Sustainable Development

Report
Pollution
1. Pollution is gift of Civilization and Urbanization
2. The rapid growing population and economic
development are leading to the environmental
degradation in India
3. The main reason is the uncontrolled growth of
Urbanization and industrialization
Major Issues are:
 Forest and agricultural land degradation
 Resource depletion (Water, minerals, forest, sand,
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rocks etc.)
Environmental degradation
Public health
Loss of Biodiversity
Loss of resilience in ecosystems,
livelihood Security for poor.
•It is estimated that the India’s population will increase to 1.26
billion by the year 2016.
• than India will become the first most populous country in the
world and China will be the second in 2050.
•India having 18% of the world's population on 2.45 of world’s total
area has greatly increased the pressure on its natural resources.
Leads to
Water shortages, soil exhaustion and erosion,
deforestation, air and water pollution
Water
pollution
Out of India’s 3,119
towns and cities,
just 209 have
partial treatment
facilities (WHO,
1992)
Water
pollution
Out of India’s 3,119
towns and cities,
just 209 have
partial treatment
facilities (WHO,
1992)
Hazards of Water Pollution
 Biological Hazards:
 Chemical Hazards:
Viral diseases: Hepatitis,
Polio etc,
Bacterial Diseases: Cholera,
Typhoid,
Paratyphoid,1,000 Indian
children die of diarrheal
sicknesses every day.
Helmintheic: Round worm,
Hock worm, Whip worm
Host transmitting Diseases:
Cyclops, etc
Rapid Poisoning: Deaths of
animal after drinking the
polluted water.
Slow poisoning: Due to be in
contact for a long time
with sub-lethal exposure
leads to ulcer, tumer
formation, or even cancer
Air
Pollution
Old diesel engines
and vehicles and
Industries. A
forestation and
more and more
emmision of CO2
Noise
pollution
The supreme court
of India gave a
significant verdict on
noise pollution in
2005. Unnecessary
horning of vehicles,
Use of loudspeakers
for political
purposes.
Land
Pollution
Land pollution
in India is due
to pesticides
and fertilizers
as well as
corrosion
Social
Economic
Environment
Scheme of sustainable Development at the
confluence of three constituent parts
•Pollution control and
Remediation
•Resource
Conservation and
Management
•Planning Land Use
and Infrastructure.
Sustainable development is a pattern of resource use that
aims to meet human needs while preserving the
environment so that theses needs can be met not only in
the present, but also for future generations.
“Meets the needs of the present without compromising the
ability of future generations to meet their own needs.”
Development
Environment
Wastewater
Treatment
Renewable
Energy Sources
Control of
Eutrophication
Pollution
control
Prospective
Town Planning
Forest
Conservation
Environmental
Laws
Land fill
Solid waste
Disposal
Xenobiotics
Degradation
Environmental
Education
Ecofrindly
Technologies
Prospective Town-Planning
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Proper wide roads
Avoiding windings of roads
Avoiding encroachments
Industrial zoning
Open reserve lands
Places demarcated for gardens
Construction of lakes
Industrial sectors
Under ground drainages
Need for ideal city.
Non Conventional
Energy
• Fuel Biotechnology
The use of biological agent (or their components) to
convert diffuse and inconvenient to use sources of
energy e.g. biomass and sunlight, into more- energy
dense and convenient to use fuel e.g. methane,
ethanol, butane, biodiesel and hydrogen, carbon
dioxide constitutes fuel biotechnology.
Energy consumption in developing and
developed countries
Features
Energy consumption/
person/ yr.
( GJ;* rough estimate)
Total energy consumption
(by all countries; GJ)
Energy from non-renewable
sources
(coal, oil, nuclear)**
Energy from biomass
Developing
Countries
5-10
Developed
countries
>5000
92 X 109
208 X 109
Ca. 57%
Ca. 96%
Ca. 42%
Ca. 2%
Advantages of Biofuels
 Most of the Biofuels are derived from biomass, which
is renewable, low cost and locally available entailing
little or no commitment of foreign exchange.
 In general, they lead to relatively low CO2 omission
than fossil fuels.
 They do not contribute to environmental pollution due
to gases like SO2 etc.
 The substrate is often a waste material like municipal
waste, etc.
Some energy crops and the predominant
mode of their utilization
Nature of
Biomass
Plant species
Estimated
annual
production
Predominan
t mode of
energy use
Wood(oligocellulose)
Butea monosperma, Casurina
equisetifolia, Eucalyptus globulus,
Leucaena leucocephala, Melia
azadirachta, Tamarix dioica.
1.3 X 10 10
Firewood
( ca,50% of
harvest)
Starch
Cereals, millets, r oot and tuber crops,
e.g. potato.
1.9 X 10 9
Bioethanol
Sugar
Sugarcane, Sugar beet
1.2 X 10 8
Bioethanol
(Brazil)
Hydrocarbons
Euphorbia lathyris, Asclepia speciosa,
Copaifera multijuga, algae
--
Biodiesel
Wastes**
Crop residues, animal/ human refuge,
sewage etc.
--
Biogas
Hydrogen*
Algae like Chlamydomonas. Anaerobic
bacteria like Clostridium.
--
Strored as
metal
Non-conventional Renewable
energy sources
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Solar energy
Tidal energy
Wood
Sugar and starch crops
Hydrocarbon producing
crops
 Biomass
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Biogas
Bioethanol
Bioethanol
Biobutinol
Biodiesel
 From lipids
 From hydrocarbons
 Biohydrogen
 Anaerobic Bacteria
 Photosynthetic algae
Solid waste Management
The most sensitive issue of the society
Solid wastes
It is the solid material which is of no use to us therefore it is to be disposed off. It
includes:
• Garbage (food wastes)
• Rubbish (paper, Plastic, wood, metal, thrown-away containers, glass)
• demolition products (bricks, masonry, pipes)
• Sewage treated residues (sludge and sand)
• Dead animals, manure and other discarded material (with night soil)
Production of solid waste is Per Capita 0.25 to 2.5 Kg per day
It decomposes and favours fly breeding
It attracts rodents and vertebrates
The pathogens which may be present in the solid
wastes may be convey back to man’s food through flies
and dust
There is a possibility of water and soil pollution and
Heaps of refuse present an unsightly appearce and
nuisance from bad odours
Sources of Refuse
 Refuse that is collected by the
street cleaning or scavenging is
called ‘street refuse’
 Refuse that is collected from
market ids called ‘market
refuse’
 Refuse that is collected from
stable is called ‘stable litter’
 ‘Industrial refuse’ comprises of
a wide variety of wastes ranging
from very inert substances to
highly toxic substances
 ‘Domestic refuse’ consists of
rubbish and garbage, it gets
putrefied and leads to other
problems.
Composition of Solid waste
Treatment and Disposal

Steps involved are:
Storage
2. Collection
3. Transportation
4. Disposal
1.
Storage
 The first step is proper
storage of the solid
waste
 The capacity of the bin
depends on the
number of family
members
 It should be properly
covered
 The public bins should
be placed on a
platform
Collection
 According to
Environmental Hygiene
Committee (1949) the
municipalities and local
bodies should collect the
waste
 It is to collected through the
covered trucks
Methods of Disposal
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Dumping
Controlled Tipping or Sanitary land-fills
Ingeneration
Composting
Manure Pits
Burial
Indian Scenario
 In 1999, the Indian Ministry of
Environment and Forests banned the use
and sale of plastic bags less than 20-microns
thick.
 The Municipal Solid Wastes (management
& handling) Rules 2000, mandate recycling
of dry waste & waste segregation at source.
Formulation of Action –
Plan for Management of Municipal Solid Waste
 Implementation of Municipal Solid Waste (Management &
Handling ) Rules, 2000
 Since it was slow because of lack of founds and management
guidelines
 Ministry of Environment and forest (MoEF) has stressed on
formulation of the time bound action plan for municipal
solid waste management (MSWM) for metro cities and state
capitals to begin with.
Infectious Hospital Wastes
Hospital Waste Management
 The wastes produced in the course of health-care
activities carries as higher potential for infection and
injury than any other type of waste. Therefore it is
essential to have safe and reliable method for its
handling. Inadequate and inappropriate handling of
health care waste may have serious public health
consequences and a significant impact of the
environment.
Composition of Bio-Medical Wastes
Waste-water Management
Waste water Management
 Approximately 80% of the water supplied for domestic
use passes as wastewater or sewage.
 It is mandatory to bring about the waste water
treatment so that it don’t pollute the atmosphere.
 It will solve the water shortage problems
Sewage
 Typical Domestic Sewage Consists
of:
 Water
: 99-99.9%
 Suspended Solids
: 0.02- 0.3%
 Soluble organic compounds
 Soluble Inorganic compounds
 Colloidal Substances
 Microorganisms
 Parasites
Wastewater treatment and Disposal
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Primary treatment( Physical)
Screening
2. Mixing
3. Flocculation
4. Sedimentation
5. Filtration
6. Micro-screening
1.
Waste water treatment
 Secondary Treatment
 Aerobic treatment
 Anaerobic
 Final treatment
 Use of chlorine
 Ozone
 Other disinfectants
Results in
Pure Drinking water
Water
“No life without water”
Safe and wholesome water
 Free from pathogenic
agents
 Free from harmful
chemical substances
 Pleasant foe taste, i.e. free
from color and odour. And
 Useable for domestic
purposes
Requirement of water
 The basic physiological
requirements for drinking
water – 2 lit. per head per
day.
 In India 40 lits. of water
supply per day per capita
was set to be the target.
Uses of water
1. Domestic uses: drinking, cooking, washing and bathing,
flushing of toilets, and gardening
2. Public purposes: Cleaning streets, recreational purposes
like swimming pools, fountains etc
3. Industrial purposes: for processes and cooling
4. Agricultural: irrigation
5. Power production from hydropower
Sources of Water Supply
Rain
Surface water
1.
2.
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Impounded reservoirs
Rivers and streams
Tanks, ponds and Lakes
Ground water
3.
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Shallow wells
Deep wells
Springs
 Sewage
 Industrial wastes
 Agricultural wastes
 Physical Pollutants
Purification of water on large Scale
 The purpose of water treatment is to produce water
that is safe and wholesome. It is done by following
steps
 Storage
 Filtration
 Disinfection
1. Storage
 Water is drawn out from the source and impounded
in natural or artificial reservoirs
 As a result of storage considerable purification takes
place
 This natural purification takes by the following
steps
 Physical
 Chemical and
 Biological
2. Filtration
Filtration is the second stage of water purification and
quite important because 98 to 99% of the bacteria and
solid and colloidal suspended impurities are removed. It
is of two types
1.
2.
Biological or slow sand filters
Rapid or Mechanical filters.
Slow Sand or Biological Filters
 Elements of a Slow Sand Filters
 Supernatant (raw) water
 A bed of graded sand
 An under-drainage system, and
 A system of filter control valves
Rapid Sand or Mechanical Filters
 The following steps are involved in the purification of water by rapid sand
filters;
Filter Bed
Chlorination Process
3. Disinfection
 The chemical disinfectant is essential to kill the
pathogenic agent present in the water.
 An ideal disinfectant should have the following
criteria:
 It should be capable of destroying the pathogenic organisms
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present
Should not leave the products of reaction which gives colour,
odour or poisonous effects.
Should be easily available, cheap, and easily to apply
It should leave some residual concentration to deal small
concentration of recontaminations if any.
Be remainable to detection by practical, rapid and simple
analytical techniques in the small concentration.
Chlorination
Chlorination is the greatest advancement in the water
purification
 Chlorine kills bacteria and other pathogenic forms
 It oxidizes iron, manganese, and hydrogen sulphites
 It destroys some taste and odour producing components
 It controls algae and slime organisms and
 Aids coagulation
Action of Chlorine
When chlorine is added in water there is formation of
hydrochloric and hypochloric acids. The hypochloric
acid ionizes to form hydrogen ions and hypochlorite
ions as follows:
H2O + Cl2
HOCl
HCl + HOCl
H + OCl
The disinfecting action of chlorine is mainly due to the
hypochlorus acid.
Methods of Chlorination
For disinfecting large bodies of water, chlorine is
applied either as:
1.
2.
3.
Chlorine gas
Chlorine or
Per chlorination
OZONE HOLE TOUR
WHAT IS OZONE ?
 Ozone O3 is a molecule containing three oxygen
atoms.
 Ozone is a naturally occuring component of the
stratosphere.
 It is very pale bluish with an acid (pungent
smelling) odour.
 Ozone is much less common than normal oxygen.
 Out of each 10 million air molecules, about 2
million are normal oxygen, but only 3 are ozone.
OZONE LAYER
 The ozone layer is a layer
in Earth's atmosphere
which contains relatively
high concentrations of
ozone (O3). This layer
absorbs 93-99% of the
sun's high frequency
ultraviolet light, which is
potentially damaging to
life on earth
The Process of Ozone Depletion
 The ozone depletion process begins when
CFCs and other ozone-depleting
substances (ODS) are emitted into the
atmosphere(1). Winds efficiently mix the
troposphere and evenly distribute the
gases. CFCs are extremely stable, and
they do not dissolve in rain. After a period
of several years, ODS molecules reach the
stratosphere, about 10 kilometers above
the Earth's surface (2).
 Strong UV light breaks apart the ODS molecule. CFCs, HCFCs, carbon
tetrachloride, methyl chloroform, and other gases release chlorine atoms,
and halons and methyl bromide release bromine atoms (3). It is these
atoms that actually destroy ozone, not the intact ODS molecule. It is
estimated that one chlorine atom can destroy over 100,000 ozone
molecules before it is removed from the stratosphere (4).
Effects of ozone layer depletion on humans
 . Basal and Squamous Cell Carcinomas
 Malignant Melanoma
 Cortical Cataracts
 Increased Tropospheric Ozone
 Effects on crops
World Ozone Day
 In 1994, the United Nations General Assembly voted to
designate the 16th of September as "World Ozone Day", to
commemorate the signing of the Montreal Protocol on that
date in 1987
 2006 is the largest area and has the thinnest
recorded levels of ozone
 40 million tonnes of ozone lost during the 2006
southern hemisphere winter
“Water bodies are not the waste bodies”
This will happen with us also!
Effect of nutrients on eutrophic growth
Eutrophication control may have two
strategies:
 If water-body has already reached to high
strophic status, only solution could be control
the algal growth by algaecides and aerate the
water-body
 Identify the sources of nutrients and
preventing their reaching the water-body.
Control of Eutrophication
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Treatment of wastewater from surrounding areas.
The water bodies should be in use for swimming, boating and other
activities so that it will be oxidized.
The runoff water should be prevented to enter.
The drainage be constructed properly so that waste water do not get stored
or percolates in to lakes to increase the nitrogen and phosphorus contents.
If planktons are growing in the water bodies, they should be removed
physically
Removal of settled organic matters from the bottom to make it more
deep.
Removing the harmful substances produced by the planktons
Removal of dirty smell, colour , and turbidity
Preventing the growth of microorganisms by addition of chlorine, ozone,
aeration, etc.
Sustenance of virginity of the water bodies
A Increasing Challenge…..?
Xenophobic Organic Compounds
Save our environment……..
Xenobiotics
 xenobiotics is very often used in the context of
pollutants such as dioxins and polychlorinated
biphenyls
The Xenobiotic compounds may be recalcitrant due to one or more of
the following reasons:
(i) they are not recognized as substrate by the existing
degradative1enzymes,
(ii) they are highly stable, i.e., chemically and biologically
inert due to the presence of substitution groups like
halogens, nitro-, sulphonate, amino-, methoxy- and
carbamyl groups,
(iii) they are insoluble in water, or are adsorbed to external
matrices like soil,
(iv) they are highly toxic or give rise to toxic products due to
microbial activity,
(v) their large molecular size prevents entry into microbial
cells,
(vi) inability of the compounds to induce the synthesis of
degrading enzymes, and
(vii) lack of the permease needed for their transport into
the microbial cells.
. Types of Recalcitrant Xenobiotic
The recalcitrant xenobiotic compounds can be grouped
into the following 6 types:
(i) halocarbons,
(ii) polychlorinated biphenyls,
(iii) synthetic polymers,
(iv) alkylbenzyl sulphonates,
(v) oil mixture and
(vi) others.( a number of pesticides are based on
aliphatic, cyclic and carbonyl groups containing
halogens,
The structures of some recalcitrant
(xenobiotic) organic compounds
The structure of Alkylbenzane sulphonate
Duration of persistence of insecticides and herbicides in soil
Biocides
Time taken for 50 to 75% disappearance
Chlorinated Insecticides
DDT
4 years
Aldrine
3 years
Chlordane
5 years
Heptaclor
2 years
Lindane(hexachlohexane)
3 years
Organophosphate insecticides
Diaznon
12 years
Malathion
1 week
Parathion
1 week
2,4,-D
4 weeks
2,4,5- T
30 weeks
Atrazine
40 weeks
Simazine
48 weeks
Propazine
1.5 years
Herbicides
Hazards from Xenobiotics
The xenobiotics present a number of potential hazards to man and the
environment which are briefly listed below.
 1. Toxicity. Many xenobiotics like halogenated and aromatic hydrocarbons are
toxic to bacteria, lower eukaryotes and even humans. At low concentrations they
may cause various skin problems and reduce reproductive potential.
 2. Carcinogenicity. Certain halogenated hydrocarbons have been shown to be
carcinogenic.
 3. Many xenobiotics are recalcitrant and persist in the environment so that there is
a build up in their concentration with time.
 4. Many xenobiotics including DDT and PCB's are recalcitrant and lipophilic; as a
consequence they show bioaccumulation or biomagnification often by
General Features of Biodegradation of
Xenobiotics
Degradation of alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons
generally occurs as follows:
i)
ii)
iii)
iv)
An oxygenase first introduce a hydroxyl group to make the compound reactive;
The hyroxyl group is then oxidized to a group to make the compound reactive;
The ring structure is open.;
The linear molecule is degraded by beta oxidation.
Phases of detoxification
Phase I – modification
Phase II – conjugation
Phase III - further modification and excretion
Oxidation of aromatic hydrocarbons initiated by the action of a dioxygenase
Microbial Degradation of Xenobiotics
 Organophosphates: these are most extensively used
insecticides.
biodegradation through hydrolysis of p-o-oxyl bonds by
Pseudomonas diminuts and Flavobacterium ore.
 Organomercurials: are degraded by Aspergillus,
Penicillum, and Trichoderma.
 Pentachlorophenol (PCP): (Broad Spectrum biocide,
algicide, disinfectant) Flavobacterium (ATCC39723) and
P. chrysosporium.
 DDT: Most common insecticides degraded by
Aspergillus flavous, Fusarium oxysorium, Mucor
aternous, P. chrysooxysporium,Trichoderma viride etc
Gene Manipulation of Pesticide- degrading
Microorganisms
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Chakraborty and Gunalus (1971): SHOWED Camphur
degrading Gene of Pseudomonas putida through
Plasmid. Other bacteria proved effective are:
Flavobacterium sp.
Pseudomonas parathion
P. chrysosporium
Gliocladium vireus.
What can be done…….?
Insecticides may
be replaced
Soft Insecticides
Readily Degradable
Pesticides
Biopesticides
New approaches for control of Recalcitrant
organic compounds
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Avoid use of plastics/ replace it by Biodegradable plastics.
Avoid cosmetics and other such products
Plastic coatings on automobiles
No laminations
No synthetic clothes
No polymers
Than what to do?
Search for Ecofriendly
“everything”…………
.
Avoid using Xenobiotics or
search for degradables
Thank you
Save Your Environment

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