### N - COMP445

```COMP445
Data Communications and
Computer Networks
Concepts in
Signal Encoding Techniques
Monday, February 4, 2013
Useful Terms; must know
• Unipolar
— All signal elements have same sign 0, +1
• Bipolar
— One logic state represented by positive voltage the other by
negative voltage -1, +1
• Data rate
— Rate of data transmission in bits per second
• Duration or length of a bit
— Time taken for transmitter to emit the bit
• Mark and Space
— Mark 1
— Space 0
B it Rate
The Nyquist Theorem & Noiseless Channels
•
Baud Rate: the frequency with which components change
•
Each
bit string is composed of n bits, and hence the signal component may have up to
n
2 different amplitudes (one for each unique combination for b1, b2, …bn)
•
Are bit rate and baud rate the Same?
•
No, bit rate depends on the number of bits (n) as well as the baud rate; more precisely:
Bit Rate = n * Baud Rate
•
Bit rate can then be increased by either increasing the baud rate or n; however only up
to a point
B it Rate
(continued...)
•
This result is surprisingly old, back to 1920s, when Harry Nyquist developed his classic theory
•
Nyquist theory showed that if f is the maximum frequency a medium can transmit, then the
receiver can reconstruct the signal by sampling it 2f times per second
•
For example, if the maximum frequency is 4000 Hz, then the receiver can completely construct
it by sampling it at a rate of 8000 per second
•
Assuming that the transmitter baud rate is 2 f , in other words changes signal each 1 / 2f
intervals, we can state
Bit Rate = n * Baud Rate = n * 2 * f
•
This can also be stated based on component; if B is the number of different components, then
B=2
•
n
Hence,
Bit Rate = 2 * f * log2(B)
or
n = log2(B)
B it Rate
(continued...)
Noisy Channels
1.
More components mean subtler change among them
2.
Channels are subject to noise
• The transmitted signal can be distorted due to the channel noise
• If distortion is too large, the receiver may not be able to reconstruct the
signal at all
B it Rate
(continued...)
Shannon’s Result
•
How much noise is bad? This depends on its ratio to the signal
•
•
•
We define S/N (Signal-to-Noise-Ratio)
A higher S/N (less significant noise) indicates higher quality
Because S >> N, the ratio is often scaled down as
R = log10(S/N) bels
// bels is the measurement unit
For example,
If S is 10 times larger than N, then
R = log10(10N/N) = 1 bel
If S is 100 times larger than N, then
R = log10(100N/N) = 2 bels
Perhaps, a more familiar measurement is the decibel (dB)
1 dB = 0.1 bel
B it Rate
(continued...)
Shannon’s Result
• In 1940, Claude Shannon went beyond Nyquist’s results and considered noisy channels
•
Shannon related the maximum bit rate not only to the frequency but also to the S/N ratio;
specifically he showed that:
Bit Rate = Bandwidth * log2(1 + S/N) bps
•
The formula states that a higher BW and S/N ratio allow higher bit rate
•
Hence, for the telephone system, which has a frequency of about 4000 Hz and S/N ≈ 35 dB, or
3.5 bels, Shannon’s result yields the following
3.5 = log10(S/N)  S = 103.5N  S ≈ 3162 N  S/N ≈ 3162
Bit Rate = Bandwidth * log2(1 + S/N)
= 4000 * log2(1 + 3162)
≈ 4000 * 11.63 bps
≈ 46,506 bps ≈ 46.5 kbps
Encoding Schemes
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Bipolar –AMI (Alternate Mark Inversion)
Pseudoternary
Manchester
Differential Manchester
B8ZS (Bipolar With 8 Zero Substitution)
HDB3 (High Density Bipolar 3 Zeros)
• Two different voltages for 0 and 1 bits
• Voltage constant during bit interval
• e.g. Absence of voltage for zero, constant
positive voltage for one
• More often, negative voltage for one value and
positive for the other
• This is NRZ-L
• Constant voltage pulse for duration of bit
• Data encoded as presence or absence of signal
transition at beginning of bit time
• Transition (low to high or high to low) denotes a
binary 1
• No transition denotes binary 0
• An example of differential encoding
NRZ
Differential Encoding
• Data represented by changes rather than levels
• More reliable detection of transition rather than
level
• In complex transmission layouts it is easy to
lose sense of polarity
NRZ pros and cons
• Pros +’s
—Easy to engineer
—Make good use of bandwidth
• Cons –’s
—DC component
—Lack of synchronization capability
• Used for magnetic recording (outdated)
• Not often used for signal transmission
Multilevel Binary
• Use more than two levels
• Bipolar-AMI (Alternate Mark Inversion)
—zero represented by no line signal
—one represented by positive or negative pulse
—one pulses alternate in polarity
—No loss of sync if a long string of ones (zeros still a
problem)
—No net DC component
—Lower bandwidth
—Easy error detection
Pseudoternary
• One represented by absence of line signal
• Zero represented by alternating positive and
negative
Bipolar-AMI and Pseudoternary
• Not as efficient as NRZ
—Each signal element only represents one bit (con)
—In a 3 level system could represent log23 = 1.58 bits
—Receiver must distinguish between three levels
(+A, -A, 0) (con)
—Requires approximately 3dB more signal power for
same probability of bit error (con)
Biphase
• Manchester
— Transition in middle of each bit period
— Transition serves as clock and data
— Low to high represents one
— High to low represents zero
— Used by IEEE 802.3
• Differential Manchester
— Midbit transition is clocking only
— Transition at start of a bit period represents zero
— No transition at start of a bit period represents one
— Note: this is a differential encoding scheme
— Used by IEEE 802.5
Manchester Encoding
Differential Manchester Encoding
Biphase Pros and Cons
• Cons
—At least one transition per bit time and possibly two
—Maximum modulation rate is twice NRZ
—Requires more bandwidth
• Pros
—Synchronization on mid bit transition (self clocking)
—No DC component
—Error detection
• Absence of expected transition
Modulation Rate
(a note)
Scrambling;
gate to filling
• Use scrambling to replace sequences that would
produce constant voltage
• Filling sequence
— Must produce enough transitions to sync
— Must be recognized by receiver and replace with original
— Same length as original
•
•
•
•
No DC component
No long sequences of zero level line signal
No reduction in data rate
Error detection capability
B8ZS
• Bipolar With 8 Zeros Substitution
• Based on bipolar-AMI
• If octet of all zeros and last voltage pulse
preceding was positive encode as 000+-0-+
• If octet of all zeros and last voltage pulse
preceding was negative encode as 000-+0+• Causes two violations of AMI code
• Unlikely to occur as a result of noise
• Receiver detects and interprets as octet of all
zeros
HDB3
• High Density Bipolar 3 Zeros
• Based on bipolar-AMI
• String of four zeros replaced with one or two
pulses
B8ZS and HDB3
Digital Data, Analog Signal
• Public telephone system
—300Hz to 3400Hz
—Use modem (modulator-demodulator)
• Frequency shift keying (FSK)
• Phase shift keying (PSK)
Modulation Techniques
Amplitude Shift Keying
• Values represented by different amplitudes of
carrier
• Usually, one amplitude is zero
—i.e. presence and absence of carrier is used
•
•
•
•
Susceptible to sudden gain changes
Inefficient
Up to 1200bps on voice grade lines
Used over optical fiber
Binary Frequency Shift Keying
• Most common form is binary FSK (BFSK)
• Two binary values represented by two different
frequencies (near carrier)
• Less susceptible to error than ASK
• Up to 1200bps on voice grade lines
• Even higher frequency on LANs using co-ax
FSK on Voice Grade Line (for info)
Phase Shift Keying
• Phase of carrier signal is shifted to represent
data
• Binary PSK
—Two phases represent two binary digits
• Differential PSK
—Phase shifted relative to previous transmission rather
than some reference signal
Differential PSK
• Is the next bit different than the current bit?
• More efficient use by each signal element
representing more than one bit
—e.g. shifts of /2 (90o)
—Each element represents two bits
—Can use 8 phase angles and have more than one
amplitude
—9600bps modem use 12 angles , four of which have
two amplitudes
• Offset QPSK (orthogonal QPSK)
—Delay in Q stream
QPSK and OQPSK Modulators
Examples of QPSF and OQPSK Waveforms
Digitizing Analog Data
(recording your
voice and storing in PC)
Pulse Code Modulation(PCM) (1)
• If a signal is sampled at regular intervals at a rate
higher than twice the highest signal frequency, the
samples contain all the information of the original signal
• If fs > 2fc  OK 
• Voice data limited to below 4000Hz
• Requires 8000 samples per second
• Analog samples (Pulse Amplitude Modulation, PAM)
• Each sample assigned digital value
Pulse Code Modulation(PCM) (2)
• 4 bit system gives 16 levels (24=16)
• Quantized
—Quantizing error or noise
—Approximations mean it is impossible to recover
original exactly
• 8 bit sample gives 256 levels (28=256)
• Quality comparable with analog transmission
• 8000 samples per second of 8 bits each gives
64kbps
PCM Example
Delta Modulation
function
• Move up or down one level () at each sample
interval
• Binary behavior
—Function moves up or down at each sample interval
Delta Modulation - example
Delta Modulation - Performance
• Good voice reproduction
—PCM - 128 levels (7 bit) (again 27=128)
—Voice bandwidth 4khz
—Should be 8000 x 7 = 56kbps for PCM
```