Patient Support Day Nottingham March 2012 Contibutors • • • • • • • • • • Dr Gisli Jenkins Dr Vidya Navaratnam Professor Simon Johnson Carole Mallia David Cashman Dr Sanjay Agrawal Geraldine Burge Dr Helen Parfrey Annette Duck British Lung Foundation. • All funding from the Nottingham Respiratory Biomedical Research Unit Program • The Science of IPF – How much IPF is there and how bad is it? – Why does IPF happen? – What have clinical trials in IPF taught us? • Practical Management of IPF – – – – • Lung Transplantation Best Supportive/Palliative Care Oxygen Therapy Travelling, flying and exercising with IPF The Future for IPF – Developing an IPF support network – Potential New Clinical Trials – Lung Tissue Research Proposals • Question Time Aims of Today • To inform patients of what we know. • To offer practical advice. • To answer questions. • To find out what’s important to you. • To develop a strategy to improve the care of people with IPF throughout the UK What is IPF? It's a new killer baffling doctors. And the only warning sign is feeling out of breath... Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-1385311/New-killerbaffling-doctors-And-warning-sign-feeling-breath-.html#ixzz1oNbdwE00 Interstitial Lung Diseases Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis • Average age > 60 • Male > Female • No Known Cause • No proven therapy • Median survival 3 years • Also known as Cryptogenic Fibrosing Alveolitis Other Stuff • • • • • • • • • • • • Sarcoidosis Connective Tissue Disease Asbestosis Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis Non Specific Interstitial Pneumonitis Desquamative Interstitial Pneumonitis Respiratory Bronchiolitis ILD Cryptogenic Organising Pneumonia Acute Interstitial Pneumonitis Idiopathic Pleuroparenchymal Fibrosing Elastosis LAM HX ILD Olympics CTD Asbestosis Sarcoidosis IPF NSIP HSP Drugs The rest Why do people get Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis? • It is NOT infectious • It is genetic in a small minority of cases Causes of IPF • Idiopathic (and cryptogenic) means “we don’t know” • Genetics plays a role – Surfactant protein D – Muc5b – Telomerase • Other hypotheses include: – Viral infection – Gastro-Oesophageal Reflux Disease – Inhaled dust/smoke – Immune system going wrong • Problem is distinguishing cause from association What about pulmonary fibrosis generally? • Immune reaction to birds • Immune reaction to drugs • Inhaled dusts leading to injury of the lung • Inhaled chemicals injuring the lung Interstitial Lung Disease Unit Goodwin and Jenkins Biochem Soc Trans 2009 Interstitial Lung Disease Unit Wrong place, wrong time, and then some, hypothesis • If you have the wrong genes (?Muc5b polymorphism) • If you have the wrong exposure (?Metal dust) • And then your repair process breaks down! (epigenetics) • You develop IPF What happens when your cell gets injured? Cell dies (apoptosis) Neighboring cell divides • Risky time for cells • DNA taken apart and then put back together • This can lead to the introduction of genetic mistakes • This can lead to reprogramming of cells Sometimes just the DNA gets damaged • Again risky time for cells • Complex repair process can lead to errors • Even small mistake can have profound consequences • Average gene contains thousands of DNA molecules Just one mistake can lead to an amino acid change which can completely change the function of a protein Complex disease pathogenesis • You need to be on the road to have a RTA • BUT NOT ALL ROAD USERS WILL HAVE AN RTA. • The more you use the road the higher your chance of an RTA • A car is more likely to kill a pedestrian than a cyclist • A motorcyclist is more likely to die in RTA than any other road user Complex disease pathogenesis • The more often your cells divide the more likely they are to acquire errors • The more often your cells get injured the more likely they are to acquire errors • Some things will injure certain cells/genes over others • Certain cells/genes are more prone to injury than others So why do people get lung fibrosis? • They get older (more cell divisions) • Their lungs get injured (cigarette smoke, gastroesophageal reflux.) • They have susceptible genes Lung transplantation http://www.uktransplant.org.uk/ukt/ Interstitial Lung Disease Unit IPF is the second commonest indication for lung transplantation COPD IPF CF Alpha1-AT deficiency 34-38% 17-23% 17-19% 9% Registry Data ISHLT lung transplantation 22nd report 2005. LAIA 2002 Interstitial Lung Disease Unit ISHLT Guidelines for lung transplant in people with IPF Referral • Histologic or radiographic evidence of UIP irrespective of vital capacity. • Absence of major CI Transplantation - Histologic or radiographic evidence of UIP and any of the following: - A DLco of less than 39% predicted. - 10% or > FVC during 6/12 follow-up. - O2 Sats < 88% during a 6-MWT. - Honeycombing on HRCT (fibrosis score of > 2). JHLT, July 2006 Interstitial Lung Disease Unit Lung transplant leads to improved survival in IPF Thaboot et al 2003 Interstitial Lung Disease Unit The number of patients with IPF being transplanted are increasing. Interstitial Lung Disease Unit The downside? High operative mortality (15% in first 3 months) No. of donor organs available<< recipients. – median waiting period for the single lung transplantation • UK= 351 days (CI 293 to 427 days ) • USA=3 months. Large number of contraindications. Interstitial Lung Disease Unit Suitable organs • Age (donor<65) • Minimal smoking history (<5 pack years) • Clear CXR • No evidence of sepsis • No PMH of malignancy/chronic lung disease/ Hep B/C HIV • Acceptable bronchoscopic and visual findings Bridging to Transplant on ECMO • IPF, is a progressive diseases without effective therapy. • Transplant is often “only chance”. • ECMO is a bridge to transplant. Research in IPF 5 year survival rates from IPF compared with various cancers. . Vancheri ERJ 2010 35(3):496-504 Interstitial Lung Disease Unit CRUK CRUK Spending on cancer research by cancer type CRUK Figure 3.3: Ten-year relative survival rate, female breast cancer, England and Wales, 1971-2000 100 90 80 70 % survival 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1971-1975 1976-1980 1981-1985 1986-1990 1991-1995 Period of diagnosis 1996-2000* * England only CRUK UK IPF research budgets Maybe £2,000,000 British Lung Foundation £260,000 in 2012 However the profile is rising Interstitial Lung Disease Unit Two Broad Approaches 1) Choose available drug 2) See if it works 1) Define molecular pathogenesis 2) Design drug targeting offending molecule 3) Check drug engages mechanism 4) See if it works Interstitial Lung Disease Unit Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia • • • • • 5 year survival figures Busulphan 34.2% Hydroxyurea 46.5% Interferon 54.6% Imatinib 89% What do we need to study disease and discover new treatments • • • • Imagination Persistence Translation Priorities – Specific – Relevant – Achievable • Money • Tissue – Blood – Bronchoalveolar Lavage – Bits of lung Randomised Clinical Trials in IPF Pre-2000 Post-2000 • Raghu et al 2004 • Demendts et al 2005 • Tashkin et al 2006 • King et al 2009 • Daniels et al 2010 • Zisman et al 2010 • Richeldi et al 2011 • Noble et al 2011 Numerous therapies currently in clinical trials • • • • • • BIBF-1120 (Boehringher) IL13 antibody (Novartis) Integrin antibody (Stromedix) IL13 and IL4 antibody (Sanofi-Aventis) PI3K antibody (Gilead) Around 40 drugs currently being trialled worldwide Thankyou!