The Civil War and Reconstruction

Report
The Civil War
and
Reconstruction
Grade 4
Social Studies
Unit 8
Lesson 2
©2012, TESCCC
Civil War and Reconstruction
BEAN BINGO
• Look over the key terms on your Bingo Card.
• When you see one of the key terms on the
PowerPoint, place a BEAN in that square.
• Try to go for a BLACKOUT BINGO!
• The teacher will assign each person a partner
for short Quiz-Quiz-Praise games throughout
the presentation.
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Civil War: 1861-1865
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Civil War:
The Civil War and Reconstruction had
great impact on Texas:
• Political
• Economic
• Social
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Civil War:
Political Impact:
having to do with the
structures and affairs of
government, politics and
its institutions, or
politicians
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Civil War:
Economic Impact
having to do with the
production, development,
and management of
material wealth of a
country, household, or
business enterprise
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Civil War:
Social Impact:
having to do with the
way people live together
in communities
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Civil War:
What were the
CAUSES for the
Civil War?
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Civil War: Causes
STATES’ RIGHTS
•
The 10th Amendment to the United States
Constitution states that all powers not given to
the Congress by the Constitution (Art. I, Sec. 8)
are reserved to the states, States' Rights.
•
Because the power to decide issues regarding
slavery is not given to the Congress in the
Constitution, the southern states felt that is was
within their power to determine the issue.
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Civil War: Causes
Northern
States
Northern
States
The Union
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•
The Northern States agreed
with the Federal Government
and wanted to abolish slavery.
•
Their economy was based on
industry and did not rely on
slavery.
•
Very few families owned
slaves.
•
The Northern States formed
the Union.
Civil War: Causes
•
The Southern States did not agree
with the Federal Government.
•
They believed in STATES’ RIGHTS
(states having the power to govern
themselves).
•
Their economy was based on
agriculture (farming and raising
livestock) and relied heavily on
slavery.
•
Many plantation owners used
slaves to work in their homes and
fields.
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The Confederacy
Civil War: Causes
Tariffs
•
The South was producing cotton and selling it to the
North as well as to England.
•
Northern manufacturers were producing cloth they
wanted to sell in the South. However they charged
more than England did for those manufactured
goods.
•
The North wanted a protective tariff placed on
imported goods thus raising England’s prices on
goods.
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Civil War: Causes
Tariffs
•
Southerners and Northerners both would have to pay
more for manufactured goods imported from
overseas, which would help sales of products made
in the U.S.
•
The South protested that the government did not
have the right to do this.
•
However, the Constitution gives the Congress the
power to pass import taxes (export taxes are
forbidden), so this was not really a states’ rights
issue.)
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TESCCC
Civil War: Impact on Texas
• Throughout the Civil War,
President Abraham Lincoln
developed several plans to bring
the nation back together and to
give the enslaved African
Americans their freedom.
Image from:
http://nymag.com/daily/intel/2011/02/abraham_lincoln_
jumped_out_of.html
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• The Executive Order known as The
Emancipation Proclamation,
which freed slaves in the slaveholding Southern states, went into
effect January 1, 1863.
Quiz-Quiz-Praise Game
• Turn to your partner.
• Take turns quizzing each other over the
following key terms.
• When you partner gets an answer correct, be
sure to celebrate with a high five or a cheer!
States’
Rights
Abraham
Lincoln
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Tariff
Confederacy
Emancipation
Proclamation
Union
Civil War:
What impact did
the Civil War have
on Texas?
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Civil War: Political Impact
•
The Southern States,
including Texas, SECEDED
(pulled out of) the United
States in 1861.
•
The Southern states formed
the CONFEDERACY (states
have more power than the
Federal Government)
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Civil War: Political Impact
Texas gave reasons for joining the
Confederacy:
• SECTIONALISM - Texas supported its
"sister slave-holding States.”
• Most Texans were originally from the
South and had connections to friends
and families there.
• These Texans believed in slavery
although most did not own slaves.
• Economically, politically and socially
Texans were connected to the South.
Civil War: Political Impact
Texas gave reasons for joining
the Confederacy:
• The Federal government had not
been helping Texas prevent
Indian attacks, slave-stealing
raids, and other acts of banditry
in Texas.
• Texas economy depended on
slavery.
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Civil War: Political Impact
• Texas Governor, Sam
Houston, did not agree
with secession from the
union and resigned after
Texans voted
overwhelmingly to secede
in February of 1861.
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Image from: http://www.biography.com/people/samhouston-9344806
Significant Texans in the Civil War:
Which person matches each description?
John Magruder
John Bell Hood
Francis Lubbock
Thomas Green
1.
Leader of Confederate Hood’s Brigade; Fort
Hood Texas named after him
2. Governor of Texas in 1861 after Sam Houston
resigned
3. Commander of the Confederate forces in Texas
4. Led the gunboat battle where Texas took back
control of Galveston; strapped cotton bales to
the sides of steamboats to protect the riflemen
5. Confederate Army General, 19th governor of
Texas, one of the president of what is now
known as A & M University
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Lawrence Sullivan
“Sul” Ross
Civil War: Political Impact
• Texans fought in many battles in the
Civil War on the Confederate and
Union side
• Conscription Act (had to join the
army) - Over 60,000, Texans joined
the Confederacy
• On the Union side, former slaves and
many Texas immigrants fought
Significant Texas Battles in the Civil War:
Which description matches which battle?
Battle of Sabine Pass
Battle of Galveston
Batle of Palmito Ranch
1.
July 1861 – The Union Navy began to block
Texas ports; 1863, Confederate troops
convert steamboats to gunships and take
back the port
2. September 1863 - Union plans to invade Texas
with 5000 troops and attack Houston;
Lieutenant Richard Dowling and his men
defended Ft. Griffin for a complete victory
3. May 1865 – Union army moved to capture
Brownsville; collided with Confederate troops
led by John S. Fort; Confederate troops
captured 100 union soldiers who told them the
war was over in April
Civil War: Economic Impact
• Northern blockades cut off food, supplies,
war material to the south created
shortages of…
•
•
•
•
•
Coffee
Medicine
Clothing
Salt
Paper
• Trade along the Mexican border
continued
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• Demand for cotton was down because of
the war, but demand for corn and wheat
up due to food shortages
Civil War: Economic Impact
• Freed slaves leave few
left on the farms
• Lower production of
agriculture and business
due to men being at war
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Civil War: Social Impact
• With so many Texans fighting in
the war, women and children
had to be responsible for the
businesses, farms, and homes.
• Many suffered the loss of
family members.
• Union supporters were treated
with hostility.
Image found at:
http://welcomebacktopottersville.blogspot.com/2010/07/i-couldjust-see-this-now.html
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• Life was hard in Texas.
Civil War: Civil War Ends
• The war ended in April 1865, but because of Texas’s
location, the news of the war ending did not reach
Texas until June 19, 1865. Why did it take so long for
Texans to hear this news?
• The last Civil War battle was in Brownsville, Texas May
12 -13.
• The North, or Union forces, had already won the war.
• Confederate General Robert E. Lee had signed the
surrender agreement one month before.
©2012, TESCCC
Quiz-Quiz-Praise Game
• Turn to your partner.
• Take turns quizzing each other over the
following key terms.
• When you partner gets an answer correct, be
sure to celebrate with a high five or a cheer!
©2012, TESCCC
Secede
Sectionalism
Conscription
Act
Confederacy
Reconstruction: 1863 - 1874
Image from: http://www.mrburnett.net/civilwar.html
©2012, TESCCC
Reconstruction: Impact
• A week after the end of the
Civil War, President Lincoln
was assassinated by John
Wilkes Booth.
• His successor, President
Johnson continued on with
the process of
Reconstruction, or
rebuilding the country.
©2012, TESCCC
Image found at:
http://www.abrahamlincolnsclassroom.org/Library/newsletter.asp?ID
=14&CRLI=91
Reconstruction: Impact
• Many Texans were not happy about losing the
war because their life had changed drastically
• There was a shortage of free labor to farm
their fields.
• There was inadequate production in
agriculture and business.
• Transportation was disrupted.
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Reconstruction: Political Impact
• Martial Law – The U.S. military
police must come to Texas to
help keep peace
• Government removes Native
Americans from frontier
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Reconstruction: Political Impact
• Texas adopted the Constitution of 1876
• Reconstruction Amendments
Texas had to adopt in order to be
accepted back into the U.S.
• 13th Amendment - forbids slavery
• 14th Amendment – equal rights, regardless of race
• 15th Amendment – gave black men right to vote
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Reconstruction:
Economic Impact
•
There was a great increase in…
•
Tenant farming – people reside on and farm land owned by a
landlord
•
Sharecropping – people farming another man’s land for a share
of the profit
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Image from: http://www.encyclopediaofalabama.org//face/Multimedia.jsp?id=m-4585
Reconstruction:
Economic Impact
• Expansion of the railroad
• Cattle industry booms
• This led to an increase in people moving
to Texas
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Reconstruction:
Social Impact
• Freedmen’s Bureau was established in 1865 by
the Federal Government to provide the
following for freed slaves:
•
•
•
•
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Food
Shelter
Medicine
Opened the first schools for African Americans in
Texas, which were in operation for over 100 years
Reconstruction:
Social Impact
• On June 19, 1865, General Gordon Granger arrived in
Texas in Galveston Bay with 2,000 federal troops
announcing and enforcing the Emancipation
Proclamation.
• June 19th became
known as Juneteenth,
which became a
celebration of slaves
being set free.
Juneteenth celebration Austin, Texas 1900
Image taken from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Juneteenth
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Reconstruction:
Social Impact
• Because some did not agree with the new laws of
the U.S., some states passed Jim Crow laws to
enforce segregation (separating races).
• It became illegal for Black Texans and sometimes
Hispanic Texans to …
•
•
•
•
©2012, TESCCC
eat in the same restaurants
stay in the same hotel
attend the same schools
be treated in the same hospital as the Anglo Texans
Reconstruction:
Social Impact
• The Ku Klux Klan was a group that was formed to force
segregation and to keep African Americans from taking
part in politics.
• This was a time of great conflict, as Texans made their
way through a new era.
©2012, TESCCC
Quiz-Quiz-Praise Game
• Turn to your partner.
• Take turns quizzing each other over the following key terms.
• When you partner gets an answer correct, be sure to celebrate
with a high five or a cheer!
Reconstruction
Constitution
of 1876
13th, 14th, 15th
Amendment
Sharecropping
Tenant
Farming
Freeman’s
Bureau
Juneteenth
Jim Crow
Laws
KKK
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Civil War and Reconstruction
Did you get a
BEAN BINGO
BLACKOUT?
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