Understanding deprivation - Development Studies Association

Report
Meera Tiwari & Susannah Pickering-Saqqa,
University of East London
[email protected]
[email protected]
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To map and disseminate good practice in
overcoming deprivations in urban communities
of London and Mumbai.

This presentation is part of the bigger study

An overview of the London component
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
Deprivation within literature in Capability Approach
◦ Lack of entitlements
 Entitlements: Can be economic or non-economic,
physical or non-physical
◦ ‘Lack the opportunity to be adequately nourished,
decently clothed, minimally educated, or properly
sheltered’ (Sen, 1979)
Note: the opportunities here are context specific – Sen’s
unrestrictive list of capabilities
 Poverty as capability deprivation
◦ Income poverty
◦ Capability poverty
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Sampling strategy


Levels of deprivation in Boroughs (DCLG English
Indices of Deprivation 2010).
Varied constituencies

Evidence of interventions with positive
outcomes

Access – key challenge in northern context
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Domains of deprivation
 Income
 Employment
 Health
 Education & skills
 Housing
 Crime
 Environment
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ATD Fourth
World,
Lewisham
Osmani Trust,
Tower Hamlets
London
Citizens,
Hackney
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1.


ATD Fourth World
Lewisham ID 16th most deprived borough in London,
31st in England; high ranking on employment &
crime (DCLG 2011)
Works with predominantly white English families.
Self-defines as a “human rights based, anti-poverty
organisation”

OGB-funded SLA work on Voices for a Change

Access via team member research
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2. London Citizens


Hackney 1st most deprived borough in London, 2nd
in England or Newham 6th in England, 2nd in London
(DCLG 2011)
Uses community organising to “transform
communities and build local power”. Office cleaners
from Latin America.

Living Wage campaign in Canary Wharf/Olympic

UEL LSS Membership of TELCO.
Park/UEL?
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3. Osmani Trust


Tower Hamlets 3rd most deprived borough in London,
7th in England; worst in London on income and
housing measures(DCLG 2011)
Roots in anti-racism work of 1970s. Now working on
“substance misuse, racial tensions…territoriality and
gang-related violence”. 30% TH population from
Bangladeshi community (LBTH 2011)

London Councils-funded Pathways to Citizenship

Access via project manager
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Deprivation
Pre-case study
condition
Opportunity
needed to
overcome
deprivation
Agency needed
to overcome
deprivation
Outcome
Poor literacy
Poor knowledge of
entitlements, unable to
access employment
opportunities,
Opportunity to be
educated, Social
Policy institutional
capacity
Collective,
individual &
relational
Educated
communities, rights,
entitlement
Poor health
Unable to be healthy,
being inactive
Social opportunities
Social Policy,
institutional capacity
Individual & relational Good health of present
& future generations
Social exclusion
Poor self-esteem, no
decision making &
participation
Participative freedom,
political will
Individual, collective Socially inclusive
& relational
society
Poor governance Unable to access public Openness in government Individual, collective,
goods, to have legal
relational
protection
Livelihood/Food Poor nourishment Life Market opportunities; Individual, collective
insecurity
uncertainties
social policy
& relational
Effective pursuit of
political, social and
economic freedoms
Well nutritioned adults
& children
Material well-being
Source: Based on Tiwari and Ibrahim, 2012
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Workshop 1 outcome:
 Decision to consult with case study organisations on their
understandings of “deprivation”.
Next steps:
1.
Scoping visits and interviews with key decision-makers
in case study organisations to understand:


Deprivations they address; strategies used to address them; expected
outcomes.
Constituencies – snowball sampling – risk attached.
2.
Revise conceptual framework
3.
Field Work – data collected via semi-structured
interviews with field level activists & “beneficiaries”.
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Conceptual

Will the contextual understandings of “deprivation” in both
London & Mumbai allow for meaningful comparative analysis?
Methodological

How will access issues determine choice of Borough focus for
LC case study and limit validity of data (OT)?
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
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




The Capability Approach Literature
Joseph Rowntree Foundation:
◦ Ethnic minorities and urban deprivation, 1998
◦ Ethnic minorities in the inner city, Dorsett, 1998
◦ Immigration and Social Cohesion in the UK, 2008
◦ Immigration, Social Cohesion and Social Capital, 2008
Ostrom, E., 2011; 2008
Stiglitz, Sen, and Fitoussi, 2009
Social Cohesion:
◦ Perspectives on global development 2012, Social Cohesion in a
shifting world, OECD
◦ Social cohesion, institutions, and growth, Easterly, Ritzen, and
Woolcock, 2006
Townsend P (1987). “Deprivation”, in Journal of Social Policy
16, 125–146.
DCLG (2011) Indices of Deprivation 2010
Thank you
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