Makerere-Sida-ARM-Science-Day-CoVAB

Report
STUDIES ON CULTIVATION OF THE EDIBLE INDIGENOUS MUSHROOMS GROWN ON DIFFERENT AGRO-RESIDUES
NAKALEMBE IMMACULATE
DEPATRTMENT OF BIOMOLECULAR RESOURCES AND BIOLAB SCIENCE, SCHOOL OF BISECURITY, BIOTECHNICAL AND LABOARTORY SCIENCES, COLLEGE OF VETERINARY MEDICINE,
ANIMAL RESOURCES AND BIOSECURITY, MAKERERE UNIVERSITY
RESULTS
MATERIALS AND METHODS
BACKGROUND
•Wild mushrooms were collected from Bugoma Reserve Forest, Kyangwali S/County Hoima district
Mushrooms are valued since time immemorial due to their nutritional,
medicinal & culinary importance. Ancient people considered mushrooms
as gifts from God Osiris (Sharma,2003). Of recent, there has been an
increased interest in the wild mushrooms as they have been considered to
be highly nutritious food items (FAO, 2004). They contain proteins (with all
essential amino acids, specifically lycine), a good supplement to the cereals
which are the major staple food for the poor. Furthermore, mushrooms
have high fiber, carbohydrate, and minerals contents, cholesterol free, low
fat (though with good quality essential fatty acids- omega-3) , and low in
calories.
Growing value of mushrooms has led to an increased population of
harvesters, who exploit and endanger this resource. Together with an
increased population growth and climatic changes can lead to loss of this
valued resource, thus requiring to sustainably exploit it by domesticating the
edible wild mushrooms of social & economic interest . Uganda has got
several documented edible wild mushrooms (Nakalembe et al, 2009), but
there has been limited attempt to identify and domesticate them in order
to preserve the biodiversity. Therefore, there is need to document and
domesticate potential mushroom species in order to preserve their
germplasm.
Mushrooms grown well on several substrates, which can be recycled to
produce high valued food such as mushrooms, animal feeds and fertilizers
with simultaneous protection of the environment. Uganda being an
agricultural country, stands a high chance of producing mushrooms which
can directly improve the livelihoods of people economically, nutritionally
and medicinally.
•Data collected: Assessment of the vegetative growth
Mycelia morphological description of the mycelia growth in the Kyangwali S/county, different culture media of
different pH values at room temperature for 7 days.
Time taken for mycelia to fully cover the different culture media
•Mushroom production parameters: Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with six treatments & a control (cotton
waste) with three replications
Spawn run period, pin head formation & the time for the fruit bodies to attain maturity (days)
Amount of mushrooms harvested per bag per flush (g/kg fresh wt)- total yield, Period btn flushes (days),
Biological efficiency (%)
•Data was subjected to analysis of variance using Duncan multiple range test at 5% level of confidence, data
presented as means of replicates
Figure 1 schematic presentation of mushroom growing procedures
A mature, fresh & health mushrooms (tissue culture) on PDA/MEA, room temperature, sterile environment
Days after inoculation
PDA pH 5.5
Pleurotus sp2 (orange/Pink)
3
4
5
6
7
P. cornucopiae var. citrinopileatus
3
4
5
6
7
Qualitative features: type of colony growth & density
M/ species
P. cornucopiae var.
citrinopileatus (B)
Mother spawn & planting spawn (sterile millet grain, sterile environment 2:1 (lime: gypsum), dark room, room temp, 14d
Preparation, bagging, pasteurization & inoculation of substrates (7 diff. agro-wastes), clean environment, 12.5g of spawn per
250g bag
2.1
2.6
3.3
3.8
4.4
MEA pH 6
0.4
0.8
1.2
1.7
2.3
0.9
14
1.8
2.2
2.5
0.4
0.9
1.6
2.2
2.8
1.0
1.6
2.5
2.9
3.4
+++
+++
Parameter
Spawn run completion
Pinhead formation
Maturity (fruit bodies)
Between flushes
Spawn run completion
Pinhead formation
Maturity (fruit bodies)
Between flushes
GN
12
20
25
8.5
7
10
16
6.2
SB**
15
18
25
14
13
18
25
16
SD**
23
28
32
19.7
11
14
20
17.5
Substrates
BP**
CH **
8
9
0
0
0
0
0
0
8
12
25
25
31
32
16.2
BS
8
19
25
8.5
8
18
24
6
CW (C)
14
17
23
7.7
11
13
19
5.5
GN= Groundnut shell, SB= sugarcane bagasse, SD=Saw dust, BP= Banana peelings, CH= coffee husks, BS= Bean straws, CW= Cotton waste
* Degree of mycelial density when the mycelia fully colonisesthe substrate: (+) poor running growth, (+ +) mycelium grows throughout the whole bottle
but is not uniformly white, (+ + +) mycelium grows throughout the whole bottle & is uniformly white
** Least substrates , species (B) takes shorter time on all substrates followed by (A), Although species (C) takes shorter time to complete
spawn running with resultant heavy mycelia, failed to produce mushrooms, as are banana peelings & coffee husks for species (A)
Table 3 Yield & biological efficiency of the different mushroom species cultivated on the different substrates (N = 112), 250g bag for 60 days
Flushes
M/species
Production room: well ventilated & disinfected, 23±1oC, approx. 80%-90%. humidity, watered 3x/d, harvest
1. Exploration of the appropriate growth conditions of the
priority wild mushroom species of the Albetrine region, Uganda
1.4
1.7
2.4
2.8
3.5
1.4
2.3
2.7
3.6
4.1
Mycelial density*
Table 2 Time (days) for spawn running completion, pinhead formation, fruiting body formation & the period between
flushes of cultivated mushrooms on the different substrates
A series of subcultures, incubated at room temp., 10-15d
Pure culture – subcultured: radial growth on PDA/MEA, of pH 5.5 and 6 7d (4 directions),, 3 wks
1.2
1.9
2.3
2.8
3.1
Radial growth (cm/day)**
PDA pH 6
MEA pH 5.5
PDA, Potato Dextrose Agar, MEA, Malt Extract Agar
**Degree of mycelial density at full colonization of the substrate, (+++) mycelia grow throughout the whole bottle & is uniformly white
Pleurotus sp2 (A)
Incubation room: disinfected, dark room, approx. 55-65% humidity, 28-30oC temp. until the substrates were covered with
the mycelia
PURPOSE/ OBJECTIVE
Table 1Culture characteristics of two edible wild mushrooms on two culture media of different pH values at room temperature, for 7days
Pleurotus sp1 (orange/pink)
2. Assessment of the suitability of the locally available agro
waste in the cultivation of these mushrooms under local conditions
Mushroom species with potential for domestication
P. cornucopiae var. citrinopileatus
Substrate
Groundnut shells
Sugarcane bagasse
Saw dust
Bean straws
Cotton waste**
Groundnut shells
Sugarbagasse
Saw dust
Banana peelings
Coffee husks
Bean straws
Cotton waste**
1
56
39.8
29
75
98
56.3
54.5
25
24
37.4
79.4
100
2
43
22.2
17.2
57.5
72.5
46
39.6
11
14.2
23
59
64.5
3
24
11
NG
21.3
37
12
15.6
NG
NG
16.7
37.5
31.2
Total yield
(wet wt)
123
73
46.2
153.8
207.5
114.3
109.7
36
38.2
77.1
175.9
195.7
Total yield
(dry wt)
20.9
10.2
2.7
29.4
32.8
16.3
13.8
2.2
2.4
8.7
34
39.6
Biological
efficiency
49.2
29.2
18.5
61.5
83
45.7
43.9
14.4
15.3
30.8
70.4
78.3
NG= No growth, ** Control substrate, no growth was observed on banana peelings & coffee husks for Pleurotus sp1
CONCLUSIONS
• PDA was the best for spawn production P. cornucopiae var. citrinopileatus and Pleurotus sp1
• Bean straws and groundnut shells are the best substrates suitable for the mushrooms cultivation because of the short time
to maturity and intervals between flushes, high yields and biological efficiency. Can be alternative substrates for control
• Need to adopt these indigenous species as protein sources while generating livelihood, contributing to food availability with
simultaneous environmental protection
REFERENCES
1. Nakalembe I, Kabasa D. & Olila (2009). Indigenous knowledge and usage of wild mushrooms in Mid-Western, Uganda. Afr. J. Anim. Biomed. Sc. 4
(2): 63-73.
2. Sharma, N. 2003. Medicinal uses of macrofungi. Ethnobotany. 15:97-99
3. FAO. 2004. Wild Edible Fungi, a Global overview of their use and importance to People. Non-Wood Forest Products 17. Food and Agriculture
Organization of the United Nations. Rome, Italy.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: SPONSORS: MAKERERE-Sida BILATERAL RESEARCH COOPERATION

similar documents