Alex Ignatiev Sustainable Energy Development in Kazakhstan

Report
Alternative Energy Research Institute
Center for Advanced Materials
University of Houston
Sustainable Energy
Development in Kazakhstan:
Alternatives and Renewables
Alex Ignatiev
Alternative Energy Research Institute
and
Center for Advanced Materials
University of Houston
Houston, TX USA
Alternative Energy Research Institute
Center for Advanced Materials
University of Houston
What is Sustainable Development?
Development that meets the needs of
the present without compromising the
ability of future generations to meet
their own needs.
Alternative Energy Research Institute
Center for Advanced Materials
University of Houston
Sustainable Energy Development Has
Three Dimensions
Environment
Economy
Social / Equity
The Green Economy……
Alternative Energy Research Institute
Center for Advanced Materials
University of Houston
Sustainability - The Green Economy
Economic Dimension
• An economically sustainable Energy System must be able to
produce energy on a continuing basis, cost effectively, and
in support of a growth economy
Environmental Dimension
• Must have a stable resource base - cannot overwhelm the
environment. Deplete non-renewables only to the extent
that there is investment in renewable substitutes.
Social Dimension
• Achieve distributional equity - adequate provision of energy
services anywhere in the country
Alternative Energy Research Institute
Center for Advanced Materials
University of Houston
Doing Sustainable Energy Development requires:
• Attempting to integrate (or perhaps just balance)
environmental, social, and economic values ...
Look at Energy Usage…..
Increased Use of Electricity
Future Trend of Electricity Use
Alternative Energy Research Institute
Center for Advanced Materials
University of Houston
Electricity as the Future Source of Energy
• Most Present Electricity Generation
• Hydrocarbon Fuels…..
• Coal Fired Steam Turbine/Generator
• Gas Fired Turbine/Generator
• Oil Fired Steam Turbine/Generator
Low Generation/Fuel Cost
High Ignored Cost
Alternative Energy Research Institute
Center for Advanced Materials
University of Houston
Clean and Sustainable Electrical Energy
Generation
• Sunlight – Solar Energy
• Solar Cells - Sunlight-to-Electricity….
• Wind – Wind Turbine Energy
• Wind Turbines – Wind-to-Electricity
• Hydro-Powered Turbine/Generator
• Geothermal Heated Steam
Turbine/Generator
Moderate to High Generation Cost
Low Ignored Cost
Alternative Energy Research Institute
Center for Advanced Materials
University of Houston
Ignored Costs of Electrical Energy Generation
• global warming
• public health
• occupational health
• material damage
• Reduce Ignored Costs… Improve Sustainability
• Reduce Fossil Fuel Use – Increased Efficiency
Alternative Energy Research Institute
Center for Advanced Materials
University of Houston
Increased
Efficiency
Current
Electrical
Future Fuel
for Fuelof
Cells
– Hydrogen…
Energy
• Hydrogen from
Water Generation
• 1 GJ per 90 liters H2O  need 3.6x1013 liters
• Currently: Heat-Steam-Turbine-Generator
• 33-35% Efficiency
• There is Enough Water to Sustain a Hydrogen Economy
• Hydrogen
fromEnergy
Water -More
Electrolysis
• Generate
Electrical
Efficiently from Fuels
• Use Solid Oxide Fuel Cell … 55-60% Efficiency
• Solid Oxide Fuel Cell – Methane, Diesel, Alcohol..
• Institute for Physics & Technology – Almaty
Alternative Energy Research Institute
Center for Advanced Materials
University of Houston
Increased Efficiency Solar Cells
Crystalline
Silicon - III-VCells
Amorphous
• Multi-Junction
Silicon Heterojunction Cell -23%
• Epitaxially Grown Cells – 42%
Cover Complete Solar Spectrum
Alternative Energy Research Institute
Center for Advanced Materials
University of Houston
Projected
~50
% Efficiency
Under
Concentration
Further
Increase
Solar Cell
Efficiency
InGaP
Eg=2.0 eV
Cell -InGaNP
InGaAs Eg=1.0 eV
Eg=1.4 eV
Ge
Eg=0.66 eV
Alternative Energy Research Institute
Center for Advanced Materials
University of Houston
Increased Efficiency Wind Turbines
High Temp Superconductivity
•Rare Earth Oxides
•YBa2Cu3O7-x - (93K)
HTS Direct Drive Multipole
Generator…. ½ size/weight
Alternative Energy Research Institute
Center for Advanced Materials
University of Houston
Ultimate Sustainable Energy Source
• New Energy Source with Environmental, Economic
and Social Benefit
Municipal Solid Waste…
• Municipal Solid Waste Currently Buried/Burned
• Major Ecological Impact…..
• Air and Water Pollution
Alternative Energy Research Institute
Center for Advanced Materials
University of Houston
Municipal Solid Waste
• MSW Mostly Organic
• 100 tons/day for 100,000 people
• Convert Organic MSW to ENERGY…..
• Plasma Processing
• Gasify Organics
• Immobilize Inorganics in Slag
• No Ash or Toxins Released
Ecologically Ideal……
Gas Product – Syngas (H2 + CO)
Alternative Energy Research Institute
Center for Advanced Materials
University of Houston
Plasma Processing of MSW
Municipal Solid Waste To Energy
Primary Gas Dome
• Ecological Benefit
• Social Benefit
• Economic Benefit


Gasifier
Zone 1
Gasifier
Zone 2
Volumetric
screw
conveyor
Gas cleaning
towers
Feeding
Points
PLASMATRON
Ideal Sustainable Energy Source
Fuel Source From MSW - Syngas
• Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Reactions w/Syngas
• 2H2 + O2  2H2O
• 2CO + O2  2CO2
100 t/d → 10MW Power
Alternative Energy Research Institute
Center for Advanced Materials
University of Houston
Integrate Energy Sources for Sustainability
•Solar
•Wind
•Geothermal
•Fuel Cells – Hydrogen
•Hydro
•Energy Efficient Buildings
The Future: the Enernet……
• Interconnected
•Smart
•Sustainable
(Bob Metcalf)
Alternative Energy Research Institute
Center for Advanced Materials
University of Houston
The Sustainable Energy Principle
• Protect the environment and at the same time fulfill
economic and social objectives

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