dressing
Oriental vinaigrette
Roquefort dressing
Blue cheese dressing
Italian dressing
9.3
The Art of Garnishing
Garnishing
Plating = means arranging the
presentation of food items on the
serving plate or dish.
 Classical French Garnishing = what
many modern chefs call
accompaniments = to a main entrée
(pg. 366 – you need to know them)
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Common Garnishes
Pg. 368
Parsley
Cucumbers
Mushroom Caps – to keep them white simmer them is
salted water with butter and lemon juice
Radishes
Scallion Brushes
Pickles
Frosted Grapes
Lemons – dip edges in paprika for color
Toast Points
Edible Flowers = pansy, primrose, rose petals,
violets – washed thoroughly
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Consommés = rich, clarified stocks or
broths, are named after their garnishes ex
consommé julienne
Toppings for soup:
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Chopped parsley of chives
Toasted, sliced almonds
Grated cheese
Sieved egg yolks
Chopped hard-cooked eggs
Croutons
Crumble bacon
Paprika
Dollop= small scoop or spoonful or sour cream
or whipped cream
Profiterole = tiny, unsweetened cream puff
shells
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Lets think about what each group is
going to be making on Thursday for
their salads
– Crab
– Chick
– Tuna
– Fruit
– Pasta
– Gelatin
– Veggies
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Each group must pick one main
ingredient
9.3 Questions
Write out the entire question and answer
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If you went with several friends to a formal
French restaurant and your friends asked
you to describe the following items
Beef Filet Crecy
Eggs Florentine
Filet of Sole Provencal
Chicken Vichy
Beef Tips Lyonnais
9.3 Continued
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For each garnish listed below, list one
word that describes its color
Tomato wedges
Parsley
Fluted lemon slices
Radish roses
Pickle fans
For each of the following entrees, choose
an appropriate garnish based on color and
EXPLAIN YOUR ANSWER
Veal with marinara sauce
Scrambled eggs
Green bean casserole
Black bean soup
Broiled catfish

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