Cummins ISX15 Engine Emissions Training

Report
Objectives
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Overview of ISX15 engine emissions strategies
Identification of system components
Operation of system components
Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) functions
Selective Catalyst Reduction (SCR) functions
Items the driver/operator will notice with these
installed emission control devices
Summary
Overview
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The new Rosenbauer 2012 pumpers have the
latest 2010 EPA Emission standards Cummins
ISX15 14.9 liter 500HP big Block engines. With
meeting the current EPA standard, it employs two
systems. The first being a Diesel Particulate Filter
or DPF. The second system is called Selective
Catalytic Reduction or SCR. Both of the systems
are addressed on the exhaust side of the engine
called after treatment devices or ATD. Why? EPA
required over the last several years to reduce
Diesel Particulate (DP) matter and nitrogen oxide
(NOx) to almost zero, these items are a leading
cause of greenhouse gasses.
Identification of System Components
View Cummins Emissions video on Hendersonfireonline.com
DPF Functions
Regeneration Types:
 Passive
 Active
Regeneration-
Regeneration-
Passive Regeneration
Occurs when the vehicle’s duty cycle and
exhaust temperature drive the continuous
oxidation of carbon.
 No incremental actions are required by the
engine or operator to keep the DPF clean.
 This typically occurs when the vehicle is
driven at high speeds (i.e., highway
speeds) and/or under heavy loads.
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Active Regeneration
Required when the duty cycle does not generate
enough heat to convert all the carbon being collected
in the DPF.
 In this case, the Engine Control Module (ECM) initiates
an active regeneration by injecting a small amount of
Diesel Fuel into the exhaust stream, which generates
heat as it enters the DOC.
 The additional heat ensures that the excess carbon is
oxidized without any operator intervention.
 Active regeneration will occur more frequently in
vehicles with low speed, low load, or stop and go duty
cycles.
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Active Regeneration
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Active regeneration only occurs if the engine ECM has
detected that the after treatment DPF restriction has
reached a specified limit, and may only occur if the
vehicle is moving above the speed threshold or in
pump mode.
The engine ECM will activate and de-activate active
regeneration as needed.
The speed threshold for active regeneration to occur
is 20 mph.
Note: The Cummins engines are set up to allow an
active regeneration while in pump mode.
Active Regeneration
Active regeneration is largely transparent to the
vehicle operator.
 The operator might notice an increase in turbocharger
noise during an active regeneration event, and may
notice the high exhaust temperature lamp is
illuminated, if the exhaust temp is greater than the
high exhaust temperature set threshold.
 The high exhaust temperature lamp will illuminate at a
speed less than 45 mph at an exhaust temperature
between 662 F to 1472 F.
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DPF Dash Lamps/Indicators
Indicator Light Bar
Graphic Multifunction
Message Center
Note: Some Indicator Light lamps descriptions may also display in the
Graphic Multifunction Message Center. These will have the “Check
Message” Lamp illuminated in the Indicator Light Bar to alert
operator more information is available in the Message Center.
High Exhaust System
Temperature (HEST) Lamp
Illuminated
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The HEST Lamp illuminates to indicate that
high exhaust temperatures may exist due to
after-treatment regeneration.
This is normal and does not signify the need
for any kind of vehicle or engine service.
When this lamp is illuminated, ensure that
the exhaust pipe outlet is not directed at any
combustible surface or material.
After treatment Diesel Particulate
Filter (DPF) Lamp
Illuminated
The After treatment DPF Lamp indicates, when illuminated or
flashing, that the after treatment DPF requires regeneration. This is
accomplished by the following:
1.
2.
Our apparatus is equipped with a Regeneration Inhibit Switch;
ensure that the switch is not in the Inhibit position.
Perform DPF regeneration by one of the following methods:
a. Change to a more challenging duty cycle, such as highway
driving, for at least 20 minutes.
OR
b. Perform a parked regeneration.
After treatment Diesel Particulate
Filter (DPF) Lamp
Flashing
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If regeneration is not performed in a timely
manner after the DPF Lamp is illuminated, the
DPF Lamp will begin to flash. This indicates a
higher level of soot in the DPF.
a.
Change to a more challenging duty cycle, such as
highway driving, for at least 20 minutes.
OR
b.
Perform a parked regeneration.
After treatment Diesel
Particulate Filter (DPF) Lamp
Flashing with Warning or Check Engine Lamp
A flashing DPF Lamp combined with an illuminated
Warning or Check Engine Lamp indicates that the
after treatment DPF needs regeneration immediately.
A parked regeneration is required.
After treatment Diesel Particulate
Filter (DPF) Lamp
Stop Engine Lamp
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If a parked regeneration is not performed, the red Stop Engine
Lamp will illuminate. The vehicle should be stopped as soon as it
is practical and safe to do so. Contact the Fire Shop so they can
arrange a tow for repair at an authorized Cummins repair
location.
Note: Cummins engines calibrated for emergency vehicle use are
programmed to not reduce power or speed due to soot load.
However, excessive soot load may impact engine performance
and or damage to DPF and engine components.
DPF Manual Inhibit Switch
The purpose of this switch is to prevent or disable after treatment DPF
regeneration.
 Can be used at a scene or in a situation that would cause damage or
harm by High Exhaust Temperatures
 (Note: when parking be aware of exhaust outlet location proximity to
combustible items).
 CAUTION: Unnecessary or excessive use of the Regeneration Inhibit
Switch will result in an increased need for parked regeneration or may
result in the need to service or replace the Cummins Particulate Filter.
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How to Perform a Parked
(Stationary) Regeneration
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Ensure the DPF Lamp is illuminated or flashing:
Park the vehicle in an appropriate location. Preferably on a
surface that will NOT burn or melt under high exhaust
temperatures (such as clean concrete or gavel, NOT grass
or asphalt)
Set the parking brake.
Place transmission in Neutral, and allow at least 40 minutes
for the regeneration.
Set up a safe exhaust area (minimum 2 feet clear of
exhaust outlet). Items that can burn, melt or explode MUST
be kept a minimum of 5 feet away from exhaust. Confirm
that nothing is on or near the exhaust system surfaces.
Ensure that there are no gases or vapors nearby that could
burn, explode or contribute to a fire.
How to Perform a Parked
(Stationary) Regeneration
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Confirm that
Compartment #8 Safe
Step is in the up
(closed) position away
from exhaust.
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If the Safe Step is left
down during the
regeneration process
or pump mode, paint
damage will occur.
How to Perform a Parked
(Stationary) Regeneration
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Ensure that your High-idle switch is off before
starting regeneration.
How to Perform a Parked
(Stationary) Regeneration
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Push the red Manual
Regeneration switch
located below the
pump panel shifter
assembly to begin a
parked regeneration.
Note: Engine speed will increase, and there may be a noticeable
change to the sound of the turbocharger during the
regeneration process.
How to Perform a Parked
(Stationary) Regeneration
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Once the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) is regenerated, the
engine will automatically return to the normal idle speed.
Monitor the vehicle and surrounding area during
regeneration. If any unsafe condition occurs, shut off the
engine immediately.
To stop a parked regeneration, depress the brake or throttle
pedal. Drive away as normal. If after driving the DPF Light
is still illuminated, start the parked regeneration procedures
again.
Once regeneration is complete, exhaust gas and exhaust
surface temperatures will remain elevated for 3 to 5 minutes.
WARNING:
During regeneration, exhaust gas temperature could reach
1500 degrees, and exhaust system surface temperature could
exceed 1300 degrees, which is hot enough to ignite or melt
common materials, and to burn people.
How to Perform a Parked
(Stationary) Regeneration
Note:
In vehicle, Cummins DPF placard is
located on the underside of the center
dash electrical access panel.
Selective Catalytic Reduction
(SCR)
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Diesel exhaust fluid (DEF) is required for
an engine equipped with a SCR system.
Diesel Exhaust Fluid
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67.5% de-ionized water and 32.5%
urea
May have a slight ammonia smell
Is colorless
Is non-toxic and non-polluting
Is non-flammable
Urea is naturally occurring and is
biodegradable.
Diesel Exhaust Fluid
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Is corrosive for some metals such as carbon steel,
aluminum, copper and zinc.
Do not get the substance in your eyes. In case of
contact, flush with large amounts of water for a
minimum of 15 minutes. SEE MSDS for additional
information.
Avoid prolonged contact with skin. In case of
contact, wash immediately with soap and water.
If not washed immediately, when the DEF dries, a
white film will be left that can be more difficult to
wash off.
If spilled, rinse and clean immediately with water.
Diesel Exhaust Fluid
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Has a shelf life of two years. However, this can be
reduced if the fluid is exposed to direct sunlight for a
long time or if the temperature of the DEF remains
above 77°F (25°C) for sustained periods. All DEF
packaging should be labeled with the expiration date.
Note: DEF fluid is made mostly of de-ionized water, just
a small amount of regular tap water introduced
into the DEF tank can cause contamination and
malfunctions to the emissions systems. If cleaning
funnel prior to filling tank, wash thoroughly to
remove any contaminants and then rise with
distilled water. If distilled water is unavailable,
ensure the funnel is completely dry before using it.
DEF Tank
Supplied with the Rosenbauer engine and
is 6 gallons.
 Located on driver’s side crew cab step-well
behind access door.
 Should last about two-50 gallon diesel fuel
ups.
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DEF Lamps and Gauges
DEF Lamp
Illuminated
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An illuminated DEF is an indication that the DEF
level is low (15% remaining). This can be
corrected by refilling the DEF tank.
DEF Lamp
Flashing
A flashing DEF lamp indicates that the DEF
level has fallen below a critical level (10%
remaining).
This can be corrected by refilling the DEF
tank.
DEF Lamp
Flashing with Check Engine Light
A flashing DEF Lamp combined with an illuminated
Warning or Check Engine Lamp indicates that the
DEF level is critically low (5%).
 A speed inducement of 55 mph will be enacted the
first time the ignition switch is cycled off then back on.
 The speed limit of 55 mph will be suspended during
pumping operations.
 Normal engine power and vehicle speed will be
restored after the DEF tank is refilled.
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DEF Lamp
Stop Engine Lamp, MIL Lamp with flashing DEF and warning Check Engine Lamp
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If the engine has been shut down after the DEF tank has
run dry, the Stop Engine lamp will also be illuminated,
along with the flashing DEF Lamp and illuminated Warning
or Check Engine Lamp.
A speed inducement of 25 mph will be enacted the first
time the ignition switch is cycled off then back on.
The speed limit of 25 mph will be suspended during
pumping operations.
Normal engine power and vehicle speed will be restored
after the DEF tank is refilled.
Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL)
Illuminated
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Used on engines that are equipped with On-board
Diagnostics (OBD), the emission control system monitors
and reports malfunctions that impact the emission control
devices.
If the OBD detects such a malfunction, the on-board
diagnostic system illuminates the MIL to indicate that the
engine needs to be serviced at the first available
opportunity.
The MIL can be illuminated along with any of the engine
indicator lamps.
Spartan DEF Level Gauge and
Info Center
DEF Level Chart
DEF Supplies and Refilling
The city shop will provide the required
amount of DEF after each PM.
 If at some point you run low of DEF then
call the warehouse to get the required
fluid.
 Due to the shelf life of DEF, the city shop
will give you the minimum amount to get
you thru until the next PM.
 Refilling of the DEF tank will not be any
different than the policy of refueling the
diesel tank, when you reach ¾ tank then
refill.
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Items the Driver Will Notice
After treatment System
Under certain conditions (Cold or very dry),
condensation in the form of water vapor
can be seen coming from the vehicle
tailpipe.
 This is normal. It will clear within a few
minutes of normal vehicle operation.
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Items the Driver Will Notice
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR)
Specific:
After turning the ignition switch off,
A pumping sound may be heard from
underneath the vehicle (can last up to 60
seconds).
 This sound is the after treatment DEF dosing
unit purging any unused DEF from the system
and returning it to the tank.
 This is normal.
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Items the Driver Will Notice
Engine Sounds
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The ISX15 engine is equipped with a feature to warm up
the after treatment system under various conditions.
This “Warm Up” feature can cause slight sound changes
during idle. These sounds are normal.
The electric-actuated VGT Turbocharger causes the engine
sound to vary at different times. This is normal.
A slight turbo whistle may also be observed at idle
conditions.
Compression brakes are quieter on engines with after
treatment.
Items the Driver Will Notice
Exhaust
After prolonged idle, you may notice
momentary white vapor and an odor. This
is normal.
 When the High Exhaust System
Temperature Lamp is illuminated, you may
notice an odor.
 If the odor is excessive and you also notice
white vapor, have the exhaust system
inspected for leaks.
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Summary
Do not ignore any check engine, DPF, or
DEF warning lights.
 Regenerate or refill based upon indicator
lights to avoid engine damage, power or
speed inducements.
 For further info, see the manufacturer’s
owner’s manual and the following links:
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Resource Links
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Diesel Particulate Filter for Emergency Vehicles
http://cumminsengines.com/uploads/docs/4971356.pdf
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Driver Tips for Fire & Emergency Vehicles (shows the
different DEF derates based on when your engine was built)
http://cumminsengines.com/uploads/docs/4971316.pdf
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VIDEO: 2010 Cummins Aftertreatment System Overview
For Fire Trucks
http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL82D6C0E1AEECBFDB&feature=plcp
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Cummins Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration User
Interface
Emergency Vehicle Calibrated Engines
http://www.fdsoa.org/2012_apparatus_symposium/cummins_dpf_regens.pdf

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