Present Scenario

Report
Water-Energy-Carbon Nexus in Delhi
Key indicators, drivers and
implications
By:
Pratima Singh
Supervisor: Dr. Arun Kansal (TERI Univ.)
Co-supervisor: Dr. Cynthia Carliell Marquet (UOB)
Water-energy-carbon nexus and under rated issues
ENERGY FOR WATER
US- 4% for WT,5% GHG emission
from water sector (1) (no embodied
energy)
 S.A (eThekwini)- water distribution0.10 kWh/m3 , GHG emission 0.139 kg
CO2e/m3 (2)
 Belgium- WWTP’s (0.05 to 1.34)
MGD was (0.19 to 0.31)kWh/m3 (3)
 NW Spain- Aeration (0.177 to 0.70)
MGD was (1.13 to 2.07) kWh/m3 (4)
 Toronto- WT 0.68 kWh/m3 and GHG
0.11 kg CO2e/m3 yr.(5)
 UK- 3% for WS 41 million tonnes
CO2e/yr (6) (no embodied energy)
Sources:
1. Rothausen.S; Conway.D, 2011
2. Friedrich et al. 2007
3. Lassaux et al., 2007
4. Gallego et L., 2008
5. Racoviceanu et al.,2007
6. Rothausen.S; Conway.D, 2011
7. World energy council report, 2010
WATER FOR ENERGY (7)
 Coal production- 0.164 m3/GJ
 Crude oil- 1.058 m3/GJ
 Natural gas- 0.109 m3/GJ
 Hydropower- 5.4 m3/MWh
 Solar heating- 0.954 m3/MWh
 Nuclear plant- 2.726 m3/MWh
 Solar thermal power plant- 4
m3/MWh
 Thermoelectric power plant3.7 m3/MWh
2
Knowledge Gaps
• Lack of energy studies for urban water sector in Asia & MiddleEast. (More focus on agriculture, industries and infrastructure)
• Only electrical energy consumption has been considered for the
energy use in almost all the studies.
• Lack of information related to emission from wastewater system
including various treatment processes.
• Lack of water-energy-carbon nexus study in South-Asian nation
on water system
3
Aim & Objective
The study aims to look into the water-energy nexus in a
integrated manner for the entire urban water cycle. The nexus
will focus on the criticality of one influencing the other. Total
energy and forms of energy used in various aspect of urban
water sector will be assimilated and also water used for energy
generation will be accounted. The study will also look into the
energy nexus to find its influence on the climate action plan of
the city.
4
Objectives
• To find the energy intensity, various form’s of energy
consumption of urban water system- the factors that influence
the energy use
• To find how different forms has influenced overall energy
consumption and climate.
• To find water requirement of energy generation
• Comparative analysis of Birmingham and India water system–
lesson’s
5
Scope
• System boundary commences at the point of raw water
abstraction and ends with discharge of treated wastewater.
• Various forms of energy used for operation & maintenance
will be accounted (Electrical, manual, petroleum). Energy for
construction, embodied energy and chemical energy are not
considered.
• Carbon emission (off-site and on-site) and potential fugitive
emission during treatment process will be taken into account.
• Impacts associated with carbon emission’s are not considered.
• The end use of water is not taken into account.
6
Key research questions
• What is the energy share of water sector to the city’s total energy
demand ?
• What is energy elasticity with respect to scale of treatment units
and technology ?
• Does other forms of energy has any significance in total energy
estimate ?
7
Main activities of proposed research
Growing
and
producing
bio-fuels
Extraction
& refining
Hydro
power
plants
Thermal
power
plants
Water for energy
Fuel
production
Abstraction
Disposal
Energy for water
Groundwater
Surface water
Intermediate pumping
Off-site emissions
Intermediate pumping
On-site emissions
Treatment
WW
Treatment
Energy intensity (elect., manual, petroleum)
On-site & fugitive emissions
WW
collection
Wastewater pumping
Off-site emissions
Energy intensity (elect., manual, petroleum)
On-site emissions
Distribution
Water pumping
Tanker-fuel
Domestic Booster pump
Domestic purifiers
Off-site emissions
8
Case study - Delhi
9
Preliminary results-LU/LC
2006
1977
NOIDA
<delhi-masterplan.com>
10
(Sharma et al. 2008)
(Sharma et al. 2011)
Population growth in NCR
Data Sources: <indiastat.com>, Census of India; Data Sources:
<http://urbanindia.nic.in/theministry/subordinateoff/tcpo/DMA_Report/CHAPTER_3.pdf>
11
Population and
resource
migrationYamuna
River basin
Yamuna
Yamuna basin
Resource migration
Population migration
12
Photo courtesy: Central Pollution Control Board, <www.google.com>
Existing water sources in Delhi
Water resources Delhi
Total amount (MGD)
Yamuna Water
339 MGD
Ganga Water
240 MGD
Bhakra Beas Management Board water
Ground water
150 MGD
100 MGD
Data Sources: MPD-2021, 2003.
Department of Environment and Forest, 2010
Sources of raw water, Delhi
Tehri Dam/Upper Ganga
Canal, 226 km, 240 MGD
Bhakra-Nangal
storage/Sutlej river, 230 km,
140 MGD
Western Yamuna Canal,
113 km, 100MGD
Hathnikund barrage
Eastern Yamuna Canal, 25 km, 240 MGD
Wazirabad waterworks, 3 km
Wazirabad barrage
(210 MGD)
Bawana
waterworks
Chandrawal waterworks, 3 km
Sonia vihar
20 km
waterworks
Bhagirathi
25 km
waterworks
Nangloi waterworks
228km
Dwarka
waterworks
Haiderpur waterworks
I 231km
Haiderpur waterworks II
112.4 km
Najafgarh drain
Hindon Cut
Shahdara Drain
Agra Canal
Supplementary
drain
Data Sources: DHI, 2010;
http://www.urbanindia.nic.in/programme/uwss/uiww/PPT
_4th_Meeting/DJB_Water_PPT.pdf
Okhla
14
Thermal Power Plant
MPD-2021, 2003
MPD-2021, 2003
15
Declining trend in groundwater, NCR
16
Data Sources: Shekhar et al.2009 CGWB; NCRPB
Energy consumption for groundwater
extraction
Ground water Units
Avg. daily withdrawal
(m3/d)
Avg. Depth (m)
Energy estimated
(kWh/d)
Delhi
Private
DJB
Gurgaon
Borewell and
Tubewell
Noida
Borewell and
Tubewell
17
Energy demand forecast for
groundwater pumping
Year
Estimated
depth (m)
Estimated
abstraction (m3/d)
Estimated Energy
consumed (MWh/d)
Indirect GHG emission
(Gg-CO2-e/d)
2001
2011
2021
18
Public water supplies WTPs
Photo courtesy: www.stupco.com
Name
Capacity (MGD) Estimated Energy consumption (MWh/d)
Wazirabad (I, II & III)
120
Hayderpur
200
Sonia Vihar
140
Bhagirathi (North Shahdara)
100
Nangloi
40
Chandrawal (I & II)
90
Bawana
20
TOTAL
710
19
Data Source: DJB
Trend of increasing gap between
water treatment
and water demand
20
Data sources: Department of environment and Forest, 2010
Private water purifiers
2000s
1990s
1980s
Reverse osmosis
Filter + U.V.
Filter
21
Photo courtesy: www.google.com
Water consumption through
purifiers
Categories
Filter
Filter + UV R.O (domestic + water markets)
Nothing
HIG
2%
40%
43%
15%
MIG
4%
48%
31%
17%
LIG
13%
37%
12%
38%
Daily production for water for cooking and drinking is found to be 40 liters/day per household
Purifiers
Filter + UV
Estimated energy consumption (MWh/d)
2.74
R.O
122.35
TOTAL
125.09
22
Data Source for energy consumption of RO & Filter + UV system: Uniphil Electronics Private Limited
Water distribution
23
Water distribution by tankers
Zones
Summer months
Rest of the year
No. of tankers used
per week
Avg. capacity of the
tankers (gallons)
No. of tankers used
per week
Avg. capacity of
the tankers
(gallons)
Central
NA
NA
NA
NA
City & Sp
120
4500
120
4500
Civil lines
3620 trips
3000-10000 lit.
1045
6000-10000 lit
Karol Bagh
1000 trips
850
350
850
Mehrauli
91
1500
42
1500
Najafgarh
NA
NA
NA
NA
Rohini
1791
1350
714
1350
RWS-N
721
8667
221
2657
Shah/N
2100
5000
1000
5000
Shah/S
1700
1000
1150
1000
South
1365 trips
1320
450
1320
West
860
6000
660
6000
24
Data Source: TERI Report No. 1999EE44
Photo’s courtesy:
www.google.co.in/images
 5741 Gallons of water is distributed everyday by
private tankers.
 On an avg. 1910 private and 400a public tankers
distribute water all over Delhi.
 Individual tankers travels 18 km on an avg. and makes
4 trips per day.
 Tankers use diesel as fuel and they still run on old
engine technology.
25
a- www.ccsindia.org
Area without sewerage facility
Status-categories
No. of colonies/villages
Unauthorized colonies
1639
JJ clusters
1080
Rural villages
201
26
Data source: DJB, 2010
Gap between sewage generated
and treated
Wastewater scenario
700
640
600
513
500
400
MGD
360
300
MGD
200
100
0
WW generated
WWTP installed
capacity
WW treated
27
Data source: DJB, 2010
Methodology
• Literature Review
• Data collected
a) field observations, primary data collection
b) interactions with plant operators and
c) One-on-one interviews
d) time inventory of various activities on field for manual energy
using stopwatch.
e) comprehensive inventorization of activities and their subactivities in STP demanding energy (manual, fuel, electrical)
f) Validation of data with log-book and records of operation in
plant
g) Equal representation of weekdays and weekends was
considered for monitoring
28
Methodology
Estimation of electrical energy input
• The electrical energy input is estimated by considering the electrical
load of the pump/motor (kW), time in hours (h) for which the motor
is operated and total amount of wastewater treated.
• Where, Ep is the electrical energy kWh/m3; is determined using
Q is the total flow of wastewater in m3/d
P is the rated power of the electrical motor in kilo Watt (kW)
T is the operation hours in a day (h/d)
The motor efficiency is assumed as 80% (Fadare DA 2010).
29
Estimation of manual energy input
• Where, Em is manual energy in kWh/m3 is determined using
n is the number of nature of activities (light, active, and heavy)
m is the number of gender (male, female)
E is the human energy equivalent (kW)
N is the number of persons engaged in an activity
T is the total time devoted in the activity (h/d)
Human power equivalent (E) in kW
Input
Male
Female
Activities in the treatment plant
Light
0.13
0.10
Switch on/off the raw water pump, maintain the log-book, check motor temperature
Moderate
0.14
0.11
Open/close the sludge drain valve, operation of valves for backwashing
Heavy
0.54
0.44
Prepare the chemical solution for dosing, fill the chemical solution in the dosing tank,
30
collect the dried sludge in gunny bags
Estimation of fuel energy use
• Fuel energy (Ef) kWh/m3 is calculated using eq.
• Where, 15.64 is the unit energy value of diesel in kWh/l (Devi
2007a)
D is the amount of diesel consumed in l/d.
• Diesel consumption is also used for oiling and repairing of
machineries
Estimation of energy use(booster pumps) for domestic purpose
Interview based survey with the help of questionnaire having close ended
and quantity based questions. Pilot study will be conducted
31
Estimation of GHG emission’s
• Calculation of direct and in-direct emissions associated with electricity
generation
PCO2, electricity = Erequired ×∑ (Fi × EFi)
• Where, PCO2, electricity is GHG production of the plant (kg CO2e/m3)
Erequired is the electricity demands of the plant in kWh/m3
Fi is the % contribution of the fuel (i) to satisfy electricity generation needs
EFi is the GHG emission factor of fuel (i) in producing electricity in kg
CO2e/kWh
32
Process wise energy distribution
% share to different process
Aer+Bio filt
3.2%
ASP
32.99%
Phy-chem+bio-fil
31.71%
Ext-Aer
32.1%
33
Total electrical energy
consumption by centralized
WWTPs
0.5
0.45
0.4
0.35
0.3
0.25
Electrical energy kWh/m3
0.2
0.15
0.1
0.05
0
45 40 40 40 37 30
25 20 20 20 16 12
10 10 10 10 10 5
3 2.2 2.2 2.2
34
Total fuel energy consumption by
centralized WWTPs
Total fuel energy consumption
6.00E-02
5.00E-02
Energy kWh/m3
4.00E-02
3.00E-02
2.00E-02
1.00E-02
Series1, 1.71E-04
0.00E+00
35
Total manual energy consumption
by centralized WWTPs
Manual energy kWh/m3
0.002
0.0018
0.0016
0.0014
0.0012
0.001
0.0008
0.0006
Manual energy kWh/m3
0.0004
0.0002
0
36
Total energy consumption by
centralized WWTPs
Total energy consumption
5.00E-01
4.50E-01
4.00E-01
Energy kWh/m3
3.50E-01
3.00E-01
2.50E-01
2.00E-01
1.50E-01
1.00E-01
Series1, 8.53E-02
5.00E-02
0.00E+00
37
Percentage share of energy
Manual
0%
Fuel
5%
% of Energy forms
Electricity
95%
38
Technology wise energy distribution
DAF unit
Polishing 0.56%
unit
Densadeg unit
H2S
0.025% scrubber
0.86%
Pump
0.06%
Flash
house
mixer
2.74%
0.75%
Plant + Admin
3.94%
Screening
0.46%
Grit removal
9.3%
Centrifuge
unit
0.06%
Sludge
bed
filtrate
0.26%
Primary Settling tank
0.59%
Raw sludge pump house
0.71%
Pressdeg unit
0.75%
BIOFOR unit
18%
Return sludge pump house
9.78%
Gas holder
0.19%
Digester
1.90%
Aeration
48%
Final settling tank
1.06%
39
Zonal energy distribution
Total electrical energy kWh/m3
2.00
1.80
Zone
Popl.(mill)
Shahdara
1.1
1.20
Rithala
0.94
1.00
Okhla
2.86
Keshopur
2.29
CP
0.46
Outer Delhi
0.15
TOTAL
7.71
1.60
1.40
0.80
0.60
Total electrical energy kWh/m3
0.40
0.20
0.00
40
Zonal % energy distribution
(SPS+WWTP’s)
Coronation pillar
3%
Keshopur
4%
Outer Delhi
7%
Shahadra
13%
Rohini-Rithala
5%
Okhla
67%
41
Decentralized WWTP
WWTP
Size of the Plant
(m3/d)
Energy Consumption
(MWh/d)
TERI WWTP
25
0.048
SMB School WWTP
50
0.25
IOCL WWTP
100
0.18
Delhi Haat WWTP
175
0.19
Escorts Hospital
WWTP
Fortis Hospital
WWTP
Apollo Hospital
WWTP
300
0.36
300
0.38
1000
1.03
42
Total energy consumption and CO2 emission
in urban water cycle
Estimated energy
consumed (MWh/d)
Abstraction
Water treatment
Distribution
WWT
Indirect GHG
emission (Gg CO2e/d)
Ground water pumping only
excluding
surface water conveyance from distance
Domestic/private Water Purifiers
Public
Tankers
Pipeline (water supply + sewage)
Centralized
TOTAL
43
Water for energy
Name
Indraprastha power
station
Rajghat power house
Fuel used
Capacity
Water requirement (MGD)
Coal based
247.5 MW
8.6
Coal based
135 MW
4.7
GTPS
Gas based
282 MW
4.2
Pragati power station
Gas based
330 MW
4.9
Badarpur TPP
Coal Based
705 MW
24.6
TOTAL
1699.5 MW
Govt. of NCT of Delhi 2001-02
44
Water for energy
Data Source: http://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-national/tpnewdelhi/article2519668.ece
http://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Delhi/article2525061.ece
45
Key indicators, drivers and Implications
• Tension between water and energy is growing. Demand of
energy for wastewater treatment WWTP’s in urban water cycle is
increasing with increasing population, which is found to be
2.65Wh/m3 (3.9% of the total power demand of the city) and
availability of water for energy generation is reducing resulting in
less power generation during peak season.
• Increasing trends of energy demand for sewage pumping: In
Delhi from all the 7 zones the total energy use for sewage pumping
is found to be about 0.13kWh/m3 , (3.5% of the total power
demand of the city)
• Process having the greatest impact on energy consumption:
Aeration in activated sludge process that the highest energy use of
1.28kWh/m3 (48% of the total energy consumed in the treatment
process).
46
Key indicators, drivers and Implications
• Activated sludge process dominated the energy consumption
with 0.87kWh/m3 (33% of the total energy consumed in the
treatment process) compared to other technologies
• Increase in energy consumption with large urban spread: Out
of the seven zonal areas in Delhi, it was found that Okhla zone
consumed the highest amount of energy for sewage pumping and
wastewater treatment, 1.86kWh/m3 (67% of the total energy
consumed in treatment and pumping process).
47
THANKS
48

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