John Brown*s War

John Brown’s War
John Brown believed that God
commanded him to rid slavery
from the United States. After
leading raids in Kansas with 5
of his sons, he moved to
Virginia to plan an attack that
would free all the slaves. Brown
was wounded and captured and
later hanged for treason on
December 2, 1859, for his role
in trying to capture the
American fort at Harpers Ferry
Library of Congress Prints and
John Brown, head-and-shoulders portrait, facing slightly right
1. What was John Brown best known for?
His piercing, deep burning eyes
which could look right through you
or burn holes through you.
2. What two things did John
Brown talk about the most when
people encountered him?
Slavery and how rotten it was or
the Bible
3. How many African Americans
were held in bondage during John
Brown’s time?
4. What were some romantic descriptions
Southerners used for slavery?
Owners took care of slaves’ bodily comforts
and careful religious instruction
(made Christians of them)
What things made slavery bad?
It limited hopes and dreams of slaves, kept
them from having any personality or human
life. It created hopelessness by not allowing
slaves any control over their lives.
6. Where did John Brown first learn to hate
He learned from his father.
7. What happened during John Brown’s first
encounter with slaves?
He saw a slave being whipped.
8. What were some jobs that John Brown
worked at in his earlier years?
He owned a tannery in Ohio, was a farmer, a
postmaster, a shepherd, and worked in the wool
9. What law had a huge impact on John
Brown in 1850?
The Fugitive Slave Act
• Southerners threatened
secession over issue
• Henry Clay again worked a
• For the North: California
would be admitted as free
• Slave trade abolished in
Washington, D.C.
• For the South: A more
effective fugitive slave law
• Residents of New Mexico &
Utah would vote
The United States Senate, A.D.
1850 – Library of Congress
Prints and Photographs
• Under the law, runaway
slaves were not entitled to a
trial by jury
• Anyone helping a slave
escape was jailed for 6
months and fined $1,000
• Northerners were upset by
the harshness of the new
law and often helped hide
fugitive slaves
Effects of the Fugitive Slave
Law – Library of Congress
Prints and Photographs
The Fugitive Slave Act
• Federal Commissioner ruled on each case
• Received $5 for releasing defendant
• Received $10 to return to slaveholder
What do
you think happened?
The Fugitive Slave Act cont.
Southerners felt FSA was justified because
slaves were considered property
• Northerners resented law because it made them part of
the slavery system by requiring them to capture runaway
• It placed fines on people who wouldn’t cooperate and jail
terms on those who helped slaves escape
• Northerners faced a moral choice
a. Obey law and support slavery
b.Disobey law and oppose slavery
Question: How could a northerner break the law under the
Fugitive Slave Act?
10. What black man inspired John Brown?
Frederick Douglass
11. What famous book, written by Harriet
Beecher Stowe, heightened the awareness of
slavery in America?
• In 1852, Harriet Beecher
Stowe published her
influential novel, Uncle
Tom’s Cabin
• The book stressed the
moral evil of slavery
• Southerners protested
that it did not portray
slavery accurately
Eliza Pursued by Bloodhounds
from the Library of Congress Prints
• Abolitionist protests
and Photographs
Instant best
seller sold
500,000 by
12. What 1854 law allowed for the
possibility of slavery in the Kansas
• After Stephen Douglas
worked to pass the
Kansas-Nebraska Act in
1854, Kansas would vote
to decide on whether
slavery would be legal or
• This contradicted the 36°
30” of the Missouri
12. The Kansas-Nebraska Act
• Proposed by Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois to
divide up Nebraska Territory into Kansas and
• Let people decide through popular sovereignty
whether or not to allow slavery (Why did he do
• Would end Missouri Compromise
• Turned Kansas into a bloody battleground
• The race for Kansas was on.
. .both supporters and
opponents attempted to
populate Kansas to win the
vote over slavery
• As the election neared, a
group of pro-slavery
“border ruffians” from
Missouri attempted to cross
into Kansas
• Violence erupted – Bleeding
Kansas is the legacy
Finally, after years of fighting, Kansas
is admitted as a free state in 1861
More Bleeding Kansas
Election for government held in 1855
More proslavery than antislavery
5000 proslavery Missourian’s voted illegally to
swing vote for proslavery
• Proslavery government won
• Antislavery forces elected own government
• Both sides armed themselves
• “Sack of Lawrence” in May of 1856
Ruins of the Free-State Hotel in Lawrence in 1856 as sketched in Sara T. D.
Robinson's book, Kansas; Its Interior and Exterior Life. The hotel was destroyed by
Proslavery men led by Sheriff Samuel J. Jones, who were acting without
authorization. Both the New England Emigrant Aid Company and its assignee, the
University of Kansas, several times tried unsuccessfully to collect damages from the
federal government.
13. Who were border ruffians?
They were pro-slavery men from Missouri
who came to offend (cause) violence in
Kansas or to affect the election for the proslavery government of Kansas.
14. Why did border ruffians hate the city of
Lawrence, KS?
Lawrence was the center of the anti-slavery
movement in Kansas.
15. What happened in Lawrence?
A pro-slavery mob attacked the city which
became known as the “Sack of
16. What violent act that took place in Congress upset
John Brown greatly?
Senator Charles Sumner of Massachusetts was attacked
by Preston Brooks
Violence in Congress
• Charles Sumner from Massachusetts delivered a
speech in the Senate attacking proslavery forces in
• Insulted Sen. A.P. Butler of S.C.
• Preston Brooks, Butler’s nephew, attacked Sumner on
the Senate floor with his cane, hitting him about 30
times and breaking the cane
Charles Sumner of Massachusetts delivered a
blistering speech in the Senate attacking the spread of
slavery into Kansas. In his speech he attacked fellow
Senators Douglas of Illinois and Butler of South
Carolina. It took Sumner three years to regain his
health enough to return to the Senate.
Hon. Charles Sumner - the great senator and
statesman, the champion of civil and political equality born January 6th 1811, died March 11th 1874 from
Library of Congress Prints and Photographs
Preston Brooks was the
nephew of A.P. Butler who was
singled out by Sumner in his
speech. Brooks was never
charged with a crime but
resigned his seat in the House
after surviving a censure vote.
He was soon reelected to fill
his own vacancy.
17. What did John Brown and his men do to avenge
the Sack of Lawrence?
They murdered 5 pro-slavery men by cutting up their
bodies with swords and then threw their hacked up
bodies in the Pottawattamie Creek.
John Brown
• Avenged the Sack of Lawrence
• With 7 other men he murdered 5 proslavery
neighbors while they slept in their beds
• Known as the Pottawatomie Massacre after creek
where victims bodies were found
• Civil war broke out in Kansas for 3 more years
18. What became John Brown’s principal
object for slavery?
He wanted to overthrow slavery.
19. Why did John Brown select the state of
Virginia as his base for overthrowing slavery?
It was close to a large population of slaves who
could rise up and help him. It was also near the
junction of the Potomac and Shenandoah Rivers
where they could spread the revolt.
20. What weapon did John Brown have made
for slaves to use?
1000 pikes
21.When John Brown raided the federal arsenal
at Harpers Ferry, VA, how did the first part of
his plan succeed?
He managed to capture the arsenal.
• While politicians debated the
slavery issue, John Brown plotted
a major slave revolt
• On October 16, 1859, he led a
band of 21 men, black and white,
into Harpers Ferry, Virginia
• He hoped to seize a large federal
arsenal, but troops put down the
• Brown was tried and executed
John Brown Attacks Harpers Ferry
• Wanted to arm slaves to revolt for their freedom
• Planned to capture weapons at the U.S. arsenal at
Harpers Ferry, VA
• Oct. 16, 1859, Brown and his followers captured
the arsenal, killing 4 people
• Brown sent out word to arm the slaves but none
• Marines attacked the fort and captured Brown 6
of his followers
• Brown was hung for treason
22. What did John Brown not count on during
his raid at Harpers Ferry?
He didn’t realize that people in the town would
besiege him.
23. What help was John Brown looking for that
did not materialize?
No slaves came to help.
24. Who led the troops from Washington, D.C.,
that captured Brown?
Col. Robert E. Lee of the U.S. Marines
25. What happened to John Brown during the
attack by the Marines?
He was wounded and captured.
26. During his trial, what did John Brown
He became a preacher that put slavery and the
country on trial.
27. What was John Brown’s ultimate fate?
He was tried for treason and hanged to death
on November 30, 1859.
What Do You Think?
Is John Brown

similar documents