Identity of being in poverty (caste & gender) Social practices (struggle for recognition) Absolute standard for measuring poverty (using calorie requirement): 27% $1 dollar a day: 24%; $1.25 dollar a day: 42% Regional variation Over time HDI of Indian States (2004) Kerala: 135.17 Punjab: 113.7 Tamil Nadu: 111.1 Haryana: 107.8 Karnataka: 101.2 Gujarat: 101.48 All India: 100 Rajasthan: 89.8 Andhra Pradesh: 88.14 Orissa: 85.5 Madhyapradesh: 83.4 Uttar Pradesh: 82.2 Bihar: 77.75 0.35 0.3 Rural Urban 0.25 0.2 1983 1993 2003 Teacher (from lower caste community): What is your view on supreme court judgment? (against positive discrimination) Head Teacher: I always respect the institutions of democracy. Teacher: My people have been historically denied justice, and they are in shame. My people will remain without equal treatment forever. Head Teacher: When did you start using this language? As a teacher you should not use the language of ‘us’ and ‘them’. You should transcend this and teacher belongs to all. (Aarakshan, 2011: Hindi). 1981 1991 2001 2011 104 105.8 107.8 109.2 Number of male children per 100 female (source decennial census) Daughter to her father about paying dowry: “I will be humiliated if you pay the money. Your girl has a certain dignity. Ami ki kebol ekta takar thali, jatakhan taka ache tatakhan amar dam (Am I only a bag of money, having value as long as it is full?). No, you should not humiliate me by paying this money” (Dena-Paona, SaratChandra Chattopadhyaya, 1928, Bengali) Failure leads to disgrace to the family – social isolation Harassment from the money lenders is a public shame (suicide). Joseph: Please don’t shame me Money lender: so, do you have shame? (Kasthooriman, 2003: Malayalam) “I’m a barber, who runs the New Kerala Barber Shop, in Melukavu Junction. An old-fashioned chair, an overused scissor, and an old knife are my possessions in the shop. Because of this, nobody comes to my shop. I need a revolving chair and new modern instruments for my survival as a barber. I’ve approached many places for loan, but most of them requires bribe to sanction loan. Personally, I cannot agree with the idea of bribery. How about you? If you also require bribe, I may not be required filling the application form” (Katha Parayumbol, 2007: Malayalam) Kochu Thresia divided her entire assets among her children. Later since she knew that her children loved only her wealth, she was so ashamed to live in the house (especially in front of the domestic help) and left the house. (Manassinakkare, 2003: Malayalam). Collectivistic culture brings social obligation as avenue to redeem self. Hierarchical society categorises people to negate mobility and thus to manage competition.