CH 3 World Religions

CH 3 World Religions
Bell Ringer
• What are the three monotheistic religions?
• What is the difference between Judaism and
• Where is Christianity the most common
Bell Ringer
• Who founded Buddhism?
• What is the eightfold path?
• Can you name any one of the principles of the
eightfold path?
• Judaism
• Hinduism
• Christianity
• Buddhism
• Islam
• Confucianism
Spread of World Religions Video
3 Major Monotheistic Religions
• Monotheism is the belief in a
single, all powerful God.
• Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
all believe in one god.
• In fact they all technically
believe in the SAME God.
– Abraham: Father of
• Most historians agree that Abraham probably
was a real person (2000 BCE, Mesopotamia)
• Abraham was said to have entered into a
covenant with God.
– Covenant: a sacred agreement
• The descendants of Abraham agreed to follow
the teachings of this One True God, and they
became known as the Israelites, Hebrews, or
Jewish people.
• Judaism follows the Torah
(sacred text).
• The Torah contains five books
– Genesis
– Exodus
– Leviticus
– Numbers
– Deuteronomy
• These five books are also the
first five books of the Christian
Bible. They would also be
considered as holy text by
followers of Islam.
Brief Jewish History
• Abraham and his followers would move to the
land of Canaan (Modern day Israel).
• The Israelites would be enslaved in Egypt by
the Pharaohs, but be freed by Moses.
• Again they would settle Israel, but eventually
be conquered and begin the Jewish Diaspora
(Period of time when Jews had no official
• This will end with the creation of Israel in 1947
• Judaism had one True god (Yahweh). NOT
• Holy day of the week is called the Sabbath.
• Follow the ten commandments (where
Christians got them from)
• Jewish holidays will start/end at sun down of
respective days.
• Second Major Monotheistic
religion to be born out of the
Middle East.
• The first Christians were Jews,
followed Jewish Laws, and held
Jewish beliefs.
• Jesus was Jewish, and generally
agreed to have existed according
to historians.
• Only AFTER the death of Jesus the
Religion of Christianity even begin
to exist.
• Jesus was born in Bethlehem, a territory ruled
by the Romans
• Jesus taught that God was actually merciful,
and not vengeful as portrayed in Jewish texts.
Started teaching around 20 CE.
• He had a number of followers who were
known as apostles.
• Jesus was seen as a trouble maker by the
Romans, and was executed (most likely) for
suspicion of starting an insurrection.
• Christians believe that Jesus rose from the
dead, the Resurrection.
• Believe in one true God (God).
• Christian holy book is called the Bible (Old
Testament = Jewish, New Testament = Christian)
• Complex ideas: Trinity (Father, Son, Holy Spirit)
• Belief in resurrection and salvation of its
• Held many beliefs in common with Judaism, but
major differences. (Able to eat shell fish and split
hooved animals)
• Last of the monotheistic religions from the
Middle east.
• Taught by Muhammad, who was born in Mecca
around 570 CE.
• Muhammad came to know of the one true God
when the Angel Gabriel told him of it.
• Muhammad started to preach of his teachings in
• Islam means “to submit,” meaning those who
“submit to God’s will.” (Muslims)
• Muhammad was seen as a threat to local
leaders and was driven out of Mecca to the
nearby village of Medina.
• After time the Muslims were strong enough,
captured Mecca, destroyed the Ka’bah (place
of idol worship), and reformed it into a holy
shrine of Islam.
• Believe in one true God (Allah).
• Holy Scripture is called the
Qu’ran (Koran)
• Muslims also follow the
Sunnah, or teachings and
lessons of Muhammad.
• Muslims believe it would be
idolatry to worship an image of
Muhammad or Allah so they
use stylized script.
5 Pillars of Islam
1. Profession of Faith
– “There is no God but Allah and Muhammad is his
2. Daily Prayer
– Muslims are to pray 5 times a day facing Mecca
3. Charity
– Muslims are to give 2.5% of their surplus wealth
to charity every year.
4. Fasting
– During Ramadan Muslims are to abstain from
eating or drinking from sun up to sun down for
the MONTH.
5. Pilgrimage to Mecca (Hajj)
– Every Muslim in their life time is encouraged to
travel to Mecca to pray at the Ka’bah with fellow
believers. This is not required, but strongly
encouraged for Muslims.
• Started in roughly the 2000s BCE and has no
clear founder
• The religion draws heavily on the influences of
the people of India
• It is an extremely complex religion with many
gods existing.
• A nomadic people from the Indus, called the
Aryans, are important to Hinduism
• The roots of Hinduism are traced to the Vedas
(which is comparable to the holy text)
• It is believed that the Aryans brought the
Vedas to India.
• The Vedas
– Are a way to sing and praise the gods
– Explain elaborate rituals to keep the universe in
– The Priest who carry out these rituals are
extremely important to Hinduism
• The Vedas call for a Caste system (4 levels)
– Brahmins: Top Level/Priests
– Kshatriyas (Kasha-tree-uhs): Rulers & Warriors
– Vaishyas (Viesh-yuhs): Herders & Merchants
– Shudras: servants, farmers, and laborers
• Hinduism is polytheistic.
• Some people worship one single god, some
people worship multiple gods.
• Hindus believe that life repeats itself: birth,
life, death. (Reincarnation)
– Dharma: duty or obligation to live a honorable life
– Karma: good and evil done in the past life
determines the nature of that person’s next life
– If you’re good enough a Hindu can free himself
from the Karma moksha, rebirth, and unite with
• Arose from the teachings of Siddhartha
Gautama (The Buddha)
• The story goes: Siddhartha was born a prince
in a wealthy family. He left his home to see
pain and suffering. He shortly after left his
comfortable life to find a greater truth.
• He determined that the path to
enlightenment was not through excess or
minimum, but a “Middle Path”
• Through meditation Sid was
said to reach nirvana (a state of
happiness & peace) & became
the Buddha.
• He soon began to spread his
Noble Truths
• 1st Noble Truth: Suffering is present in all
things, and nothing lasts forever.”
• 2nd Noble Truth: The cause for suffering is
• 3rd Noble Truth: Removing desire removes
• 4th Noble Truth: The way to remove desire is
to follow the Eightfold Path.” (guidelines to
Eightfold Path
Spread of Buddhism
• Spread by
Missionaries and
• While Hinduism is
dominant in India,
Buddhism is
dominant in
Southeast Asia,
Central Asia, China,
Korea, and Japan
• Not so much a religion, but more a
• Founded by Confucius
• Originally from China
• As a young man China was in chaos because
the rulers had lost control.
• People viewed this as losing the Mandate of
Heaven (the heavenly support to rule)
• Confucius believed that studying tradition and
order would help to restore the Mandate.
• His main goal was to influence the
government to be better.
• While he was a failure during his life he has
been hugely important to Chinese culture.
• Building a better more harmonious society
would bring humans closer to heaven.
• People should be ethical, improve
relationships, and respect others.
• Parents and rulers should set good examples.
• Urges respect for everyone regardless of class
or role in society.
• Called for Universal Education.
5 Relationships
Older sibling/Younger Sibling
• Filial Piety: Children's respect for parents, was
HUGELY important to social order.

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