(WWW) Challenges: Energy Usage

Report
Drives and Pump Optimization
Discussion on Pump Optimization Principles and “Need to
Know” Drive Technology
Smart Water for Smart Cities
Workshop
11:00am Tuesday May 20, 2014
Presented by Paul Krasko
Water Wastewater (WWW) Challenges:
Energy Usage
● Demand for WWW
● Age of infrastructure
● Legislative compliance
● Reduced financial resources
● Energy efficiency awareness
● Energy use
Process = 70%
Pumping = 16%
Schneider Electric | Jeff M. Miller | 2014 MWEA & AWWA-MO Joint Annual Meeting | 10:30 Monday March 31st, 2014
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Finnish Technical Research Center Report:
“Expert systems for diagnosis of the condition and
performance of centrifugal pumps”
Evaluation of 1690 pumps at 20 process plants:
● Average pumping efficiency is below 40%
● Over 10% of pumps run below 10% efficiency
● Major factors affecting pump efficiency
■ Throttled control valves
■ Pump over-sizing
● Seal leakage causes highest downtime and cost
Schneider Electric | Jeff M. Miller | 2014 MWEA & AWWA-MO Joint Annual Meeting | 10:30 Monday March 31st, 2014
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System Curve Uncertainty
Results in Uncertain Pump Operation
- and higher costs
Schneider Electric | Jeff M. Miller | 2014 MWEA & AWWA-MO Joint Annual Meeting | 10:30 Monday March 31st, 2014
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PUMPS SYSTEM OVERVIEW
AND FUNDAMENTALS
Schneider Electric | Jeff M. Miller | 2014 MWEA & AWWA-MO Joint Annual Meeting | 10:30 Monday March 31st, 2014
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Overview
● The pumping system:
Components
End-use
• Pumps
• Water treatment
• Motors, engines
• Wastewater
• Piping
treatment
• Water distribution
• Power generation
• Irrigation
• Valves and fittings
• Controls and
instruments
• Heat exchangers
• Tanks
• Others
Schneider Electric | Jeff M. Miller | 2014 MWEA & AWWA-MO Joint Annual Meeting | 10:30 Monday March 31st, 2014
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Overview, continued
Electric utility
feeder
Transformer
Motor
breaker/starter
System Approach
● Component optimization involves
segregating components and analyzing in
isolation
● System optimization involves studying how
the group functions as one as well as how
changing one component can help the
efficiency of another
Adjustable
speed drive
(electrical)
Motor
Coupling
Pump
Fluid System
Schneider Electric | Jeff M. Miller | 2014 MWEA & AWWA-MO Joint Annual Meeting | 10:30 Monday March 31st, 2014
Served
Process(es)
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Pump Fundamentals
There are two basic types of pumps:
1. Centrifugal
2. Positive
Displacement (PD)
● Use a rotating impeller to increase
velocity of a liquid and its
stationary components direct
discharge flow to convert velocity
to increased pressure
● Types include axial, mixed flow,
and radial
● Move a set volume of liquid and
pressure is obtained as the liquid is
forced through the pump discharge
into the system
● Types include piston, screw, sliding
vane, and rotary lobe
Schneider Electric | Jeff M. Miller | 2014 MWEA & AWWA-MO Joint Annual Meeting | 10:30 Monday March 31st, 2014
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Pump Fundamentals, continued
Centrifugal Pumps
• Impart energy to
the liquid by
increasing its
speed in the
impeller and then
converting the
speed to
pressure through
diffusion in the
volute.
Schneider Electric | Jeff M. Miller | 2014 MWEA & AWWA-MO Joint Annual Meeting | 10:30 Monday March 31st, 2014
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AC Motors - Variable Torque Applications
Variable Torque (VT)
%
Torque,
Flow,
& HP
100
(Amps)
Torque
50
Flow
HP
50
100 %
(Base) Speed
Schneider Electric | Jeff M. Miller | 2014 MWEA & AWWA-MO Joint Annual Meeting | 10:30 Monday March 31st, 2014
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Pump Fundamentals, continued
PD Pumps
● Impart energy by
applying
mechanical force
directly to the liquid
through a
collapsing volume
Schneider Electric | Jeff M. Miller | 2014 MWEA & AWWA-MO Joint Annual Meeting | 10:30 Monday March 31st, 2014
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Energy Efficiency in Pumps
• Load Characteristics
Water Wastewater Load Characteristics
Variable
Torque
Constant
Torque
Constant
Power
Typical
Applications
Centrifugal Pumps
and Blowers
Positive
Displacement
Pumps, Blowers,
Mixers, and
Chemical Feed
Pumps
No applications
Energy
Savings
Potential
Substantial
Potential – Largest
of all VFD
applications
Lowest Potential
No Potential
The Main
Target ( first
priority)
The Next
Step ( second
priority)
Schneider Electric | Jeff M. Miller | 2014 MWEA & AWWA-MO Joint Annual Meeting | 10:30 Monday March 31st, 2014
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Pump Head Pressure
● Static head is the energy needed to overcome an
elevation or pressure difference between the suction and
discharge vessels.
● Frictional head loss increases by the square of the
velocity change of the liquid in the pipe.
● In most cases:
Schneider Electric | Jeff M. Miller | 2014 MWEA & AWWA-MO Joint Annual Meeting | 10:30 Monday March 31st, 2014
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Pump Head Pressure
Friction Head
Static Head
System Head Curve produced by US DOE PSAT Software
Schneider Electric | Jeff M. Miller | 2014 MWEA & AWWA-MO Joint Annual Meeting | 10:30 Monday March 31st, 2014
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Pump Head Pressure
Friction Head
● May occur in pump systems due to hydraulic losses in:
• Piping
• Valves
• Fittings (e.g., elbows, tees)
• Equipment (e.g., heat exchangers)
● Which are used to control flow or pressure by:
• Automated flow and pressure control valves
• Orifices
• Manual throttling valves
Schneider Electric | Jeff M. Miller | 2014 MWEA & AWWA-MO Joint Annual Meeting | 10:30 Monday March 31st, 2014
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VARIABLE FREQUENCY DRIVE
(VFD) BENEFITS WITH PUMPS
Schneider Electric | Jeff M. Miller | 2014 MWEA & AWWA-MO Joint Annual Meeting | 10:30 Monday March 31st, 2014
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Energy Efficiency in Pumping Systems
• Motor costs
Schneider Electric | Jeff M. Miller | 2014 MWEA & AWWA-MO Joint Annual Meeting | 10:30 Monday March 31st, 2014
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Energy Efficiency in Pumps
• Energy wastes
How your money is wasted!
Car example :
…try to regulate the speed of your
car
• keeping one foot on the accelerator
• the other on the brake.
Pump example :
… try to adjust the pump output
• running the motor at full speed
• control the flow with a throttle valve
Still one of the most common control methods in industry …..
with a considerable waste of energy
Schneider Electric | Jeff M. Miller | 2014 MWEA & AWWA-MO Joint Annual Meeting | 10:30 Monday March 31st, 2014
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VFD Benefits with Pumps
• Physical laws for centrifugal loads
It’s pure physics:
Due to the laws that govern centrifugal pumps,
the flow of water decreases directly with pump speed
Affinity laws of centrifugal loads:
Flow = f (motor speed)
Pressure = f (motor speed)2
Power = f (motor speed)3
Schneider Electric | Jeff M. Miller | 2014 MWEA & AWWA-MO Joint Annual Meeting | 10:30 Monday March 31st, 2014
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VFD Benefits with Pumps
• Physical laws for centrifugal loads
A motor running at 80% of full speed requires 51% of
the electricity of a motor running at full speed.
Schneider Electric | Jeff M. Miller | 2014 MWEA & AWWA-MO Joint Annual Meeting | 10:30 Monday March 31st, 2014
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VFD Benefits with Pumps
• Physical laws for centrifugal loads
A motor running at 50% of full speed requires 12.5% of
the electricity of a motor running at full speed.
Schneider Electric | Jeff M. Miller | 2014 MWEA & AWWA-MO Joint Annual Meeting | 10:30 Monday March 31st, 2014
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VFD Benefits with Pumps
• Physical laws for centrifugal loads
• A small reduction in speed produces a significant reduction in power
• Relevant applications : Pumps
• The resisting torque of centrifugal pumps varies with the square of the
speed : T = kN²
• Power is a cubed function P = kN³
EX 50HP 10Hrs/day, 250 days @$.08
With 15% average speed reduction
ATL = $7,460
VFD = $4,188
Savings = $3,272
Today, less than 10% of these motors are controlled with variable speed drives
Schneider Electric | Jeff M. Miller | 2014 MWEA & AWWA-MO Joint Annual Meeting | 10:30 Monday March 31st, 2014
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EFFICIENCY OF PUMPING
SYSTEMS
Schneider Electric | Jeff M. Miller | 2014 MWEA & AWWA-MO Joint Annual Meeting | 10:30 Monday March 31st, 2014
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VFD Benefits with Pumps
Other Benefits
In addition to energy savings, using a VFD has many other
advantages:
• Less mechanical stress on motor and system
• Less mechanical devices - Less maintenance
• Process regulation with PID regulators, load management
functions
• Reduce noise, resonance avoidance
• Performance and flexibility, range settings, above base
operations
• Easier installation and settings, drive mechanics
• Can be controlled with automation, communication networks
Schneider Electric | Jeff M. Miller | 2014 MWEA & AWWA-MO Joint Annual Meeting | 10:30 Monday March 31st, 2014
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STEPS TO OBTAIN PUMP
OPTIMIZATION
Schneider Electric | Jeff M. Miller | 2014 MWEA & AWWA-MO Joint Annual Meeting | 10:30 Monday March 31st, 2014
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Pump Optimization
Complete a detailed Pump Assessment
Pumps are usually consuming more energy than necessary:
• The pump is oversized and has to be throttled to deliver the right amount of
flow. Energy is lost in the valve.
• Pumps that are not running close to their best efficiency points (BEP) operate
at lower efficiency. Throttled pumps usually fall into this category.
• Pumps are running with by-pass, or recirculation, lines open.
• Pumps are running although they could be turned off.
• The pump is worn and the efficiency has deteriorated.
• The pump/system was installed or designed incorrectly (piping, base plate
etc.)
Schneider Electric | Jeff M. Miller | 2014 MWEA & AWWA-MO Joint Annual Meeting | 10:30 Monday March 31st, 2014
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Pump Optimization
Complete a detailed Pump Assessment
To determine whether these reasons apply, some basic information
is needed:
•
•
•
•
•
Actual system demand (flow and pressure)
Operational flow rate as a function of time (the duration curve)
Flow controls
The pump curve
Where the pump operates on the curve
Schneider Electric | Jeff M. Miller | 2014 MWEA & AWWA-MO Joint Annual Meeting | 10:30 Monday March 31st, 2014
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Process Energy Optimization
Automation is the key
• Develop consistent and
appropriate milestone and
deliverable expectations
• Standardize program schedule
tracking requirements
• Establish key energy
management performance
metrics
• Produce meaningful reports that
allow for clear and concise
decision-making
• Install additional monitoring
equipment as needed
Schneider Electric | Jeff M. Miller | 2014 MWEA & AWWA-MO Joint Annual Meeting | 10:30 Monday March 31st, 2014
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CONSIDERATIONS FOR
VARIABLE FREQUENCY
DRIVES FOR WATER AND
WASTEWATER
Schneider Electric | Jeff M. Miller | 2014 MWEA & AWWA-MO Joint Annual Meeting | 10:30 Monday March 31st, 2014
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VFD Topics
●Type(s)
●Enclosure/Environment/Packaging
●Harmonics/Harmonic Mitigation IEEE 519
●Accessibility
●Sustainability
Data Bulletin
8800DB1302
Schneider Electric | Jeff M. Miller | 2014 MWEA & AWWA-MO Joint Annual Meeting | 10:30 Monday March 31st, 2014
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VFD Considerations
●The industry has standardized on PWM 6 pulse
drives.
• Where 6 pulse refers to the front end of the drive and a
bridge of 6 diodes converting incoming AC to DC power.
• A DC bus (capacitor)
• Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT) as the output
components
• The output of which generates a simulated RMS
waveform with a constant V/Hz ratio
Schneider Electric | Jeff M. Miller | 2014 MWEA & AWWA-MO Joint Annual Meeting | 10:30 Monday March 31st, 2014
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One of These…
Schneider Electric | Jeff M. Miller | 2014 MWEA & AWWA-MO Joint Annual Meeting | 10:30 Monday March 31st, 2014
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Packaging…
Enclosed
NEMA UL
Type 1/12
MCC
Altivar Plus
Schneider Electric | Jeff M. Miller | 2014 MWEA & AWWA-MO Joint Annual Meeting | 10:30 Monday March 31st, 2014
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Harmonics Mitigation
●This continues to be a big topic in Water and
Wastewater
• The motor loads on VFDs are a large percentage of the
total load.
●Many consultants have standardized on designs
by HP requiring line reactors or multipulse drives
(typically 18 pulse).
• There are multiple solutions
• One size does not fit all.
● Schneider Electric offers as standard…18 pulse
VFD, Passive Harmonic Filter and Active
Harmonic Mitigation
Schneider Electric | Jeff M. Miller | 2014 MWEA & AWWA-MO Joint Annual Meeting | 10:30 Monday March 31st, 2014
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Harmonics Reduction
Typical AC drive
100HP
• Typical 6 pulse AC drive
• without line reactor
• Input voltage: orange
• Input current: cyan
• Large current spikes due to capacitors charging
• Peak currents = 300 amps
• Harmonic current distortion
• Large double humped current waveform
significantly contributes to harmonic content.
Total Harmonic Distortion Current
THDI = 80%
Schneider Electric | Jeff M. Miller | 2014 MWEA & AWWA-MO Joint Annual Meeting | 10:30 Monday March 31st, 2014
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Harmonics Reduction
AC drive
with 3% line reactor
100HP
•
Typical 6 pulse AC drive
• With 3% line reactor
•
Input voltage: orange
•
Input current: cyan
• Lower current spikes due to
capacitors charging
• Peak currents = 190 amps
•
Harmonic current distortion
• Significant double humped current
waveform reduced
Total Harmonic Distortion Current
THDI = 38%
Schneider Electric | Jeff M. Miller | 2014 MWEA & AWWA-MO Joint Annual Meeting | 10:30 Monday March 31st, 2014
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18 Pulse Drive Using the Same 6 Pulse Inverter…
STD 6 Pulse Inverter
Line Reactor
18 pulse Diode
Bridge
Phase Shifting XFMR
Schneider Electric | Jeff M. Miller | 2014 MWEA & AWWA-MO Joint Annual Meeting | 10:30 Monday March 31st, 2014
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18-Pulse Power Converter Configuration
M u ltip u lse
T ran sfo rm er
R ectifier Assem b ly
A
DC+
L in e
R e acto r
2
9
1
A
DC Bus
connections
to
Altivar 61/71
Drive
3
B
8
C
4
7
C
6
5
B
DC-
T ran sfo rm er
T ertiary
Schneider Electric | Jeff M. Miller | 2014 MWEA & AWWA-MO Joint Annual Meeting | 10:30 Monday March 31st, 2014
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18-Pulse Drives: What You Get
6-Pulse power converter (no line reactor)
18-Pulse power converter
Schneider Electric | Jeff M. Miller | 2014 MWEA & AWWA-MO Joint Annual Meeting | 10:30 Monday March 31st, 2014
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Passive Harmonic Filter Drive Using the Same 6
Pulse Inverter…
STD 6 Pulse Drive
Passive
Harmonic
Filter
Schneider Electric | Jeff M. Miller | 2014 MWEA & AWWA-MO Joint Annual Meeting | 10:30 Monday March 31st, 2014
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Passive Harmonic Filter Drive
● Passive Harmonic Filter Mitigation provides as good or
better than 18 pulse.
■ Better mitigation given voltage imbalance
● Footprint of drive is typically smaller than 18 pulse.
● Efficiency of drive is better than 18 pulse
■ Losses of 18 pulse bridge + Transformer + Line
Reactor > Passive Harmonic Filter
● Cost is typically lower than 18 pulse
● Output to the motor is identical.
What’s not to like?
Schneider Electric | Jeff M. Miller | 2014 MWEA & AWWA-MO Joint Annual Meeting | 10:30 Monday March 31st, 2014
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Results
Schneider Electric | Jeff M. Miller | 2014 MWEA & AWWA-MO Joint Annual Meeting | 10:30 Monday March 31st, 2014
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Results
Schneider Electric | Jeff M. Miller | 2014 MWEA & AWWA-MO Joint Annual Meeting | 10:30 Monday March 31st, 2014
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Accusine Used with One or Many 6 Pulse Drives…
Schneider Electric | Jeff M. Miller | 2014 MWEA & AWWA-MO Joint Annual Meeting | 10:30 Monday March 31st, 2014
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The Variable Frequency Drive for
WWW
• The Altivar
®
61 is our standard 6 pulse inverter for variable
speed applications used in centrifugal pump and fan / blower
applications offering the highest level of features, functions,
and flexibility.
This same inverter is the heart of our configured enclosed
applications, 18 Pulse Drives, Motor Control Centers and our
new Passive Filter Packages.
All the Inverter parts, programming,
troubleshooting, wiring, interfacing, etc. is
common.
Schneider Electric | Jeff M. Miller | 2014 MWEA & AWWA-MO Joint Annual Meeting | 10:30 Monday March 31st, 2014
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Drives System Center Product Offering
Altivar 61/71 Plus
Designed for rugged municipal process
environments. Custom options to serve a wide
range of applications.
• Growing sectors requiring high horsepower drives
• NEMA Type 12 enclosure
• Altivar 71
• 125-700hp, 460VAC
• 125-700hp, 600VAC
• Altivar 61
• 125-900hp, 460VAC
• 125-800hp, 600VAC
Schneider Electric | Jeff M. Miller | 2014 MWEA & AWWA-MO Joint Annual Meeting | 10:30 Monday March 31st, 2014
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Drives System Center Product Offering
Altivar 61/71 Plus
Altivar 71
700-1800hp, 460VAC
700-2100hp, 600VAC
Altivar 61
900-2000hp, 460VAC
800-2500hp, 600VAC
Altivar 71
125-700hp, 460VAC
125-700hp, 600VAC
Altivar 61
125-900hp, 460VAC
125-800hp, 600VAC
Schneider Electric | Jeff M. Miller | 2014 MWEA & AWWA-MO Joint Annual Meeting | 10:30 Monday March 31st, 2014
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Variable Torque
125-900hp, 460VAC
125-800hp, 600VAC
Constant Torque
125-700hp, 460VAC
125-700hp, 600VAC
Drives System Center Product
Offering
Top mount ventilation
Schneider
Electric
Enclosure
Flexibility for control
requirements with swiveling
control panel
Control transformer
Altivar power converter
Easy maintenance –
power converter
mounted on rail system
Fused disconnect
Line contactor
(optional)
Motor connection
DV/DT motor filter
(optional)
Bottom entry
Standard 4” plinth
(8” optional)
for bottom entry
Schneider Electric | Jeff M. Miller | 2014 MWEA & AWWA-MO Joint Annual Meeting | 10:30 Monday March 31st, 2014
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Other Drive/System Application
Considerations
• Enclosed drive or packaged drive short circuit
current rating
• SE = 100k amps as standard
• Power loss ride through – especially for pump
stations
• SE meets Semi F47 standards
• Communication capabilities
• SE offers Modbus Serial and 11 additional Protocols as
options.
• Built in web server and diagnostic web displays with
Ethernet.
• Built in Bluetooth interface capability
Schneider Electric | Jeff M. Miller | 2014 MWEA & AWWA-MO Joint Annual Meeting | 10:30 Monday March 31st, 2014
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CONSIDERATIONS FOR TOTAL
COST OF OWNERSHIP (TCO)
OF YOUR NEXT PUMPING
SYSTEM
Schneider Electric | Jeff M. Miller | 2014 MWEA & AWWA-MO Joint Annual Meeting | 10:30 Monday March 31st, 2014
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3 Steps to the Most Efficient…
Design and Operation
1. Energy efficiency management
2. Asset management
3. Energy cost management
Schneider Electric | Jeff M. Miller | 2014 MWEA & AWWA-MO Joint Annual Meeting | 10:30 Monday March 31st, 2014
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Step 1 Energy Efficiency Management
Scenario 1
Static head = 50% system head
Pump rated for the system
Scenario 2
Static head = 85% system head
Pump oversized for the system
Energy saved with variable vs. fixed speed drives at 100% and 60%
flow, according to the static head and pump sizing. The operating point
is represented as the intersection of the pump curve with the system
Schneidercurve.
Electric | Jeff M. Miller | 2014 MWEA & AWWA-MO Joint Annual Meeting | 10:30 Monday March 31 , 2014
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st
Step 2 Asset Management
Newer Drive technology can significantly improve efficiency and life of
your next pump system by operating close to Best Efficiency Point
(BEP ).
Schneider Electric | Jeff M. Miller | 2014 MWEA & AWWA-MO Joint Annual Meeting | 10:30 Monday March 31 , 2014
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st
Step 3 Energy Cost Management
Knowing the breakdown of your electric utility costs
may uncover opportunities for savings. Drives can
assist to reduce all aspects of this cost.
Schneider Electric | Jeff M. Miller | 2014 MWEA & AWWA-MO Joint Annual Meeting | 10:30 Monday March 31st, 2014
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Questions?
Jeff Szwec
<Insert Title>
US Drives, Softstarts and Drive Systems
8001 Knightdale Blvd.
Knightdale, NC 27545-9023
Office: 919.266.8360 | Mobile: 919.824.9114
[email protected]
www.schnedier-electric.com
Schneider Electric | Jeff M. Miller | 2014 MWEA & AWWA-MO Joint Annual Meeting | 10:30 Monday March 31st, 2014
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APPENDIX
Schneider Electric | Jeff M. Miller | 2014 MWEA & AWWA-MO Joint Annual Meeting | 10:30 Monday March 31st, 2014
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VFD Application Considerations
● Keep motor lead lengths as short as possible
● VFD environment (0-40ºC), clean and non-condensing
● Enclosure rating (NEMA 1, NEMA 12, NEMA 3R)
● Ensure 3 metallic conduits are used (motor, power, and controls)
Be careful with underground runs!
● Dedicated ground wires from motor to VFD and from power source
to VFD
● Use line reactors for harmonic distortion control and enhanced
protection from AC line transients
● Size VFD based on amp rating (6-pole motors and up)
● Disconnect Issues
● Harmonic calculations
Schneider Electric | Jeff M. Miller | 2014 MWEA & AWWA-MO Joint Annual Meeting | 10:30 Monday March 31st, 2014
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Broad array
of drive
solutions
Passive
Harmonic
Filter
Drive in
MCC
18 Pulse Drive
Schneider Electric | Jeff M. Miller | 2014 MWEA & AWWA-MO Joint Annual Meeting | 10:30 Monday March 31st, 2014
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