Pragmatics, timeline and major players

Report
Pragmatics, timeline and major players
语用学:历史线条与主要代表
Shaozhong Liu, Ph.D. (Pragmatics) / Ph.D. (Higher Education)
School of Foreign Studies, Guilin University of Electronic Technology
Homepage: www.gxnu.edu.cn/Personal/szliu
Blog: cyrusliu.blog.163.com
Email: [email protected]
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Teaching Plan
• Objectives
1) To familiarize students with the big picture of pragmatics so
that they know who are there and where they are.
2) To impress students with a vertical knowledge of the field
so that they know the most recent developments.
2) To create a sense of urgency so that students know what to
do in the days to come.
• Content
1) Timeline
2) Most influential names
3) Most influential works / projects
4) Current status / enterprises, if possible.
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• Strategies
1) lecture
2) Pictures
3) Scripts
4) Video-clips
5) Discussions
6) Assignment
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Timeline of pragmatics
• As a word, pragmatics appeared 2000 years
ago. Back there, it was spelt as pragmaticus
in Greek and pragmaticos in Latin.
• As a term, it was initially employed by
Charles William Morris. In 1938, this
American professor of philosophy published
an article entitled The Foundations of the
Theory of Signs. This is often referred to as
the modern use of the word pragmatics.
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• There have been several boosters to elevate pragmatics
towards an independent discipline. These include, among
other things, John Austin’s William James Lectures at
Harvard University in 1955. In 1962, his lectures sheets
were collected and reprinted as a pamphlet entitled How
to Do Things with Words. John Searle, professor of
philosophy at the University of California at Berkeley,
continued Austin’s discussion and published Speech Acts
(1969) and Indirect Speech Acts (1975). Herbert Paul Grice
who gave a serial of speeches at the William James
Lectures at Harvard University in 1967 about “Logic and
Conversation” (which appeared in 1975) was also one of
the pioneers that help boost the development of
pragmatics.
• Pragmatics was established as an independent discipline
with the publishing of the Journal of Pragmatics co-edited
by Hartmut Haberland and Jacob L. Mey in 1977.
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• Afterward reinforcers or events that helped to strengthen
pragmatics as a branch of linguistics include:
• Stephen Levinson’s Pragmatics (1983);
• Geoffrey Leech’s Principles of Pragmatics (1983);
• the publishing of the International Pragmatics
Association’s (IPrA) official organs Pragmatics, and
Pragmatics and Beyond, under the care of its General
Secretary Jef Verschueren;
• Dan Sperber and Deirdre Wilson’s Relevance: Cognition
and Communication (1986, 1995);
• Jef Verschueren’s Pragmatics as a Theory of Linguistic
Adaptation (1987);
• Georgia M. Green’s Pragmatics and Natural Language
Understanding (1989);
• Shoshana Blum-Kulka and Juliane House’s Cross-cultural
Pragmatics (1989);
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• Steven Davis’s Pragmatics: A Reader (1991);
• Gabriele Kasper, S. Blum-Kulka & J. House’s
Interlanguage Pragmatics (1992);
• Jacob Mey’s Pragmatics: An Introduction
(1993);
• Jenny Thomas’s Meaning in Interaction: An
Introduction to Pragmatics (1995);
• George Yule’s Pragmatics (1996); and
• Jef Verschueren’s Understanding Pragmatics
(2002).
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1930s
• As a term, it was initially employed by
Charles William Morris. In 1938, this
American professor of philosophy published
an article entitled The Foundations of the
Theory of Signs. This is often referred to as
the modern use of the word pragmatics.
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• "Pragmatics" was defined by Charles W. Morris
(1938) as the branch of semiotics that studies the
relation of signs to interpreters, in contrast with
semantics, which studies the relation of signs to
designata. In practice, it has often been treated
as a repository for any aspect of utterance
meaning beyond the scope of existing semantic
machinery, as in the slogan "Pragmatics =
meaning minus truth conditions" (Gazdar 1979).
There has been some doubt about whether it is a
homogeneous domain (Searle, Kiefer, and
Bierwisch 1980).
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Charles William Morris
http://morrisedition.lib.uiowa.edu/imagesmorris.html
Dr. Charles Morris
Born
May 23, 1901 (1901-05-23)
Denver, Colorado
Nationality
United States
Fields
Semiotics
Philosophy
Institutions
Rice University
University of Chicago
University of Florida
Alma mater
University of Chicago
Northwestern University
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• Charles W. Morris (May 23, 1901, Denver,
Colorado – January 15, 1979, Gainesville,
Florida) was an American semiotician and
philosopher.
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• Background
• A son of Charles William and Laura (Campbell) Morris, Charles
William Morris was born on May 23, 1901. Having briefly attended
the University of Wisconsin, Morris studied engineering and
psychology at Northwestern University, where he graduated with a
B.S. in 1922. Later that same year, he entered the University of
Chicago where he became a doctoral student in philosophy under
the direction of George Herbert Mead. Morris completed his
dissertation on a symbolic theory of mind and received a Ph.D. from
the University of Chicago in 1925. In the same year he married
Gertrude E. Thompson, with whom he had a daughter, Sally Morris
Petrilli. In 1951 he married his second wife, Ellen Ruth Allen (a
psychologist). After his graduation, Morris turned to teaching, first
at Rice University, and later at the University of Chicago. In 1958 he
became Research Professor at the University of Florida. His
students included semiotician Thomas A. Sebeok. In 1937 Morris
presided over the Western Division of the American Philosophical
Association, and was Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and
Sciences. Charles William Morris died on January 15, 1979 in
Gainesville, Florida.
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• Teaching and the Unity of Science Movement
• Morris was an instructor of philosophy for six
years between 1925-1931 at Rice University in
Houston, Texas.[1] After leaving Rice, he was
associate professor of philosophy at the
University of Chicago from 1931-1947. Morris
became a lecturing professor at Chicago in
1948, occupying the position until 1958 when
he received an offer for a special appointment
as a Research Professor at the University of
Florida, where he remained until his death.
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• During his time at Rice University, Morris wrote and
defended his philosophical perspective known as neopragmatism. He also worked on and published Six
Theories of Mind.[2] At the end of his term at Rice,
Morris returned to the University of Chicago. In the
early 1930s, the University of Chicago's philosophy
department was unstable, but in the midst of change
and difficult economic times, Morris felt that
philosophy would serve as a torch that would light the
way to saving world civilization.[2]Morris had hoped to
create an institute of philosophy at the University of
Chicago, but his efforts to convince the university
president of such a venture were unsuccessful.
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• While on sabbatical from the University of Chicago in 1934, Morris
traveled abroad, visiting Europe and meeting working philosophers such
as Bertrand Russell and members of the Vienna Circle like Rudolf Carnap,
Otto Neurath, and Moritz Schlick. Morris was greatly impressed with the
logical positivist (logical empiricist) movement. While presenting a paper
in Prague at the Eighth International Congress of Philosophy, he discussed
his hopes for a union of pragmatism and positivism.[2] Sympathetic to the
positivist's philosophical project, Morris became the number one
American advocate for the "Unity of Science Movement" led by Otto
Neurath. During the 1930s, Morris helped several German and Austrian
philosophers emigrate to the United States, including Rudolf Carnap in
1936. As a part of the "Unity of Science Movement," Morris worked
closely with Neurath and Carnap to produce the International
Encyclopedia of Unified Science. As co-editor of the Encyclopedia, Morris
procured publication in America from the University of Chicago Press. His
involvement with the Encyclopedia spanned for ten years when the
project lost momentum in 1943.[2] Both Morris and Carnap found it
difficult to keep the Encyclopedia alive due to insufficient funds. In the
latter part of the 1940s, Morris was finally able to secure funding that
allowed the project to last until its final publication in the 1970s.
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• Morris and semiotics
• Morris's development of a behavioral theory
of signs (semiotics) is partly due to his desire
to unify logical positivism with behavioral
empiricism and pragmatism.[3] Morris's union
of these three philosophical perspectives
eventuated in his claim that symbols have
three types of relations:
• to objects,
• to persons , and
• to other symbols.
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• He later called these relations "semantics", "pragmatics",
and "syntactics".[3] Viewing semiotics as a way to bridge
philosophical outlooks, Morris grounded his sign theory in
Mead's social behaviorism. In fact, Morris's interpretation
of an interpretant, a term used in the semiotics of Charles
Sanders Peirce, has been understood to be strictly
psychological.[4] Morris's system of signs emphasizes the
role of stimulus and response in the orientation,
manipulation, and consummation phases of action. His
mature semiotic theory is traced out in Signs, Language,
and Behavior. Morris's semiotic is concerned with
explaining the tri-relation between syntactics, semantics,
and pragmatics in a dyadic way, which is very different from
the semiotics of C.S. Peirce. This caused some to argue that
Morris misinterpreted Peirce by converting the interpretant
into a logically existent thing.[4]
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• Morris Collection at the Institute for American
Thought at IUPUI
• Toward the end of his life in 1976, Morris sent two
installments of his work to the Institute for American
Thought (IAT) at Indiana University Purdue University
Indianapolis (IUPUI). Three years later in 1979, Morris's
daughter, Sally Petrilli, arranged to have additional
installments of his work sent to IUPUI. In 1984 Italian
philosopher Ferruccio Rossi-Landi added to the Morris
collection at IUPUI by sending his correspondence with
Charles W. Morris. Among the vast Morris collection at
the IAT are 381 titles of books and journal articles
regarding pragmatism, logical empiricism, poetry,
ethics, and Asian studies.
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•
•
•
•
References
American philosophy
List of American philosophers
^ Reisch, George A. “Morris, Charles William (1901-79)”.
Dictionary of Modern American Philosophers Vol. 3. Ed.
Shook. England. Thoemmes. 2005.
• ^ a b c d Reisch, George A. Guide to the Charles W. Morris
Collection at the Peirce Edition Project, IUPUI. Created for
the Indiana Scholarly Editions Consortium. Unpublished
manuscript. 2001.
• ^ a b Posner, Roland. “Charles Morris and the Behavioral
Foundations of Semiotics.” Classics of Semiotics. Ed.
Krampen. Plemun Press. New York: 1987. pp. 25.
• ^ a b Dewey, John. “Peirce's Theory of Linguistic Signs,
Thought, and Meaning.” The Journal of Philosophy, Vol. 43,
No. 4 (Feb. 14, 1946), pp.85-95.
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• Bibliography of Charles W. Morris
• Institute for American Thought
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1940s
• Yehoshua Bar-Hillel
• Rudolph Carnap
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Yehoshua Bar-Hillel
• Yehoshua Bar-Hillel (Hebrew: ‫הלל‬-‫; יהושע בר‬
1915in Vienna – 1975 in Jerusalem) was an
Israeli philosopher, mathematician, and
linguist at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem,
best known for his pioneering work in
machine translation and formal linguistics.
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• Biography
• Born Oscar Westreich, he was raised in Berlin.
In 1933 he emigrated to Palestine with the
Bnei Akiva youth movement, and briefly
joined the kibbutz Tirat Zvi before settling in
Jerusalem and marrying Shulamith.
• During World War II, he served in the Jewish
Brigade of the British Army. He fought with
the Haganah during the Israeli War of
Independence, losing an eye.
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• Bar-Hillel received his PhD in Philosophy from the Hebrew
University where he also studied mathematics under
Abraham Fraenkel, with whom he eventually coauthored
Foundations of Set Theory (1958, 1973).
• Bar-Hillel was a major disciple of Rudolf Carnap, whose
Logical Syntax of Language much influenced him. He began
a correspondence with Carnap in the 1940s, which led to a
1950 postdoc under Carnap at the University of Chicago,
and to his collaborating on Carnap's 1952 An Outline of the
Theory of Semantic Information.
• Bar-Hillel then took up a position at MIT, leaving in 1953
just before Noam Chomsky's arrival. At MIT, Bar-Hillel was
the first academic to work full-time in the field of Machine
Translation; he organised the first International Conference
on Machine Translation in 1952. Later he expressed doubts
that general-purpose fully automatic high-quality machine
translation would ever be feasible.[1][2] He was also a
pioneer in the field of information retrieval.
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• In 1953, Bar-Hillel joined the philosophy
department at the Hebrew University, where he
taught until his untimely death at age 60. His
teachings and writings strongly influenced an
entire generation of Israeli philosophers and
linguists, including Asa Kasher and Avishai
Margalit. In 1953, he founded a pioneering
algebraic-computational linguistic group, and in
1961 he contributed to the proof of the pumping
lemma for context-free languages (sometimes
called the Bar-Hillel lemma). Bar-Hillel helped
found the Hebrew University's department of
Philosophy of Science. From 1966 to 1968 BarHillel presided over the International Association
of Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science.
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• Bar-Hillel's daughter Maya Bar-Hillel is a cognitive
psychologist at the Hebrew University, known for
her collaborations with Amos Tversky and for her
role in critiquing Bible code study. His other
daughter, Mira Bar-Hillel, is the property and
planning correspondent for the London Evening
Standard. His granddaughter, Gili Bar-Hillel, is the
Hebrew translator of the Harry Potter series.
• Related terms
• Categorial grammar
• Indexical expression
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• Selected bibliography
• 1954 - Indexical Expressions, in: Mind, Vol. 63, Pp. 359–
379.
• 1958 - (with Abraham Fraenkel) Foundations of Set
Theory. 2nd ed. (also with Azriel Levy and Dirk van
Dalen), 1973.
• 1964 - Language and Information
• 1970 - Aspects of Language: Essays and Lectures on
Philosophy of Language, Linguistic Philosophy and
Methodology of Linguistics
• 1972 - Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science
(Editor)
• 1975 - Pragmatics of Natural Languages (Editor)
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• Yehoshua Bar-Hillel: Out of the Pragmatic
Wastebasket. Linguistic Inquiry, Vol. 2, No. 3
(Summer, 1971), pp. 401-407.
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• Links
• "Yehoshua Bar-Hillel: A Philosopher's Contribution to
Machine Translation"
• "Bar-Hillel and Machine Translation: Then and Now."
• Bar-Hillel Colloquium.
• Translation Trouble: Time Magazine article from 1954.
• Categories: 1915 births | 1975 deaths | Austrian Jews |
Hebrew University of Jerusalem alumni | Hebrew
University of Jerusalem faculty | Jews in Ottoman and
British Palestine | Israeli Jews | Israeli linguists | Israeli
philosophers | Jewish philosophers | Philosophers of
language | Mathematical logicians | Members of the
Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities
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Rudolph Carnap
Full name
Rudolf Carnap
Born
May 18, 1891(1891-05-18)
Ronsdorf, Lennep, Düsseldorf, Rhine, Prussia, Germany
Died
September 14, 1970(1970-09-14) (aged 79)
Santa Monica, California, USA
Era
20th-century philosophy
Region
Western Philosophy
School
Analytic
Main interests
Logic, Epistemology, Philosophy of Science, Semantics
Notable ideas
Physicalism, Phenomenalism, Analytic-synthetic distinction,
Modal Logic, Constructed language, Conceptual Schemes,
Logical Positivism
Influenced by[show]
•Gottlob Frege, Immanuel Kant, Albert Einstein, Ernst Mach, Bertrand Russell, Edmund Husserl, Ludwig Wittgenstein
Influence on[show
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• Rudolf Carnap (May 18, 1891 – September 14,
1970) was an influential German-born
philosopher who was active in Europe before
1935 and in the United States thereafter. He
was a major member of the Vienna Circle and
an advocate of logical positivism.
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• Life and work
Carnap was born to a west German family that had been humble until
his parents' generation. He began his formal education at the Barmen
Gymnasium. From 1910 to 1914, he attended the University of Jena,
intending to write a thesis in physics. But he also studied carefully
Kant's Critique of Pure Reason during a course taught by Bruno Bauch,
and was one of very few students to attend Gottlob Frege's courses in
mathematical logic. After serving in the German army during World
War I for three years, he was given permission to study physics at the
University of Berlin, 1917–18, where Albert Einstein was a newly
appointed professor. Carnap then attended the University of Jena,
where he wrote a thesis defining an axiomatic theory of space and
time. The physics department said it was too philosophical, and Bruno
Bauch of the philosophy department said it was pure physics. Carnap
then wrote another thesis, with Bauch's supervision, on the theory of
space in a more orthodox Kantian style, and published as Der Raum
(Space) in a supplemental issue of Kant-Studien (1922). In it he makes
the clear distinction between formal, physical and perceptual (e.g.,
visual) spaces.
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• In 1921, Carnap wrote a letter to Bertrand Russell, who responded
by copying by hand long passages from his Principia Mathematica
for Carnap's benefit, as neither Carnap nor Freiburg could afford a
copy of this epochal work. In 1924 and 1925, he attended seminars
led by Edmund Husserl, the founder of phenomenology, and
continued to write on physics from a logical positivist perspective.
• Carnap discovered a kindred spirit when he met Hans Reichenbach
at a 1923 conference. Reichenbach introduced Carnap to Moritz
Schlick, a professor at the University of Vienna who offered Carnap
a position in his department, which Carnap accepted in 1926.
Carnap thereupon joined an informal group of Viennese
intellectuals that came to be known as the Vienna Circle, directed
largely by Moritz Schlick and including Hans Hahn, Friedrich
Waismann, Otto Neurath, and Herbert Feigl, with occasional visits
by Hahn's student Kurt Gödel. When Wittgenstein visited Vienna,
Carnap would meet with him. He (with Hahn and Neurath) wrote
the 1929 manifesto of the Circle, and (with Hans Reichenbach)
initiated the philosophy journal Erkenntnis.
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• In 1928, Carnap published two important books:
• The Logical Structure of the World (German: "Der logische Aufbau
der Welt"), in which he developed a rigorous formal version of
empiricism, defining all scientific terms in phenomenalistic terms.
The formal system of the Aufbau (as the work is commonly termed)
was grounded in a single primitive dyadic predicate, which is
satisfied if "two" individuals "resemble" each other. The Aufbau was
greatly influenced by Principia Mathematica, and warrants
comparison with the mereotopological metaphysics A. N.
Whitehead developed over 1916-29. It appears, however, that
Carnap soon became somewhat disenchanted with this book. In
particular, he did not authorize an English translation until 1967.
• Pseudoproblems in Philosophy asserted that many philosophical
questions were meaningless, i.e., the way they were posed
amounted to an abuse of language. An operational implication of
this opinion was taken to be the elimination of metaphysics from
responsible human discourse. This is the statement for which
Carnap was best known for many years.
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• In February 1930 Tarski lectured in Vienna, and during
November 1930 Carnap visited Warsaw. On these occasions
he learned much about Tarski's model theoretic method of
semantics. In 1931, Carnap was appointed Professor at the
German language University of Prague. There he wrote the
book that was to make him the most famous logical
positivist and member of the Vienna Circle, his Logical
Syntax of Language (Carnap 1934). In this work, Carnap
advanced his Principle of Tolerance, according to which
there is not any such thing as a "true" or "correct" logic or
language. One is free to adopt whatever form of language is
useful for one's purposes. In 1933, W. V. Quine met Carnap
in Prague and discussed the latter's work at some length.
Thus began the lifelong mutual respect these two men
shared, one that survived Quine's eventual forceful
disagreements with a number of Carnap's philosophical
conclusions.
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• Carnap, whose socialist and pacifist beliefs made him at risk in Nazi
Germany, emigrated to the United States in 1935 and became a
naturalized citizen in 1941. Meanwhile back in Vienna, Moritz
Schlick was murdered in 1936. From 1936 to 1952, Carnap was a
professor of philosophy at the University of Chicago. Thanks partly
to Quine's help, Carnap spent the years 1939-41 at Harvard, where
he was reunited with Tarski. Carnap (1963) later expressed some
irritation about his time at Chicago, where he and Charles W. Morris
were the only members of the department committed to the
primacy of science and logic. (Their Chicago colleagues included
Richard McKeon, Mortimer Adler, Charles Hartshorne, and Manley
Thompson.) Carnap's years at Chicago were nonetheless very
productive ones. He wrote books on semantics (Carnap 1942, 1943,
1956), modal logic, being very similar in Carnap (1956) to the nowstandard possible worlds semantics for that logic Saul Kripke
proposed starting in 1959, and on the philosophical foundations of
probability and induction (Carnap 1950, 1952).
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• After a stint at the Institute for Advanced Study in
Princeton, he joined the philosophy department at
UCLA in 1954, Hans Reichenbach having died the
previous year. He had earlier refused an offer of a
similar job at the University of California, because
accepting that position required that he sign a loyalty
oath, a practice to which he was opposed on principle.
While at UCLA, he wrote on scientific knowledge, the
analytic - synthetic dichotomy, and the verification
principle. His writings on thermodynamics and on the
foundations of probability and induction, were
published posthumously as Carnap (1971, 1977, 1980).
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• Carnap taught himself Esperanto when he was
a mere fourteen years of age, and remained
very sympathetic to it (Carnap 1963). He later
attended the World Congress of Esperanto in
1908 and 1922, and employed the language
while traveling.
• Carnap had four children by his first marriage,
which ended in divorce in 1929. His second
wife committed suicide in 1964.
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• Logical Syntax
• Carnap's Logical Syntax of Language can be regarded
as a response to Wittgenstein 's Tractatus.
• Carnap elaborated and extended the concept of logical
syntax proposed by Wittgenstein in the Tractatus
(Section 3.325).
• 3.325. In order to avoid such errors we must make use
of a sign-language that excludes them by not using the
same sign for different symbols and by not using in a
superficially similar way signs that have different
modes of signification: that is to say, a sign-language
that is governed by logical grammar—by logical
syntax. ......
• — Wittgenstein , Section 3.325, Tractatus
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• However, Wittgenstein stated that
propositions cannot represent logical form.
• 4.121. Propositions cannot represent logical
form: it is mirrored in them. What finds its
reflection in language, language cannot
represent. What expresses itself in language,
we cannot express by means of language.
Propositions show the logical form of reality.
They display it.
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• Carnap disagreed. Wittgenstein proposed the idea of logical syntax.
It is Carnap who designed, formulated and implemented the details
of logical syntax in philosophical analysis. Carnap defined logical
syntax as:
• By the logical syntax of a language, we mean the formal theory of
the linguistic forms of that language -- the systematic statement of
the formal rules which govern it together with the development of
the consequences which follow from these rules. A theory, a rule, a
definition, or the like is to be called formal when no reference is
made in it either to the meaning of the symbols (for examples, the
words) or to the sense of the expressions (e.g. the sentences), but
simply and solely to the kinds and order of the symbols from which
the expressions are constructed.
• — Carnap , Page 1, Logical Syntax of Language
• In the U.S, the concept of logical syntax helped the development of
natural language processing and compiler design (the Parrot virtual
machine and LLVM).
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• The purpose of logical syntax
• The purpose of logical syntax is to provide a system of concepts, a
language, by the help of which the results of logical analysis will be
exactly formulable.
• Carnap stated :
• Philosophy is to be replaced by the logic of science -- that is to say,
by the logical analysis of the concepts and sentences of the sciences,
for the logic of science is nothing other than the logical syntax of the
language of science.
• — Carnap , Foreword, Logical Syntax of Language
• ......According to this view, the sentences of metaphysics are pseudosentences which on logical analysis are proved to be either empty
phrases or phrases which violate the rules of syntax. Of the so-called
philosophical problems, the only questions which have any meaning
are those of the logic of science. To share this view is to substitute
logical syntax for philosophy.
• — Carnap , Page 8, Logical Syntax of Language
• Carnap wanted only to end metaphysics but not philosophy.
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• The Rejection of Metaphysics
• Carnap, in his book Philosophy and Logical
Syntax, used the concept of verifiability to
reject metaphysics.
• The function of logical analysis
• Carnap used the method of logical analysis to
reject metaphysics.
“
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The question is : What
reasons can there be to
assert this proposition; or:
How can we become
certain as to its truth or
falsehood?
”
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The function of logical analysis is to analyse all
knowledge, all assertions of science and of everyday
life, in order to make clear the sense of each such
assertion and the connections between them. One of
the principal tasks of the logical analysis of a given
proposition is to find out the method of verification for
that proposition.
— Carnap , P. 9-10 , Philosophy and Logical Syntax
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• Selected bibliography
• 1922. Der Raum: Ein Beitrag zur Wissenschaftslehre, KantStudien, Ergänzungshefte, no. 56. His Ph.D. thesis.
• 1926. Physikalische Begriffsbildung. Karlsruhe: Braun.
• 1928. Scheinprobleme in der Philosophie (Pseudoproblems
of Philosophy). Berlin: Weltkreis-Verlag.
• 1928. Der Logische Aufbau der Welt. Leipzig: Felix Meiner
Verlag. English translation by Rolf A. George, 1967. The
Logical Structure of the World. Pseudoproblems in
Philosophy. University of California Press.
• 1929. Abriss der Logistik, mit besonderer Berücksichtigung
der Relationstheorie und ihrer Anwendungen. Springer.
• 1934. Logische Syntax der Sprache. English translation
1937, The Logical Syntax of Language. Kegan Paul.
• 1996 (1935). Philosophy and Logical Syntax. Bristol UK:
Thoemmes. Excerpt.
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• 1939, Foundations of Logic and Mathematics in
International Encyclopedia of Unified Science, Vol. I, no. 3.
University of Chicago Press.
• 1942. Introduction to Semantics. Harvard Uni. Press.
• 1942. Introduction to Semantics. Harvard Uni. Press.
• 1943. Formalization of Logic. Harvard Uni. Press.
• 1956 (1947). Meaning and Necessity: a Study in Semantics
and Modal Logic. University of Chicago Press.
• 1950. Logical Foundations of Probability. University of
Chicago Press. Pp. 3-15 online.
• 1950. "Empiricism, Semantics, Ontology", Revue
Internationale de Philosophie 4: 20-40.
• 1952. The Continuum of Inductive Methods. University of
Chicago Press.
• 1958. Introduction to Symbolic Logic with Applications.
Dover.
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• 1963, "Intellectual Autobiography" in Schilpp (1963: 1-84).
• 1966. Philosophical Foundations of Physics. Martin Gardner,
ed. Basic Books. Online excerpt.
• 1971. Studies in inductive logic and probability, Vol. 1.
University of California Press.
• 1977. Two essays on entropy. Shimony, Abner, ed.
University of California Press.
• 1980. Studies in inductive logic and probability, Vol. 2.
Jeffrey, R. C., ed. University of California Press.
• 2000. Untersuchungen zur Allgemeinen Axiomatik. Edited
from unpublished manuscript by T. Bonk and J. Mosterín.
Darmstadt: Wissenschftliche Buchgesellschaft. 167 pp. ISBN
3-534-14298-5.
• Online bibliography. Under construction, with no entries
dated later than 1937.
• A more complete list of publications.
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1950s
• John Austin’s 1955 William Lectures at
Harvard
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• William James Lectures
• The William James Lectures are a series of invited
lectureships at Harvard University sponsored by the
Departments of Philosophy and Psychology, who alternate
in the selection of speakers. The series was created in
honor of the American Pragmatist philosopher William
James, a former faculty member at that institution. It was
endowed through a 1929 bequest from Edgar Pierce, a
Harvard Alumnus, who also funded the prestigious Edgar
Pierce Chair in Philosophy and Psychology. Pierce stipulated
that the delivered lectures be open to the public and
subsequently published by the Harvard University Press.[1]
The program was initiated in 1930 and has continued to the
present. Its invited lecturers have included some of the
most influential thinkers of the 20th century. In some cases,
the selection of lecturer has generated considerable
controversy.[2][3] The next lectures will be given in 2012 by
Ned Block.
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• Chronological list of invited lectureships[4]
• John Dewey (’30-’31) "Art as Experience“
• Arthur Lovejoy (’32-’33) "The Great Chain of Being: A Study
of the History of an Idea"
• Wolfgang Köhler (’34-’35) "The Place of Value in a World of
Facts"
• Étienne Gilson (’36-’37) "The Unity of Philosophical
Experience"
• Kurt Goldstein (’38-’39) "Human Nature in the Light of
Psychopathology"
• Bertrand Russell (’40-41) "An Inquiry into Meaning and
Truth"
• E. L. Thorndike (’42-’43) "Human Nature and Human
Institutions"
• William E. Hocking (’46-’47) "Issues in Contemporary
Philosophy of Law"
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• B. F. Skinner (’47-’48) "Verbal Behavior"
• Karl R. Popper (’49-’50) "The Study of Nature and Society"
• Frank A. Beach (’51-’52) "A Biological Approach to
Psychology"
• J. L. Austin (’54-’55) "How to Do Things with Words"
• Robert Oppenheimer (’56-’57) "The Hope of Order"
• Donald B. Lindsley (’58-’59) "Brain Organization and
Behavior"
• Gabriel Marcel (’61-’62) "The Existential Background of
Human Dignity"
• Herbert A. Simon (’62-’63) "Symbolic Processes in Human
Behavior"
• Edwin H. Land (’66-’67) "Color Vision from Retina to
Retinex"
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• H. Paul Grice (’66-’67) "Logic and Conversation"
• A.J. Ayer (1970) "Russell and Moore: The Analytical
Heritage"
• Donald Broadbent (1971) "In Defense of Empirical
Psychology"
• Jeffrey Satinover (1974) "Imagination in Art and Religion"
• Michael Dummett (1976) "The Logical Basis of
Metaphysics"
• Donald T. Campbell (1977) "Descriptive Epistemology:
Psychological, Sociological, Evolutionary"
• Richard Wollheim (1982) "The Thread of Life"
• Allen Newell (1987) "Unified Theories of Cognition"
• Roger N. Shepard (1994) "Mind and World: Principles of
Perception"
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• Published versions of the lectures
• Austin, J.L. (1962). How to do things with words.
Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
• Ayer, A.J. (1971). Russell and Moore: The analytical
heritage. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
• Broadbent, D.E. (1934). In defense of empirical psychology.
London: Methuen.
• Campbell, D.T. (1988). Methodology and epistemology for
social science: Selected papers (E. Samuel Overman, Ed.).
NY: Minton, Balch & Company.
• Dewey, J. (1934). Art as experience. NY: Minton, Balch &
Company.
• Dummett, M. (1991). The logical basis of metaphysics.
Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
• Gilson, E. (1937). The unity of philosophical experience. NY:
C. Scribner’s Sons.
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• Goldstein, K. (1940). Human nature in the light of
psychopathology. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University
Press.
• Grice, H. P. (1989). Studies in the way of words. Cambridge,
MA: Harvard University Press.
• Köhler, W. (1938). The place of value in a world of facts. NY:
Liveright Publishing.
• Lovejoy, A.O. (1934). The great chain of being: A study of
the history of an idea. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University
Press
• Marcel, G. (1963). The existential background of human
dignity. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
• Newell, A. (1990). Unified theories of cognition. Cambridge,
MA: Harvard University Press.
• Russell, B. (1940). An inquiry into meaning and truth. NY:
W.W. Norton.
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• Simon, H. (1979). Models of thought. New
Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
• Skinner, B.F. (1957). Verbal behavior. NY:
Appleton-Century-Crofts.
• Thorndike, E.L. (1943). Man and his works.
Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
• Wollheim, R. (1984). The thread of life.
Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
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John Austin
Full name
John Langshaw Austin
Born
March 26, 1911
Lancaster
Died
February 8, 1960(1960-02-08) (aged 48)
Oxford
Era
20th-century philosophy
Region
Western Philosophy
School
Ordinary language philosophy, Linguistic
philosophy, Analytic philosophy
Main interests
Philosophy of language, Philosophy of
mind, Ethics, Philosophy of perception
Notable ideas
Speech acts, Performative utterance
Ordinary language philosophy
Influenced by[show]
•G. E. Moore, Bertrand Russell, Gilbert Ryle
Influence on[show]
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• John Langshaw Austin (March 26, 1911[1] – February 8,
1960) was a British philosopher of language, born in
Lancaster and educated at Shrewsbury School and Balliol
College, Oxford University. Austin is widely associated with
the concept of the speech act and the idea that speech is
itself a form of action. Consequently, in his understanding,
language is not just a passive practice of describing a given
reality, but a particular practice that can be used to invent
and affect realities. His work in the 1950s provided both a
theoretical outline and the terminology for the modern
study of speech acts developed subsequently, for example,
by John R. Searle (the Oxford-educated American
philosopher), François Récanati, Kent Bach, Robert M.
Harnish, and William P. Alston.
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• He occupies a place in philosophy of language
alongside Wittgenstein and his fellow Oxonian, Ryle, in
staunchly advocating the examination of the way
words are ordinarily used in order to elucidate
meaning, and avoid philosophical confusions. Unlike
many ordinary language philosophers, however, Austin
disavowed any overt indebtedness to Wittgenstein's
later philosophy, calling Wittgenstein a
"charlatan".[citation needed][2] His main influence, he said,
was the exact and exacting common-sense philosophy
of G. E. Moore. His training as a classicist and linguist
influenced his later work.[3]
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• Austin made another significant contribution to
philosophy, as well, of a very different sort. In
1950, he published a translation of Gottlob
Frege's Foundations of Arithmetic.[4] Together
with Peter Geach and Max Black's book
Translations from the Philosophical Writings of
Gottlob Frege, published in 1952, Austin's
translation was what made Frege's writings
available to the English-speaking world and thus
helped establish Frege's important place in
analytic philosophy. The translation is still widely
used today.
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• Biography
• The second son of Geoffrey Langshaw Austin (1884–
1971), an architect, and his wife Mary Bowes-Wilson
(1883–1948), Austin was born in Lancaster. In 1922 the
family moved to Scotland, where Austin's father
became the secretary of St Leonard's School, St
Andrews. Austin was educated at Shrewsbury School
and Balliol College, Oxford, holding classical
scholarships at both. He arrived at Oxford in 1929 to
read Literae Humaniores ('Greats'), and in 1931 gained
a First in classical moderations and also won the
Gaisford Prize for Greek prose. Greats introduced him
to serious philosophy and gave him a life-long interest
in Aristotle. In 1933, he got first class honours in his
Finals.[3]
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• After serving in MI6 during World War II, Austin became
White's Professor of Moral Philosophy at Oxford. He began
holding his famous "Austin's Saturday Mornings" where
students and colleagues would discuss language usages
(and sometimes books on language) over tea and
crumpets, but published little.[5]
• Austin visited Harvard and Berkeley in the mid-fifties, in
1955 delivering the William James Lectures at Harvard that
would become How to Do Things With Words, and offering
a seminar on excuses whose material would find its way
into "A Plea for Excuses".[6] It was at this time that he met
and befriended Noam Chomsky.
• He was president of the Aristotelian Society from 1956 to
1957.
• Austin died at the age of 48 of lung cancer. At the time, he
was developing a semantic theory based on sound
symbolism, using the English gl-words as data.
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• Books
• Sense and Sensibilia. Ed. G. J. Warnock.
Oxford: Oxford UP, 1964.
• Philosophical Papers. Ed. J. O. Urmson and G.
J. Warnock. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1961, 1979.
• How to do Things with Words: The William
James Lectures delivered at Harvard University
in 1955. Ed. J. O. Urmson, Oxford: Clarendon,
1962. ISBN 0-674-41152-8
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• Papers
• "How to Talk: Some Simple Ways". Proceedings of the
Aristotelian Society. 53 (1953): 227-246.
• "Other Minds". In Austin, Philosophical Papers, ed. J. O.
Urmson & G. J. Warnock. Oxford: Oxford University Press,
1961 [Originally published in 1946].
• "Performative Utterances". In Austin, Philosophical Papers,
ed. J. O. Urmson & G. J. Warnock. Oxford: Oxford University
Press, 1961.
• "A Plea for Excuses". In Austin, Philosophical Papers, ed. J.
O. Urmson & G. J. Warnock. Oxford: Oxford University
Press, 1961.
• "Performative-Constative". In The Philosophy of Language,
ed. John R. Searle. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1971. 13-22.
• "Three Ways of Spilling Ink", The Philosophical Review, 75,
no.4, (October 1966): 427-440.
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• In translation
• Otras mentes. In Austin, Ensayos filosóficos. Madrid: Revista de Occidente,
1975. 87-117.
• Un alegato en pro de las excusas. In Austin, Ensayos filosóficos. Madrid:
Revista de Occidente, 1975. 169-92.
• Quand dire c'est faire Éditions du Seuil, Paris. Traduction française de
"How to do things with words" par Gilles Lane, 1970.
• Palabras y acciones: Cómo hacer cosas con palabras. Buenos Aires: Paidós,
1971.
• Cómo hacer cosas con palabras.: Palabras y acciones. Barcelona: Paidós,
1982.
• Performativo-Constativo. In Gli atti linguistici. Aspetti e problemi di
filosofia del linguagio. Milano: Feltrinelli, 1978. 49-60.
• Ensayos filosóficos. Madrid: Revista de Occidente, 1975.
• Quando dire è fare (ed. Antonio Pieretti). Marietti, 1974.
• Come fare cose con le parole (eds. Carlo Penco & Marina Sbisà). Genova,
Marietti, 1987.
• Kako delovati rečima. Novi Sad, Matica Srpska, 1994.
• Saggi filosofici (ed. Paolo Leonardi). Milano, Guerini, 1990.
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• Secondary literature
• Berlin, Isaiah et al., ed. Essays on J.L. Austin. Oxford: The Clarendon
Press, 1973.
• Cavell, Stanley. The Claim of Reason: Wittgenstein, Skepticism,
Morality, and Tragedy (1979). New York: Oxford University Press,
1990. The major work by one of Austin's most prominent heirs.
Takes ordinary language approaches to issues of skepticism, but
also makes those approaches a subject of scrutiny.
• Fann, K.T., ed. Symposium on J.L. Austin. New York: Humanities
Press, 1969.
• Kirkham, Richard (Reprint edition: March 2, 1995). Theories of
Truth: A Critical Introduction. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1992. ISBN
0-262-61108-2. Chapter 4 contains a detailed discussion of Austin's
theory of truth.
• Passmore, John. A Hundred Years of Philosophy, rev. ed. New York:
Basic Books, 1966. Chapter 18 includes a perceptive exposition of
Austin's philosophical project.
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• Putnam, Hilary. "The Importance of Being Austin: The Need of a
'Second Näivetē'" Lecture Two in The Threefold Cord: Mind, Body,
and World New York: Columbia University Press, 1999. In arguing
for "naive realism", Putnam invokes Austin's handling of sense-data
theories and their reliance on arguments from perceptual illusion in
Sense and Sensibilia, which Putnam calls "one of the most unjustly
neglected classics of analytics philosophy" (25).
• Searle, John. Expression and Meaning: Studies in the Theory of
Speech Acts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979.
• Searle, John. Speech Acts: An Essay in the Philosophy of Language.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1969. Searle's has been the
most notable of attempts to extend and adjust Austin's conception
of speech acts.
• Soames, Scott. Philosophical Analysis in the Twentieth Century:
Volume II: The Age of Meaning. Princeton: Princeton UP, 2005.
Contains a large section on ordinary language philosophy, and a
chapter on Austin's treatment of skepticism and perception in
Sense and Sensibilia.
• Warnock, G. J. J. L. Austin. London: Routledge, 1992.
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• References
• Pitcher, George. "Austin: a personal memoir".
Essays on J.L. Austin, ed. Isaiah Berlin et al.
Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1973.
• Warnock, G.J. "John Langshaw Austin, a
biographical sketch". Symposium on J. L. Austin,
ed. K.T. Fann. New York: Humanities Press, 1969.
• Warnock, G.J. "Saturday Mornings". Essays on J.L.
Austin, ed. Isaiah Berlin et al. Oxford: The
Clarendon Press, 1973.
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• Pragmatics?
• A more positive view emerges from the work of Herbert
Paul Grice, whose William James Lectures (1967) are
fundamental. Grice showed that many aspects of utterance
meaning traditionally regarded as conventional, or
semantic, could be more explanatorily treated as
conversational, or pragmatic. For Gricean pragmatists, the
crucial feature of pragmatic interpretation is its inferential
nature: the hearer is seen as constructing and evaluating a
hypothesis about the communicator's intentions, based, on
the one hand, on the meaning of the sentence uttered, and
on the other, on contextual information and general
communicative principles that speakers are normally
expected to observe. (For definition and surveys see
Levinson 1983.)
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1960s
• Herbert Paul Grice’s 1967 William James
Lectures at Harvard University
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Herbert Paul Grice
• Herbert Paul Grice (March 13, 1913,
Birmingham, England – August 28, 1988,
Berkeley, California),[1] usually publishing
under the name H. P. Grice, H. Paul Grice, or
Paul Grice, was a British-educated philosopher
of language, who spent the final two decades
of his career in the United States.
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• Life
• Born and raised in the United Kingdom, he was
educated at Clifton College and then at Corpus Christi
College, Oxford.[1][2] After a brief period teaching at
Rossall School,[2] he went back to Oxford where he
taught until 1967. In that year, he moved to the United
States to take up a professorship at the University of
California, Berkeley, where he taught until his death in
1988. He returned to the UK in 1979 to give the John
Locke lectures on Aspects of Reason. He reprinted
many of his essays and papers in his valedictory book,
Studies in the Way of Words (1989).[1]
• He was married and had two children. He and his wife
lived in an old Spanish style house in the Berkeley Hills.
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• Grice on meaning
• Grice's work is one of the foundations of the modern study
of pragmatics.
• Grice studied the differences and relationships between
speaker meaning and linguistic meaning.
• He explained nonliteral speech as the outcome of a
cooperative principle, and some derived maxims of
discourse. Speaker meaning is to induce a belief in one's
hearers.
• For some of the inferences made when we listen, he
proposed different kinds of implicatures. He used that term
as he claimed that 'implication' was not the right word.
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• The distinction between natural and nonnatural meaning
• Grice understood "meaning" to refer to two rather different
kinds of phenomena. Natural meaning is supposed to
capture something similar to the relation between cause
and effect as, for example, applied in the sentence "Those
spots mean measles". This must be distinguished from
what Grice calls nonnatural meaning, as present in "Those
three rings on the bell (of the bus) mean that the bus is
full". Grice's subsequent suggestion is that the notion of
nonnatural meaning should be analysed in terms of
speakers' intentions in trying to communicate something to
an audience.
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• Grice's Paradox
• In his book Studies in the Way of Words, he presents
what he calls "Grice's Paradox".[3] In it, he supposes
that two chess players, Yog and Zog, play 100 games
under the following conditions:
• (1) Yog is white nine of ten times.
(2) There are no draws.
• And the results are:
• (1) Yog, when white, won 80 of 90 games.
(2) Yog, when black, won zero of ten games.
• This implies that:
• (i) 8/9 times, if Yog was white, Yog won.
(ii) 1/2 of the time, if Yog lost, Yog was black.
(iii) 9/10 times, either Yog wasn't white or he won.
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• From these statements, it might appear one could make these
deductions by contraposition and conditional disjunction:
• ([a] from [ii]) If Yog was white, then 1/2 of the time Yog won.
([b] from [iii]) 9/10 times, if Yog was white, then he won.
• But both (a) and (b) are untrue—they contradict (i). In fact, (ii) and
(iii) don't provide enough information to use Bayesian reasoning to
reach those conclusions. That might be clearer if (i)-(iii) had instead
been stated like so:
• (i) When Yog was white, Yog won 8/9 times. (No information is
given about when Yog was black.)
(ii) When Yog lost, Yog was black 1/2 the time. (No information is
given about when Yog won.)
(iii) 9/10 times, either Yog was black and won, Yog was black and
lost, or Yog was white and won. (No information is provided on how
the 9/10 is divided among those three situations.)
• Grice's paradox shows that the exact meaning of statements
involving conditionals and probabilities is more complicated than
may be obvious on casual examination.
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• Some distinctions introduced by Grice
• In the course of his investigation of speaker meaning and linguistic
meaning, Grice introduced a number of interesting distinctions. For
example, he distinguished between four kinds of content: encoded /
non-encoded content and truth-conditional / non-truth-conditional
content.[citation needed]
• Encoded content is the actual meaning attached to certain
expressions, arrived at through investigation of definitions and
making of literal interpretations.
• Non-encoded content are those meanings that are understood
beyond an analysis of the words themselves, i.e., by looking at the
context of speaking, tone of voice, and so on.
• Truth-conditional content are whatever conditions make an
expression true or false.
• Non-truth-conditional content are whatever conditions that do not
affect the truth or falsity of an expression.
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• Sometimes, expressions do not have a literal interpretation,
or they do not have any truth-conditional content, and
sometimes expressions can have both truth-conditional
content and encoded content.
• For Grice, these distinctions can explain at least three
different possible varieties of expression:
• Conventional Implicature - when an expression has
encoded content, but doesn't necessarily have any truthconditions;
• Conversational Implicature - when an expression does not
have encoded content, but does have truth-conditions (for
example, in use of irony);
• Utterances - when an expression has both encoded content
and truth-conditions.
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• Selected writings
• 1941. "Personal Identity", Mind 50, 330-350; reprinted in J.
Perry (ed.), Personal Identity, University of California Press,
Berkeley, 1975, pp. 73–95.
• 1957, (with P F Strawson), ‘In Defence Of A Dogma’,
Philosophical Review 65: 141-58. Reprinted in SWW.
• 1957. "Meaning," The Philosophical Review 66: 377-88.
• 1961. "The Causal Theory of Perception", Proceedings of
the Aristotelian Society 35 (suppl.), 121-52.
• 1968. "Utterer's Meaning, Sentence Meaning and Word
Meaning", Foundations of Language 4, 225-242.
• 1969. "Vacuous Names", in D. Davidson and J. Hintikka
(eds.), Words and Objections, D. Reidel, Dordrecht,
pp. 118–145.
• 1969. "Utterer's Meaning and Intention," The Philosophical
Review 78: 147-77.
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• 1971. "Intention and Uncertainty", Proceedings of the
British Academy, pp. 263–279.
• 1975. "Method in Philosophical Psychology: From the Banal
to the Bizarre", Proceedings and Addresses of the American
Philosophical Association (1975), pp. 23–53.
• 1975a. "Logic and conversation". In Cole, P. and Morgan, J.
(eds.) Syntax and semantics, vol 3. New York: Academic
Press.
• 1975b, ‘Method in Philosophical psychology (From the
Banal to the Bizarre)’, Proceedings and Addresses of the
American Philosophical Association, 48: 23-53.
• 1978. "Further Notes on Logic and Conversation", in P. Cole
(ed.), Syntax and Semantics, vol. 9: Pragmatics, Academic
Press, New York, pp. 113–128.
• 1981. "Presupposition and Conversational Implicature", in
P. Cole (ed.), Radical Pragmatics, Academic Press, New
York, pp. 183–198.
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• 1982, ‘Meaning Revisited’, in Mutual Knowledge, N.V. Smith
(ed), New York: Academic Press, 223-43. Reprinted in SWW.
• 1989, Studies in the Way of Words (SWW), Cambridge MA:
Harvard University Press; a collection including most of the
important works published during his lifetime.
• 1991, The Conception of Value, New York: Oxford University
Press; a posthumous publication of the John Locke
Lectures, delivered in 1979.
• 1989. Studies in the Way of Words. Harvard University
Press.
• 1991. The Conception of Value. Oxford University Press. His
1979 John Locke Lectures.
• 2001. Aspects of Reason (Richard Warner, ed.). Oxford
University Press.
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• Further readings on Grice
• Stanford Encyclopedia oа Philosophy: "[1]" -by Richard E. Grandy & Richard E. Grandy .
• MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences:
"Grice." -- by Kent Bach.
• Dictionary of Philosophy of Mind: "Paul Grice"
-- by Christopher Gauker.
• List of Grice links at meaning.ch
• La comunicación según Grice (Spanish)
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• Siobhan Chapman, Paul Grice: Philosopher and
Linguist, Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005.
ISBN 1403902976.
• References
• ^ a b c Richard Grandy and Richard Warner. "Paul
Grice". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/grice/.
• ^ a b publish.uwo.ca/~rstainto/papers/Grice.pdf
• ^ Paul Grice, Studies in the Way of Words
(Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1991),
pp. 78-79.
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1970s
• John Searle
• Penelope Brown
• Stephen Levinson
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John Searle
• Homepage:
http://socrates.berkeley.edu/~jsearle/
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• With john searle at wfu 1999
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1980s
• Stephen Levinson
• Geoffrey Leech,
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Stephen Levinson
• Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics PO
Box 310, 6500 AH Nijmegen, The Netherlands
• Phone: +31-24-3521277
• Fax: +31-24-3521213
• Room: 227
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• My research focusses on language diversity and its
implications for theories of human cognition. Language is
the only animal communication system that differs radically
in form and meaning across social groups of the same
species, a fact that has been neglected in the cognitive
sciences. My work attempts both to grasp what this
diversity is all about, and to exploit it as a way of
discovering the role that language plays in our everyday
cognition.
• I am a recent recipient of an ERC Advanced Grant, which
focusses on the interactional foundations for language. The
project begins in June 2011. For more details about the
project, please visit the following page:
http://www.mpi.nl/[…]/levinson-awarded-prestigious-ercadvance-grant
More information about research jobs can be found here:
http://www.mpi.nl/people/va[…]nal-foundations-oflanguage
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Geoffrey Leech
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• Emeritus Professor of English Linguistics
• Degree: PhD, FilDr, DLitt, F.B.A., Member of the
Academia Europaea
• Associated research centres and groups: Pragmatics
and Stylistics Research Group (PaSTY), Theoretical
Linguistics (RITL), University Centre for Computer
Corpus Research on Language (UCREL)
• Tel: +44 (0)1524 593036
• Email: [email protected]
• Room: County South, C09
• http://www.ling.lancs.ac.uk/profiles/Geoffrey-Leech/
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1990s
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Dan Sperber
Deidre Wilson
Jenny Thomas
Robyn Carston
Gabriele Kasper
Janet Holmes
Anna Wierzbicka
Juliane House
Shoshan Blum-Kulka
…
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Dan Sperber
• Dan Sperber
• www.dan.sperber.fr/
• New homepage of the French cognitive and
social scientist Dan Sperber, with bio , links,
and texts in English and French.
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Deidre Wilson
• Emeritus Professor of Linguistics
• Location:Room 114, Chandler House,
2 Wakefield Street, London WC1N 1PF
Telephone: +44 (0) 207 679 4021 (x24021)
Email: [email protected]
Website /
http://www.ucl.ac.uk/psychlangsci/research/lin
guistics/People/linguistics-staff/d_wilson
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With Deidre, 2003
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Robyn Carston
• Professor of Linguistics
• Location: Room 107, Chandler House,
2 Wakefield Street, London WC1N 1PF
Telephone: +44 (0) 207 679 4037 (x24037)
Email: [email protected]
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Jenny Thomas
• http://www.bangor.ac.uk/linguistics/about/jtc
cprag.php
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With Jenny, 2003
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The New Millennium
• Pragmaticians:
http://www.gxnu.edu.cn/Personal/szliu/prag
maticians.html
• Pragmaticians:
http://cyrusliu.blog.163.com/blog/#m=0&t=1
&c=fks_084067084094087074084086087095
083087082070087094081066
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Summary
• Heroes find home at hectic times.
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Embryonic Stage
Pioneers
1930s-1960s
Morris, Carnap, Bar-Hillel,
Austin, Grice, Searle
Birth Stage
Establishers
1970s
Searle, Gazdar
Growing Stage
Boosters
1980s
Levinson, Leech, Verschueren,
Sperber, Wilson, Mey, Green
Developing Stage
Developers
1990s
Mey, Verschueren, Thomas,
Kasper, Blum-Kulka, House,
Wierzbicka
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