Slides

Report
Electric Vehicle Integration into the Grid
ISM 270, January 27, 2011
Geoff Ryder
SAP Labs, LLC
1
Notes on ISM 270 Homework, Discussion
2
Electric Vehicles: Demand Management; Grid and Battery
Asset Management; Billing for Networked EV Business Models.
Agent-Based Grid Simulation Project
3
Notes on Programming Tools
Safe Harbor Statement
This document is intended to outline future product direction, and is not a commitment by
SAP to deliver any given code or functionality. Any statements contained in this document
that are not historical facts are forward-looking statements. SAP undertakes no obligation
to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements. All forward-looking
statements are subject to various risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to
differ materially from expectations. The timing or release of any product described in this
document remains at the sole discretion of SAP. This document is for informational
purposes and may not be incorporated into a contract. Readers are cautioned not to place
undue reliance on these forward-looking statements, and they should not be relied upon in
making purchasing decisions.
strictly confidential
Estimate: California statewide cumulative
investment through 2020 to achieve RPS goals
strictly confidential
SAP’s Utilities Solution Map
Suppliers & Partners
Generation
Transmission & Distribution
Meter Operation
Retail & Services
Customers &
Channels
Asset Life Cycle Management
Supply Operations
Resource Management
Meter Reading Services
Energy Capital Management
Selling of Energy and Services
Customer Service Management
Billing of Energy and Services
Customer Financial Management
Collaborative Services & Intercompany Data Exchange
Enterprise Management & Support
Analytics
Strategic Enterprise
Management
Financial Analytics
Operations Analytics
Workforce Analytics
Management Accounting
Corporate Governance
Financials
Financial Supply Chain
Management
Financial Accounting
Human Capital Management
Talent Management
Travel Management
Life-Cycle Data
Management
Workforce Process Management
Workforce Deployment
Corporate Services
Incentive and Commission
Environment, Health and Safety
Real Estate Management
Management
Operations Support
Project and Portfolio
Quality Management
Indirect Procurement
Global Trade Services
Management
strictly confidential
Estimate: California statewide cumulative
investment through 2020 to achieve RPS goals
strictly confidential
Delivering the Business Case
Business
Objects Explorer
On Device
Sustainability
Reporting
EHS Analytics
Raj Valame, energy
management for
manufacturing
Sustainability
Performance Mgt
EHS Mgt
Carbon
Impact
Global Batch
Mgt
Reach
Compliance
AMI Integration
for Utilities
Supply
Chain Mgt
Transportation Mgt
Supplier
Relationship Mgt
Recycling
Administration
On Premise
MII
Manufacturing
Integration
On Demand
+ Add-on
Orchestration
Sustainability is an IT integration challenge
strictly confidential
Palo Alto Energy Efficiency Showcase:
$2M Investment in Clean Tech
Dec. 9, 2010
http://www.cnbc.com/id/15840232/?video=1707896067&play=1
EVs and
Chargers
LED, Light
Controls
COIL DC
Conversion
Solar PV
Panels
Telepresence
All
Projects
Cost
$250K
Purchase,
lease
guarantor
$434K
$128K
$1.2M
$300K
$2.31M
Annual
Carbon
Footprint
Reduction
(metric tons)
32 tons
70 tons
235 tons
Projected
215 tons
Projected
255 tons
807 tons
Payback
12 years
5 years
5 years
5 years
1 year
4 years
Approximate
Annual
Savings
$21K
Over same
size gaspowered fleet
$80K
$24K
$240K
$300K
$0.67M
Video: Better Place Battery Swapping
Operation, Timed
Here are links that describe our EV-related deployments at SAP Palo Alto:
http://www.cnbc.com/id/15840232/?video=1707896067&play=1
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=csV1W75hhZ0
strictly confidential
Electric Vehicles: Compare costs per mile
Approximation: 1 kWh = 4 miles of driving distance
Nissan Leaf: approx. 25 kWh battery pack = 100 miles before
recharging
Case: my Nissan Maxima, 20 mpg, 15 gallon gas tank, $3
per gallon
One fill-up is $45, and I can travel 300 miles.
Cost per mile is $45 / 300 = $0.15 per mile
Case: a new Nissan Leaf. Electricity costs $0.1 per kWh.
One fill-up is $0.1 * 25 = $2.50, and I can travel 100 miles.
Cost per mile is $2.50 / 100 = $0.025 per mile!
strictly confidential
Charging Station
Capacity
Home charging
unit
Say your EV has a 25 kWh battery
pack. To charge it all the way from
zero:
Level 1 Charger: 120 V AC, 14 A
= 15 hours to charge
Level 2 Charger: 240 V AC, 14 A
= 7.5 hours
Level 3 Charger (not available for most
homes): 480 V DC, 125 A
= 42 minutes
strictly confidential
Data from Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO)
strictly confidential
Oil Dependence: $1T (+ $100B) annually
© SAP 2009 / Page 12
strictly confidential
Roll-out Schedule for Plug-in Electric Vehicles
Saturn VUE
BYD in
Europe
Fisker Karma
Chevrolet
Volt
PHEV
BEV
Kia LPG/Electric
EPRI, Eaton, Ford Trouble
Truck
Subaru Stella
Chrysler
Nissan LEAF
Smart for Two
BMW Mini E
ZENN City
BYD EV in China
Mitsubishi iMiEV
Tesla Roadster
Toyota Prius
Ford Escape
BYD F3DM
Hyundai
Aptera
2009
2010
2011
Tesla Roadster
Nissan Leaf
Prius PHEV
2012
Hyundai i10
strictly confidential
New Electric Vehicles from China
Beijing Automotive Industry Holding Co. BE701
200 km per charge
Changan Automotive Group (Ford partner)
BenBen electric conversion (Canada)
Shandong Baoya Vehicle Co.: the Baoya Electric Car
150 km per charge
Haifei Auto Group: Saibao, 160 km per charge
strictly confidential
$
Revenue Impact of EVs
Electric Power Utilities
EV-Driven Electricity Sales
Automobile OEMs
ICE Car Sales and Service
New Capital Investments
New Distribution-Level
Infrastructure, Programs
for EV Owners
EV Sales and Service
Current US Vehicle Fleet: ~ 246M
US EV Sales, 2015: ~ 1M?
strictly confidential
Data from Argonne National Labs
strictly confidential
Data from Argonne National Labs
strictly confidential
Pricing for the Nissan Leaf
strictly confidential
Electric Vehicles:
It’s All About the Battery
Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) Vehicle
OEM
Gas station
Weak relationships
after purchase
Electric Power Utility
OEM
Car
Utility
Manufacturer
--Set up home charging station
--Needs OEM-authorized service
--Billing relationship for fuel
--OEM responsible for battery asset
management
--Demand management, load shaping
--Grid asset management
strictly confidential
Large-Scale EV Infrastructure Business Models
Turnkey
(e.g. BetterPlace)
Car
Utility
Demand
mgmt
Utility Centric
(e.g. RWE)
Charge Station Centric
(e.g. Coulomb Tech)
Manufacturer
Car
Car
Utility
Demand
mgmt
Power supply
Manufacturer
Power supply
& Billing (opt.)
Utility
Demand
mgmt



Electricity Distributor
 Own battery &
charge station
Subscribe
$/ mile

Battery rental
Sell car
w/o battery
Electricity
distributor
Charge stations
 Billing
Pay to
charge
Sell car
w/ battery
(or lease)
Power supply
& Billing
Public and
private
charging
stations by
multiple
operators
Pay
utility bill
Pay
utility bill
Manufacturer
Charge
Sell car
w/ battery
(or lease)
strictly confidential
Video: Better Place Battery Swapping
Operation, Timed
URL: Better Place battery swapping demo, Yokohama
strictly confidential
Video: Better Place Battery Swapping
Operation, Timed
strictly confidential
1
Demand Management
Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) Vehicle
OEM
Gas station
Weak relationships
after purchase
Electric Power Utility
OEM
Car
Utility
Manufacturer
--Set up home charging station
--Needs OEM-authorized service
--Billing relationship for fuel
--OEM responsible for battery asset
management
--Demand management, load shaping
--Grid asset management
strictly confidential
The Impact of Electric Vehicle Charging on the Grid
Problem: can older poletop transformers in our service territory handle the new load?
Orange: typical peak residential electricity use, kW
Blue: peak EV charging rate, kW
Springdale, AR
7.7
South Bend, IN
6
Dulles, VA
4.6
Hartford, CT
4.3
San Francisco, CA
3
Tesla, 240V at 80 A
19.2
PEV, 240V at 32 A
7.7
PEV, 240V at 15 A
3.6
PEV, 120 V at 12 A
1.4
0
5
10
15
20
25
(Research by Arindam Maitra, EPRI, 2010)
strictly confidential
SAP CUSTOMERS
PROCESS 2.5 BILLION
UTILITY BILLS PER YEAR
strictly confidential
Asset Capacity versus EV Penetration Level
(Research by Arindam Maitra, EPRI, 2010)
© SAP 2008 / Page 26
strictly confidential
Solution: Manage EV Charging Demand through
Time of Use Pricing (TOU)
MW
MW
Shift
demand
Hour of day
Hour of day
strictly confidential
Example of a Time of Use Pricing Schedule
(PG&E Team, PlugIn San Jose, 2010)
© SAP 2008 / Page 28
strictly confidential
SAP and its partners enable utility-centric EV charging
Billing
4
MDUS
Utility Bill
Residential
Electricity
Electric Vehicle
Charging
…
…
1
3
4
AMI
2
Charging
Station
Operator
3
Business or Residence
Building Power
Control Unit
Smart Meter:
2
Electric Vehicle
Charging Station
1
4
The charging station is a submeter to the smart meter. The
AMI channel for the station is
mapped to a device in the SAP
billing system.
…through AMI, bypassing the
smart meter, but using the same
protocol.
…using a proprietary protocol to
the network operation center of
the charging station operator, and
from there directly submitting
data to MDUS.
…directly from the charging
station operator to SAP billing
software.
Other electricity loads
strictly confidential
Utility-centric EVSE deployments are taking place in the midst of the
rollout of the smart grid.
Role of eMobility companies in the smart grid ecosystem:
Distributed generation and storage
Networked vehicles
Grid optimization
Demand response
Communication layer: HW, SW, Control
Smart meter services
Image credit: GTM Research. Downloaded 10/13/2010
http://www.greentechmedia.com/images/wysiwyg/research-blogs/taxonomy-large.jpg
strictly confidential
EV Owners Get TOU Pricing Signals through
Vehicle Telematics Apps
Announced at CES, 2011
Ford Focus Electric, due out in late 2011
With Microsoft, Inc.: MyFord Mobile
Software automatically charges the
vehicle during off-peak hours, when
utility rates are cheapest.
© SAP 2008 / Page 31
Credits:
Detroit Edison, Inc.
Automatiks, Inc.
Telematics Detroit Conference, 2010
strictly confidential
2
Battery and Grid Asset Management
Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) Vehicle
OEM
Gas station
Weak relationships
after purchase
Electric Power Utility
OEM
Car
Utility
Manufacturer
--Set up home charging station
--Needs OEM-authorized service
--Billing relationship for fuel
--OEM responsible for battery asset
management
--Demand management, load shaping
--Grid asset management
strictly confidential
Electric Vehicle Management
File
View
Tools
Help
Public Charging Station
2601a Bryant St
Model:
ABC 45c
Year:
2009
Last maintenance: 9/12/09
Next maintenance: 10/19/10
S
S
3:21PM
Bryant St /
– 25th
San Francisco, CA 94110
24th
Transformer
Charging Stations
2601a Bryant St
O
P
2601b Bryant St
O
S
2635 Bryant St
P
2645 Bryant St
P
S
2650 Bryant St
E
S
2660 Bryant St
E
2665 Bryant St
E
2675 Bryant St
E
P
T
Block view
Usage profile
S
strictly confidential
Asset management of electrified vehicle
infrastructure

There will be a multitude of ownership and lease models for charging stations with the installation and
maintenance typically sub-contracted to local service providers
Charging
Station
Operators
Extensions to
SAP Asset
Management
Utilities
Vehicle Manufacturer
On-demand Asset Management Hub
Service providers
Home
Office
Service providers
Public - City
Public - Corporate
Other
strictly confidential
3
Billing for Networked EV Business Models
Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) Vehicle
OEM
Gas station
Weak relationships
after purchase
Electric Power Utility
OEM
Car
Utility
Manufacturer
--Set up home charging station
--Needs OEM-authorized service
--Billing relationship for fuel
--OEM responsible for battery asset
management
--Demand management, load shaping
--Grid asset management
strictly confidential
Billing and pricing need to accommodate heterogonous
technologies and business models
Utility Supplier
PG&E
PG&E
Charging
Network
Operator
Charge Location /
Operator
Home
Office
Nightly recharge
Daily daytime recharge
Charge Station
Ad-hoc recharge
ID
ID
End User
ID
Customer relationship
Battery charging
Billing relationship
strictly confidential
CeBIT demo, March, 2010: SAP Enables Consolidated
Billing for eMobility
Utility company #2: a separate
utility that owns the charging
station
Utility company #1:
the EV driver’s
home utility
SAP server,
Palo Alto, CA
Webtech server, Canada
Coulomb server, Campbell, CA
Equipment at the CeBIT conference floor: the networked console of an EV, from
Webtech, and a networked charging station, from Coulomb
strictly confidential
Utility Company Business Models:
Predicted EV-Related Revenue Streams
Source: Frost and Sullivan
% of Total Revenue
Electricity, 20%
EVSE Sales, 35%
Install, Maintain EVSE, 25%
Other Services, 20%
© SAP 2008 / Page 38
strictly confidential
Simple ROI for one charging station, for a small business.
One networked pedestal-mount EVSE costs $4K.
$2.00
1K dollars
$0.00
Model revenue needed to break even
+1 Year
+2
+3
+4
+5
+6
($2.00)
Parameter
Value
($4.00)
Interest rate
5%, annual
EVSE Cost
$4,000 (EVSE) + $2,000 (install)
EVSE lifetime
7 years
($6.00)

With no public subsidy, the charging station must generate ~$1000 per year in revenue or
more for the investment to have a positive net present value (NPV). With public subsidy for
50% of total cost  ~$500 per year

Options for revenue:
(1) Reselling utility company electricity  revenue sharing agreement with EVSE
network operator and utility
(2) Charging more to park by the EVSE (priority classes, fleet discounts?)
(3) Additional sales volume from higher customer traffic or longer customer stays
(4) Providing other services for, e.g., municipal government
(5) Claiming “low-carbon fuel credits” for electricity sold
(6) Other types of revenue sharing with EVSE network operator
strictly confidential
Pricing structures for electrical fuel, considering models
from the utility, telecom, airline and oil & gas industries
Billing
Telecom
Fleet
Gas
Stations
PrePay
Traditional
Utilities
Credit
Debit
Open
for
discussion
Airline Pricing
Cash
Tiered
Rate
Timeof-use
Flat
Rate
Service
level
Realtime
Price based on
volume per period,
e.g. 10c for the first
10 kWh, 15c for
10kWh – 20 kWh
Price based on time
of use, e.g. 10c for
off-peak/ nights &
weekends, 25c for
peak / daytime
Unlimited use of
service, e.g.
unlimited text
messages or
nation-wide calls
price based on
service level
agreement, e.g.
$29.99 for 512kB
upload / 6 Mb
download speed
market-based
prices, e.g.
gasoline prices
related to oil
prices
Airlines are another
industry with
sophisticated pricing
models and a
service/product with
similar characteristics to
electricity.
Overbooking flights is
an particular interesting
strategy for maximizing
utilization of capacity.
strictly confidential
SAP’s Sybase mcommerce solutions:
SingTel MobilePay
Insert subhead here as a full sentence at 18 point font, bold
strictly confidential
Examples of vehicle telematics: differentiated
service offerings for EV drivers
Factors influencing prices
Service Type
Notes
Road access
E-day, other priority class

Parking
For 2-wheel EVs, cars, light
delivery trucks, tour buses

Level 1 charging
Very slow; emergency
charge, or 2-wheel charge
Level 2 charging
Most commonly deployed
EVSE type
Level 3 charging
Very crowded; need a “Fast
Pass”?
Battery swap
Value-added
services
Not a standard across all
EV types
Buy parking, charging, and
movie tickets in one
transaction
Regulations on EVSE
ownership, use, business models
Contracts by type of use:
Commuter
 Recreation
Postal service
Small business delivery
Private or public buses
Service trucks (e.g.,
utilities)
Public services (e.g. police)
Taxis

Type of communications, and
intermediaries



SMS message
display screen in the car
smart phone
strictly confidential
Standards for EV Communication:
Security? Privacy?
EVCP Protocol Stack
Business and Technology Issues
Application-Level Protocol
XML
HTTP, HTTPS
Hard-wired interface
Other wireless standards
Zigbee ®
WiMAX ®
WiFi ®
Bluetooth ® 2.0, 3.0
Cellular (GPRS,EDGE ®)
TCP/IP
•
Authentication / Security / Privacy
• X.509 certificates (certificate authority, when issued and by
whom)
• Security on both sides of transaction
• Privacy equivalent to existing fueling models (e.g. cash /
credit / debit payment at gas station)
• Identity data
• VIN number
• (universal) utility ID
• ...
• Protocol Categories
• Billing protocol
• Vehicle battery charging protocol
• Vehicle sensor data protocol
• Vehicle services delivery protocol (e.g. POS services)
• Vehicle diagnostics information protocol
•
•
Protocol Uniformity
Same protocols for all charging infrastructure (residential,
standalone, private, workplace, etc.) ?
strictly confidential
Trading LCFS credits will generate additional revenues.
It requires separate accounting of electricity used for
transportation
LCFS credits for $$$
LCFS Markets
It is still under debate which entity can
claim the revenues generated from
LCFS credits, candidates include
utilities, vehicle manufacturers, and car
owners
Implications for AMI and Accounting Solutions

Metering of transportation used electricity, e.g. sub-metering
 Dual data record management through complete AMI
infrastructure
 Metering and accounting of non-residential, transportationused electricity
 Create account for transportation-used electricity, link to
trading sub-system and financial accounting system (after
LCFS are being sold)
Smart Meter
(residential use)
Sub-Meter
(transportation use)
strictly confidential
Conclusions, Next Steps
Contact: [email protected]
1
EV Demand Management
Time of Use Pricing, through AMI and Vehicle Telematics.
Call for innovation: driver communications, demand
response...
2
Grid and Battery Asset Management
Through existing asset management platforms.
Call for innovation: security, privacy of EV drivers’ personal
information...
3
Billing for Networked EV Business Models
Time of Use Pricing, through AMI and Vehicle Telematics.
Call for innovation: new networked business models +
revenue streams to make infrastructure deployment more
profitable, and to lower costs...
© SAP 2008 / Page 45
strictly confidential

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