Residential Metering Technologies

Report
Residential Metering
Technologies
By: Ryan Fields
TAUD Technical Conference
Gatlinburg, TN March 2013
1
Today’s Agenda:
• Why the need for Advancements?
• Mechanical Meter Technologies
• Multi-jet
• Positive Displacement
• Floating Ball Technology
• 1-1/2 – 2 Omni R2
• Solid State Meter Technologies
• Fluid Oscillator
• Ultrasonic
• Electromagnetic
2
Why the Advancements?
 If mechanical measurement has served us
for so long, why make a change?
– Water Loss = Revenue Loss
– New material regulations / January 2014 Lead Free
– Inherent low flow limitations with mechanical meters
– Increase importance on leak detection
– Increased need for system data
– Improvements in measurement technology
3
Multi-Jet
4
Multi-jet
 Water Uniformly Spread Across Multiple
Inlet Ports Flows across an impeller
 Impeller velocity determines flow rate
 Register determines volume
5
Multi-Jet
• What is it?
• Velocity type meter where openings in
the meter chamber direct the water flow
across a multi-vaned rotor. The output
speed of the rotor is proportional to the
quantity of water passing through the
measuring chamber.
6
Multi-Jet
• First designed and produced in
Germany 1867
• Primarily used overseas however they
have been available to the US Water
industry since early 1960’s
• Fall under AWWA C708 specification
7
Multi-Jet
•Brands
• Precision PMM – discontinued
March 31, 2012
• Precision PMX - discontinued
• MasterMeter
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Multi-jet
 Advantages
– Great at passing foreign matter
– Low flow sensitivity (¼ GPM on 5/8x3/4)
– 97 – 103 accuracy range
– Relatively low head loss for mechanical meter (3.1 PSI at 10 GPM)
– Dry-top models registers could be accessed in-line (ex PMM)
– Available in a range of sizes (5/8 – 2”)
– Economically priced
 Disadvantages
– Potential jetting (finger over a garden hose / strainer)
– Horizontal / plumb installation required for accuracy
– Wet-top models had to be pulled for maintenance (ex PMX)
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Positive Displacement
–Two Types
• Nutating Disc
• Neptune
• Badger
• Hersey
• Oscillating Piston
• Sensus
• Elster – No longer produced
• Mastermeter
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Positive Displacement – Nutating Disc
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Positive Displacement / Nutating Disc
• What is it?
• Nutating disc meters have a round disc that is
located inside a cylindrical chamber. The disc is
mounted on a spindle.
• The disc nutates, or wobbles, as it passes a
known volume of liquid through the cylindrical
chamber.
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Positive Displacement – Nutating Disc
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Positive Displacement – Nutating Disc
• Characteristics
• Originated in the mid 1800’s
• Volumetric-type meter
• Ball and Socket measuring element
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Positive Displacement – Nutating Disc
 Advantages
– More accurate at low flows than multi-jet (@98.5)
– Low friction loss (8.0 psi at 20 gpm)
– ¼ - 20 GPM Flow Range (5/8x3/4)
– Proven technology
 Disadvantages
– Less likely to effectively pass foreign material (as compared to Multijet)
– Can stop up with sand, grit, or other elements easily
– Single wear point on the ball
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Positive Displacement - Nutating Disc
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Positive Displacement - Nutating Disc
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Positive Displacement- Oscillating Piston
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Positive Displacement- Oscillating Piston
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Positive Displacement - Oscillating Piston
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Positive Displacement – Oscillating Piston
Characteristics
• Volumetric-type meter
• C700
• Floating piston
• ¼ - 20 GPM Flow Range (5/8x3/4)
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Positive Displacement – Oscillating Piston
 Advantages
– More accurate at low flows than Multi-jet (@98.5)
– Dual port design – floats piston
– Low friction loss (7.0 psi at 20 gpm / SRII)
– ¼ - 20 GPM Flow Range (5/8x3/4)
– Large surface area to reduce wear
– Proven technology
 Disadvantages
– Less likely to effectively pass foreign material (as compared to Multijet)
– Can stop up with sand, grit, or other elements easily
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Oscillating Piston
• Sensus SR
• Sensus SRII
• Sensus Accustream
• MasterMeter MMPD
• Elster/Amco C700 – No longer producing
mechanical meters
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Sensus R2 Omni
Floating Ball Technology
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Floating Ball Technology
 R2 replaces the 1-1/2 and 2”
SR PD meter as well as the
1-1/2 and 2” PMM
 Gives better low flow
sensitivity and higher top
end flow
 Less cost than using Omni
Compound C2 or Omni T2
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Floating Ball Technology
 Characteristics of 2” R2 Omni
 Operating temperature range of 33°F (.56°C) – 150°F (65.6°C).
 Operating Range 100% ± 1.5% from 2.5 – 200 GPM (.56 – 45
m3/hr)
 Low Flow 95% – 101.5% @ 1.0 GPM (.23 m3/hr)
 Pressure Loss 7.0 psi @ 200 GPM (.48 bar @ 45 m3/hr)
 Maximum Operating Pressure - 200 PSI (13.8 bar)
 Flange Connections 2” U.S. ANSI B16.1 / AWWA Class 125
 Register: Fully electronic sealed register with programmable
registration (Gal. /Cu.Ft./ Cu. Mtr. / Imp.Gal / Acre Ft.)
 Programmable AMR/AMI reading
 Guaranteed 10 year battery life
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Floating Ball Technology
 Floating Ball Technology
 Extended flow range
 Improved accuracy
 One measuring element
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Electronic Register
 Three modes
 AMR Output comes standard
AMR / AMI
 Programmable features
 LCD odometer
31 Days
 10 year battery life
 More data for better decision making
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Pulse
•
•
•
•
Registration Units
AMR Output Resolution
Pulse Output Resolution
Register Display
Floating Ball – Register - AMR
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Floating Ball – Register - Total
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Floating Ball – Register - Test
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Floating Ball – Test Port
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Versatility
 Standard laying lengths
 Application flexibility
 Interchangeable
measuring chambers
 Built in strainer and
test plug
 Drop-in chamber
 Ease of maintenance
33
Benefits…
 Installation versatility
 Extended flow ranges
 Excellent return on
investment
Information Driven Utilities
34
Solid State Meter Technology
35
Solid State Meter Technology
 3 Different Types of Technology
– Fluidic Oscillator
– Residential Ultrasonic
– Residential Magnetic
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Solid State Meter Technology
 Fluidic Oscillator – Elster SM700
CONFIDENTIAL
Solid State Meter Technology
 How does a Fluidic Oscillator Water Meter
Work?
 A special design of water flow chamber creates a fluctuating pressure
sequence that causes the water flow to oscillate.
 The frequency of the oscillations is directly proportional to the velocity
(speed) of the water.
 Sensors in the flow chamber count the oscillations.
CONFIDENTIAL
38
Solid State – Fluidic Oscillator
 Advantages
– NSF61 Certified
– Battery life greater than 15 years
– Low head loss (11 psi at 15 gpm)
– Increased flow range of .10 – 20 gpm
 Disadvantages
– Relatively new meter
– Metallic electrodes can corrode
– Prone to recording electrical current at highest flow rate resulting in overregistration
– Not offered in a 1”
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Solid State Meter Technology
 Fluidic Oscillator Technology from Elster Metering –
SM700
CONFIDENTIAL
40
Solid State - Ultrasonic
 Residential Ultrasonic Technology from
Badger Meter – E Series
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Solid State - Ultrasonic
 Ultrasonic flow meters measure the
difference of the transit time of pulses
between two transducers.
 Ultrasonic signals sent in forward and
reverse directions of flow
 Velocity of water determined by
difference in two signals
42
Solid State – Ultrasonic
 Advantages
– NSF61 Certified / Annex G
– 9 digit LCD Display
– Flow range of .05 – 25 gpm
– Low head loss (2.3 psi at 15 gpm)
– 20 year battery
– 175 psi
 Disadvantages
– Relatively new meter
– Ultrasonic reflectors extend thru flow tube and are open to build-up
– Recommended installation is 5 (up) and 2 (down) for dampening effect
– Because ultrasonic signals are sent every second to monitor flow, pulsation caused by
pumps or regulators could create measurement errors
– Accuracy can be affected by temperature, density, and viscosity of fluid being measured
43
Solid State - Ultrasonic
 Typical Ultrasonic Meter Diagram
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 Badger E-Series Side View
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Electromagnetic
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Electro-Magnetic - Iperl
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Electro-Magnetic - Iperl
• Mag Meter: Faraday’s law
• States that the velocity of the
fluid is directly proportional to
an induced voltage as the fluid
flows through a constant
magnetic field. As the flow
increases, so does the
voltage, and in turn a greater
volume of water is measured.
•
Patented features to achieve superior low flow accuracy with high flow
capability
48
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Electro-Magnetic – Iperl
• Advantages
• No moving parts – 20 year accuracy
• Lowest head loss (2.0 psi at 15 gpm)
• Greatest Flow Range (.03 – 35 gpm on 5/8x3/4)
• 200 PSI (highest rated on the market)
• Temperature 33 F – 160 F
• Burst Pressure – 1650 psi (twice the psi as SRII PD meter)
• 20 year warranty on the battery
• Tamperproof
• Disadvantages
• Cost
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Electro-Magnetic – Iperl
Remanent Field Technology:
What and Why?
 Definition: “The magnetization left behind in a material
after the external magnetic field is removed”
 Remanent Operation Permits Continuous Measurement
Without Applying Power Continuously
 Major advantages
– Helps solve power demands of traditional mag technology
– Contributes to better low flow accuracy
– 20 year battery life
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Electro-Magnetic - Iperl
• Flow Tube – Glass Infused Crystalline Resin
• Rectangular cross section promotes best physics for measurement accuracy
• Does not promote scale formation
• Minimizes swirling and turbulence as water enters flow tube
• Increases water velocity which helps in detecting ultra low flows
• Can withstand high pressure (200 psi)
• Maintains dimensional stability in extreme temperatures (-30 F – 160 F)
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Solid State - Iperl
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Features
 9 digit field programmable display
Sealed
Electronic
Register
 Sealed, glass encapsulated electronic
register
Magnetic
Flow
Sensors
 Built-in strainer
Strainer
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Flowtube
Intelligent Alarms
 Alarms to monitor the application as well as the health of the iPERL
Available for reporting:
 Can detect
 Condition monitoring alarms
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
– Reverse flow
– Tamper
– Empty pipe
– Leak
 Lifetime alarms
– 6 month
– 1 month
– Battery failure
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High temperature
Low field
High current
Glide slope
ADC failure
Touchread failure
EMF range
Condition Monitoring Alarms
 High Temperature
– Exposure to environmental temperature outside its design range (30°F to160°F) for more than 15 minutes
 Low Field
– Issue with the magnetics
 High Current
– Magnetic drive coil consumes too much power
 Glide Slope
– Issue with the battery achieving full life of 20 years
 TouchRead Failure
– Failure of the touchcouple
 EMF Range
– Electrodes have been badly damaged
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Alarm History and Datalog
 All alarm conditions may be logged
– Records time of event
– Records complete state of device when event occurred
 Datalog
– Interval (configurable) data can be stored
• Peak flow in interval
• Volume in interval
– Capacity for ~5000 data points
• 49 days at 15 minute intervals
• 12 years at 24 hour intervals
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Head Loss Curve
Typical PD Meter
iPERL
CONFIDENTIAL
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Electro-Magnetic - Iperl
• Sensus Video
• http://link.brightcove.com/services/player/bcpid808497992001?bckey=AQ~~,
AAAAu-frDtE~,LkcoCtFGV5jS4A5r9wAocR7zhpCG_4Z&bclid=0&bctid=812738342001
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Electronic
Registers
CONFIDENTIAL
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Registers
CONFIDENTIAL
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Electronic Register
 Available on SRII and accuSTREAM meters
– All orders for encoded accuSTREAMs beginning February 2013
– Option on SRII
» ICE-Opto registers will no longer be available after February 2014
– Not tested with multi-read devices
 Features
–
–
–
–
–
–
9 digit display (9th digit is leak indicator)
Rate of flow
AMR/AMI capability (Register ID and AMR digits)
Plastic bonnet with removable register (tamper-resistant set-screw)
Register bonnet is rotatable up to 270°
0.96” shorter than ICE-Opto register
 Warranty
– 20 year (10 full / 10 pro-rated)
CONFIDENTIAL
Conclusion
 Mechanical Meters Are Still a Viable Solution
 They Have Served Us Well for Over 100 Years
 New Technologies Available Today Offer
Compelling Financial and Ecological Benefits
 They Compliment AMI System Deployments but
Offer Many Benefits Independent of AMI
 Utilities Should Explore and Understand the
Potential of These Meter Technologies
CONFIDENTIAL
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Residential Metering Technologies
Questions?
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For more information, please refer to the
AWWA M6 Manual
or
Contact Ryan Fields, CI Thornburg
(865) 360 - 0346
(252) 902 - 5410
Ryan.Fields@CITHORNBURG.COM
Thank you!
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