lecture01_2014_Intro_to_SS_orig

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Professor Geoff Marcy
Department of Astronomy
Saturn
Enceladus
Jupiter and Europa
Astronomy C12, Earth & Planetary Science C12, Letters & Science C70
The Planets
Prof. Geoff Marcy
Office Hours:
Hearst Field Annex
room B26
Wed @ 1pm, Fri @ 11am
Saturn’s Moon,
Dione
Saturn & Ring
Textbook and Homework:
The Cosmic Perspective
Special Issue
Bennett et al. (2014)
All Homework is online in MasteringAstronomy
1. Buy book at bookstore with its attached
“MasteringAstronomy kit”
2. Homework is online: MasteringAstronomy:
www.pearsonmastering.com
Register:
Course ID: marcy67636
(for Fall 2014)
marcy67636 (for Fall 2014)
marcy67636
Homework
HW in MasteringAstronomy due every Friday at 6pm
•
Due Next Week, Friday Sept 5:
Read Chapters 1 and 2
“Our place in the Universe “ & “Discovering the Sky”
•
Chapter 1 and Chapter 2 Assignments
in MasteringAstronomy
-5% for each wrong try (but you can try again).
-1/N for each wrong try in Multiple Choice (N Questions)
-3% for using a hint.
Description of Course
• Our Home: The Solar System. Sun, planets, comets & asteroids
The physics, chemistry, geology, and experiments and reasoning
that allowed humanity to understand our Solar System.
• Observations and Space missions.
• Learn physical and chemical processes that formed and continue
to shape the Solar System: Past, Present and Future.
Intended for Non-Science Majors (light on math)
Objectives of Course
• Learn the process of careful thinking and reasoning
• Work with others: group reasoning
• Learn to estimate answers with a factor of 2
Basic Science Components:
• Atoms, Molecules, Energy, Forces, Light
• How to calculate quantities: very large numbers and small numbers
Astronomy C12
Earth and Planetary Science C12
Letters & Science C70T
Same Course  Sign up for any of these...
What Everyone
if you are will
on the
get waitlist???
in.
Instructor: Professor Geoff Marcy
Office Hours: Wed 1pm & Fri 11am
Hearst Field Annex: Bldg B, Room 103
[email protected]
GSIs:
Beth McBride – [email protected]
Kyle Fricke – [email protected]
Kaylan Burleigh -- [email protected]
Chris Gebhart – [email protected]
12 Discussion Sections 1 hr each (All start next week.)
Review, Clarification, Homework Help. Observing Projects
12 Discussion Sections
•
1 hour: All start next week (Sept. 2-4).
• Lecture Review & Clarification; Homework Help.
• Go to any one of these (optional):
101 Wed 9-10A, 264 Evans Hall: Chris Gebhart
102 Wed 1-2P,
264 Evans Hall: Kaylan Burleigh
103 Wed 2-3P,
264 Evans Hall: Beth McBride
104 Wed 3-4P,
106 Wheeler: Kaylan Burleigh
105 Th 2-3P,
264 Evans Hall: Kaylan Burleigh
106 Tu 2-3P,
264 Evans Hall: Chris Gebhart
107 Th 11-12P,
264 Evans Hall: Beth McBride
108 Tu 11-12P,
264 Evans Hall: Chris Gebhart
109 Tu 12-1P,
264 Evans Hall: Kyle Fricke
110 Th 12-1P,
264 Evans Hall: Kyle Fircke
111 W 11-12P,
264 Evans Hall: Chris Gebhart
112 Wed 12-1P, 264 Evans Hall: Kaylan Burleigh
The Astronomy Learning Center:
TALC
For Fall 2014
- Every Thursday Evening 7:30 – 9:30pm
- Hearst Field Annex, Room B1
- Work on homework with others in the class.
- Collaborate on homework!
Grading
Homework: 20% of grade – Due every Friday 6pm
– 20% reduction for every day late!
Starts next week (due Friday, Sept. 5 at 6pm)
It is OK (and great) to work with others. It is *not* OK to copy.
Homework is graded automatically, online.
Observing Projects: 5% of grade
Two Projects to be announced.
Exams:
Midterm 1 25%
Sept. 30 (Tue)
Midterm 2 25%
Nov 4 (Tue)
Final
25%
Dec 18 (Thu) 11:30am-2:30pm
- Emphasis on conceptual understanding (no calculators needed)
- Covers: Lectures, Reading, Homework, Observation projects
Final Grade:
Absolute Scale.
A = 90-100, B=80-90, C=70-80, D=60-70, F = 0-59.
UC Berkeley Honor Code
Course syllabus
Course syllabus (cont.)
Lectures:
WARNING: Research shows that students with laptops out during lecture
get one full letter grade LOWER than students without laptops or cell phones.
Lectures Captured:
•
Audio will be recorded, along with the projection (slides, movies) on the screen.
https://calcentral.berkeley.edu
http://www.youtube.com/ucberkeley
http://itunes.berkeley.edu/
http://webcast.berkeley.edu)
•
The PDF files of all slides lecture will be available on MasteringAstronomy
www.pearsonmastering.com
Observing Projects
Observing Projects: To be described later in course…
A) Chart the position and shape of the moon.
Sketch where the moon is located relative to nearby buildings. Also
Mark your calendars for these observing times:
sketch the shape of the moon. Mark which direction is south. Note the time and day on the sketch.
October 8 at 3:27 – 4:22 am: Lunar Eclipse
Wait 2-5 days, and do it again. (Hint: the moon is up now from 3pm-10pm.)
October 23 at 1:53 – 4:29 pm: Partial Solar Eclipse
Turn in both sketches, with time and date of observation.
Write three to four sentences about any change you saw in the position or shape.
B) Sketch where the Sun sets, relative to buildings, this thu, fri, or sat.
Wait 4-10 days. Sketch where the Sun sets again.
Turn in both sketches, with time and date of observation.
Write three sentences about any change
in the position of sunset. Did it change? What direction?
By how many degrees (approx.)?
(The sun has an angular size of 0.5 degrees in diameter.)
Due in class, Thursday Sept. 6
1 page maximum; Handwritten is fine.
Our Solar System
• The Sun
• Planets orbiting:
- Gravity attracts them
Inner Solar System
to Sun
• Moons orbit planets
Venus
Mercury
Mars
Earth
• Asteroids
• Comets
• Dust
Uranus
Saturn
Jupiter
Neptune
Orbits are to scale.
Planets are too big.
The Atom
Microscopic “building block” of
all normal material
Hydrogen:
1 proton
1 electron
Oxygen:
8 protons + 8 neutrons in nucleus
8 electrons
Atoms consist of a cloud of electrons and a dense nucleus containing protons and
neutrons. Electric forces between electrons (-) and protons (+) hold atoms together.
Protons and neutrons are held to each other by the strong force.
What are protons and
neutrons made of?
Hydrogen:
1 proton
1 electron
A protons consist of three quarks.
Quarks’ properties were important when
matter forms after the Big Bang.
Your Home:
The Milky Way Galaxy
200 Billion Stars
You Are Here
100,000 Light Years
Laws of Science: Universal
Galaxy:
• Billions of stars in space
• Held together by gravity
• Orbiting a common center
A Spiral Galaxy
200 Billions Stars
Why is it spiral?
What are the red blobs?
Messier 33
The Universe:
All matter and energy:
Everything
100’s of Billions of
Galaxies
Star:
A large, hot ball of gas
that generates heat and light through nuclear reactions
Our Sun:
An Average Star
A Cluster of Stars
Why are stars different colors ?
Planet:
A spherical object that orbits a star.
• Too small to ignite nuclear reactions.
• Shine mostly by reflected light.
Planets may be rocky, icy, or gaseous in composition.
Rocky Planet
 Terrestrial planets
H & He Gas and Water
Giant planets
Moon:
An object that orbits a planet
Callisto:
Moon of Jupiter
Tethys:
Moon of Saturn
Asteroid
A small (kilometer), rocky
object that orbits a star
Eros
Gaspra
Why are their shapes so irregular ?
Comet:
A Dirty Snowball
orbiting a star
Nucleus
How do we know comets are ice?
What are comets made of?
What is the tail doing?
Meteorites
Stony
From Planet Mantles
Iron
From Planet Cores
Interactive Quiz
Which of the following contains
the largest number of carbon atoms ?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Our Milky Way Galaxy
Our Solar System
The Sun
All the diamonds on Earth
>>> Fold your answering sheet <<<
>>> and hold up your answer! <<<
Interactive Quiz
Which of the following contains
the largest number of carbon atoms ?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Our Milky Way Galaxy
Our Solar System
The Sun
All the diamonds on Earth
>>> Fold your answering sheet <<<
>>> and hold up your answer! <<<
Mercury
• Similar to Earth’s moon:
geologically dead, record of
large impacts
Lots of craters, surface must be old.
• Why huge faults?
• MESSENGER
spacecraft
• Huge iron core:
liquid or solid?
Surface fault line
Interactive Quiz
Is it hotter or colder on Mercury than it is on Earth?
A. Hotter
B. Colder
C. Same as on Earth
>>> Fold your answering sheet <<<
>>> and hold up your answer! <<<
Interactive Quiz
Is it hotter or colder on Mercury than it is on Earth?
A. Hotter on day side
B. Colder on night side
(no atmosphere)
Messenger Mission to Mercury
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Messenger launch in 2004
Messenger assembly
08.02.04 Launch
07.29.05 Earth Flyby
10.23.06 Venus Flyby 1
06.04.07 Venus Flyby 2
01.14.08 Mercury Flyby 1
10.06.08 Mercury Flyby 2
09.29.09 Mercury Flyby 3
03.18.11: Enter Mercury Orbit
Measure magnetic field, study how the liquid iron freezes.
Venus
• Sulfuric acid clouds H2SO4
• Surface temperature 470 C
(lead melts!)
• Volcanoes
• Faults
• Mountains
• Why so hot?
Earth has many unique features
Why is there life
on Earth?
Are there other
Hospitable
Planets in the
Solar System?
Why is there a thin
layer of water?
Why Plate
tectonics?
Volcanism
Earth
Io
Enceladus
CO2
The Carbon Cycle
[CO2 + Ca
CaCO3]
subduction
CO2
HEAT
Mars
• Huge valleys
(Valles Marineris)
• Huge volcanoes
(Olympus Mons)
• Most geological
activity in the
Why?
Olympus Mons (tallest volcano in solar system)
Water on Mars:
Sufficient to sustain life?
Liquid water cannot exist now: only ice and vapor
Seasonal polar ice caps:
winter
summer
Water on Mars:
There once was liquid water.
For how long?
River system formed by running water
Craters shows signs of erosion
Sedimentary rock
Jupiter and Two Moons
Io
Europa
Jupiter’s Moon: Europa
Sub-Crust
Ocean
.
Europa
Surface covered with ice
Lots of geological surface features
but no impact craters!
Cassini spacecraft arrived at Saturn
on July 1, 2004
Titan
Saturn’s Largest Moon
Hazy atmosphere made of N2, CH4, C2H6. Very cold – only 93K.
View from probe descending through Titan’s
atmosphere
“Rocks” made of ice on the surface of Titan photographed by Huygens lander
Uranus
• Why so smooth ?
• Why blue?
• Why so different from
Jupiter, Saturn, Earth,
and other planets?
•
Why do we pronounce it:
Yur a nus ?
Neptune
•
•
•
•
Similar to Uranus
Thick atmosphere
Rock Core
Water surrounding core.
How could you discover
what Neptune is made of?
• Large Moon: Triton
• Eruptions on Triton. Why?
What’s erupting?
Triton Neptune’s
large moon.
Pluto
& Moon: Charon
9th Planet
“Dwarf Planet “
Pluto is one of many large, icy “Kuiper Belt Objects”
far from Sun
Interactive Quiz
Jupiter is the most massive planet in our solar system.
What fraction of the mass of all planets
in our solar system does Jupiter have? (Hint: See Table)
A.
B.
C.
D.
12%
25%
72%
95%
>>> Fold your answering sheet <<<
>>> and hold up your answer! <<<
Interactive Quiz
Jupiter is the biggest of all 8 planets in our solar system.
What mass fraction does Jupiter contribute?
A.
B.
C.
D.
12%
25%
72%
95%
MJ / ( MJ + MS + MU + MN + …) = 318 / (318+95+14.5+17.1) = 72%
See table 7.1 on page 213
Exoplanets:
Planetary Systems Around Other Stars
Triple Planet System
Upsilon Andromedae
GJ 436 b
The first
Neptune-Size planet
around another star
Artist’s Rendering
Dr. Debra Fischer
Planet Hunter
For this course, the lectures on exoplanets
will be given by Prof. Geoff Marcy
(Week 9, March 13 & 15)
Spectrum of Star:
Doppler Effect
Processes that shape planets:
Why are there planets?
Why so many different types of planets?
How do planets evolve?
We can use physics and chemistry to
answer these questions (or at least
formulate hypotheses)
Impacts
5 min. after Impact
Formation of Planetary Systems:
Protoplanetary Disks
of Gas & Dust
Theory of
Planet Formation:

Dust Grows 
pebbles/rocks

Gas Acquired
End
Lecture 1
Course material: bcourses.berkeley.edu
• Syllabus
• Lecture slides
• Assignments: reading, homework, observing projects
• Course information

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