Fostering Independent Learning In Students TLI 2013 Presented by: Dr. Anne Cramer Dr. Neil Shepard What do you want me to do? We never did this in class. Can Dependent Learners What chapter is this in? Here’s what I’ve done so far. Is this important? This is the plan I’d like to follow. Become Self-Directed? Here is one possible strategy. This is the topic I’d like to research. Why Independent Learning? Self-Directed Learners Able to adapt (Gibbons) Aware of responsibility (Garrison) Motivated, persistent, self-disciplined, goal-oriented (Taylor) Learn more, retain more, apply learning (Knowles) Better positioned to succeed in a 21st century environment that values mastery of learning over mastery of content (Meyer & Rose) Why Independent Learning? Benefits of being a self-directed, independent learner include: Better Job Performance (Ozer, Simmons, Pink) Strong Team Relationships (Ozer, Simmons) More Engaged Citizenship (Ozer, Simmons) Higher Personal Satisfaction (Pink) Improved Academic Performance (Knowles) Example #1: Turn question back Questions are fantastic opportunities to create space for stimulating independent learning “Do I need to write this down?” Why would you? What would be the purpose? Does that purpose apply now? How do you decide what to write down? Are you willing to take a chance that you won’t need notes? Example #2: Turn question back “May I have a sample from last year?” What would you use a sample for? What questions would you be looking to answer? Where else might you find those answers? Assignment instructions/guidelines? Rubric? APA guidelines? Website? Example #3: Turn question back “I can’t find the answer...” Are you being asked for research? What are you being asked? Personal opinion? (How might you support it?) Solve a problem? (What problem? Plan action.) Analyze a situation? (What situation? Relevant considerations?) Quick Brainstorm What sorts questions have you heard from students? How might you respond? Longer-Term Strategy: Give general feedback & guidance PowerPoint: Guide learning rather than inform content. Note-Taking: Offer outline – better yet, have students develop the outline. Feedback on assignments: Suggest general categories for improvement. A Little History: Learning Theories Malcolm Knowles: Andragogy (1998) Self-Directed, Goal-Oriented, Practical Adults already set goals, plan, manage time Learning Styles (1992) Visual, Auditory, Read/Write, Kinesthetic Over 70 assessments No evidence of improvement w/adjusted instruction Some evidence . . . use by students increased autonomy1 1 Ng & Confessore, 2010 Contemporary Learning Theories Self-paced, Active Learning Khan Academy: 3000+ videos on You-Tube (Salman Kahn, 2012) Associative Learning Connect to known ideas (Marcia Conner, 2013; Eric Kandel, 2000) Contemporary Learning Theories Self-Monitoring Evaluate knowledge, plan, monitor, adjust (Carnegie Mellon, 2011) Universal Design for Learning Design curriculum in such a way so that all individuals have equal opportunity to learn (Meyer & Rose, 2005 ) Independent Learning: Gradual Shift in Student and Instructor Roles Student sets learning objectives, goals What are you hoping to achieve? How will you get there? Student assesses knowledge base & resources What do you already know about this? What resources can you use? Student develops plan, identifies processes What are the key steps and dates? • Student monitors & assesses own work What steps have you completed? What do you need to do next? Independent Learning: Gradual Shift in Student and Instructor Roles Instructor negotiates student proposals for learning outcomes, goals Instructor encourages reflection & adaptation Instructor guides students through selfidentified challenges Instructor reviews a student’s assessment of work Gradual Shift: Instructor Roles Teacher Directed Student Directed Decide lesson goals, content Teach processes to set goals Present lessons Teach processes to make plans, take action Establish exercises, assignments Negotiate student proposals for learning, acting Monitor completion, accuracy of work Guide students through selfdirected challenge activities Test & grade performance Review students’ assessment of own work Fostering Independent Learning in Students Can students learn independently? To some extent, they already do and they can build on this. Can we foster independent learning? Guide rather than prescribe. Encourage reflection, self-development. Ensure students have necessary access Four Suggested Principles (Francom, 2010) Fostering Self-Directed Learning 1. Match level of self-direction to student readiness. 2. Move toward self-direction over time 3. Provide instruction on both subject matter and self-direction 4. Promote learning transfer: Try to bridge life experiences and class experiences Application Consider one of your standard assignments. Identify the main learning objective. How much structured direction can you remove? Would the inevitable variation in projects be acceptable? Think about possible “leading” questions. Questions? Comments? Thank You! Sources (The official stuff) Confessore, G. J. & Park, E. (2004). Factor validation of the Learner Autonomy Profile, version 3.0 and extraction of the short form. International Journal of Self-directed Learning, 1 (1), 39 -58. Conner, M.L. (2013). How Adults Learn. Ageless Learner. Retrieved from http://agelesslearner.com/intros/adultlearning.html Eberly Center, Carnegie Mellon. (2013). Theory and Research-Based Principles of Learning. Retrieved from http://www.cmu.edu/teaching/principles/learning.html. Eberly Center, Carnegie Mellon. (2013). Educational Value of Course-Level Learning Objectives/ Outcomes. Retrieved from http://www.cmu.edu/teaching/resources/Teaching/CourseDesign/Objectives/CourseLearningObject ivesValue.pdf Fleming, N.D. and Mills, C. (1992). Not Another Inventory, Rather a Catalyst for Reflection. To Improve the Academy, 11. 137. Retrieved from http://www.vark-learn.com/english/index.asp Francom, G. M. (2010). Teach me how to learn: Principles for fostering students' self directed learning skills. International Journal of Self-Directed Learning, 7 (1),29-44. Gibbons, M. (2002). The self-directed learning handbook: Challenging adolescent students to excel. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Garrison, D.R. (1997). Self-directed learning: Toward a comprehensive model. Adult Education Quarterly, 97 (1), 18-33. Grasha, A.F. (1996). Teaching with style: A practical guide to enhancing learning by understanding teaching and learning styles. Pittsburgh, PA: Alliance Guglielmino, L. M. 1977. Development of the self-directed learning readiness scale. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia. Kahn, S. (2012). The One-World Schoolhouse: Education Reimaged. [Kindle edition]. Retrieved from Amazon.com. Sources (The official stuff) Knowles, M. S., Holton, E. F., & Swanson, R.A. (1998). A theory of adult learning: Andragogy. In The adult learner: The definitive classic in adult education and human resource development (5th ed., pp. 35-72). Woburn: Butterworth Heinemann. Maddox, Nick, Monique Forte, & Robert Boozer. (2000). Developments in Business Simulation & Experiential Learning, v. 27. Meyer, A, & Rose, D.H. (2005) The future is in the margins: The role of technology and disability in educational reform. In D. H. Rose, A. Meyer & C. Hitchcock (Eds.), The universally designed classroom: Accessible curriculum and digital technologies (pp. 13-35). Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press. Ng, S. F. & Confessore, G. J. (2010). The Relationship of Multiple Learning Styles to Levels of Learner Autonomy. International Journal of Self-Directed Learning, 7 (1), 1-13. Ozer, M. (2011). A Moderated Mediation Model of the Relationship Between Organizational Citizenship Behaviors and Job Performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96 (6), 1328-1336. doi: 10.1037/a0023644 Pashler, H., McDaniel, M., Rohrer, D., & Bjork, R. (2009). Learning Styles: Concepts and Evidence. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 9 (3), 105-119. doi: 10.1111/j.1539-6053.2009.01038.x Simmons, B. (2011). Autonomy Enables the Helpful to Perform. In Positive Organizational Behavior, Aug. 8, 2011. Retrieved from http://www.bretlsimmons.com/2011-08/autonomy-enables-the-helpful-to-perform/ Stockdale, S. L. & Brockett, R. G.. (2010). A Measure of Self-Direction in Learning Based on the Personal Responsibility Orientation Model. Adult Education Quarterly, 61 (2), 161-190. doi:10.1177/0741713610380447. Taylor, B. (1995). Self-Directed Learning: Revisiting an Idea Most Appropriate for Middle School Students. Paper presented at the Combined Meeting of the Great Lakes and Southeast International Reading Association, Nashville, TN, Nov 11-15. TEDtalksDirector (2009, August 25). Dan Pink: The Puzzle of Motivation. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rrkrvAUbU9Y.