Interviewing Guide: Conduct effective interviews to select

Report
Effective Interviewing
Objectives
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© TNTP 2012
Create an effective interview and candidate evaluation process
Develop a series of competency-based interview questions
Create school-specific scenario questions to challenge candidates
Practice probing questions and techniques
Practice identifying excellent answers
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Agenda
Resume Review
Developing Questions
Differentiating Your Interview
Recognizing Good Answers
Creating Scenarios
Probing Questions
Interviewer Bias and Unlawful Interview Questions
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Look for 4 Key Elements When Evaluating A Resume
Grammar &
Organization
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Is the resume presented in a professional manner?
Are there obvious spelling, grammar or syntax errors?
Is the information organized clearly and logically?
Dates of
Employment
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Is the resume up to date?
Does the person currently have a job?
What is the length of each job held?
Are there substantial gaps of time between jobs?
Experience
(including extracurricular activities)
Education
&
Certification
© TNTP 2012
• What is the nature and overall length of their teaching
experience? (summer school, tutoring, full time, lead
teaching?)
• Are there examples of classroom-based achievements?
• Did the candidate take on multiple responsibilities at once?
(including school related leadership positions)
• What awards, merits or distinctions has the candidate earned?
• Is there a considerable career shift to or from teaching?
• Will this person be licensed when the position begins?
• Does the candidate have advanced degrees? Is that degree in
a subject-relevant field?
• Type of educational training (traditional, alternative, etc.)
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In addition, look for these and other red flags so that you can ask
appropriate follow-up questions
Sample resume/cover letter follow-up questions to common red flags
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© TNTP 2012
Inconsistent work pattern: I’d like to get a better understanding of your
employment history. I see that you have held a number of positions over
the past years – could you tell me what you did not like about each
position? What factors led you to leave each position?
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Started a job in the middle of the school year: What were you doing prior to
taking this job?
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Left a job in the middle of the school year: Why did you leave this job before the
end of the school year (really push for specific reasons)?
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Only has temporary or substitute positions: Prior to substitute teaching, were
you actively seeking permanent employment? Why did you take a job as a
substitute?
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Off-color / inappropriate comments in the cover letter: What did you mean
when you wrote [quote]?
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Using a review sheet can help to standardize reviews, rank
candidates and prepare for the interview
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Agenda
Resume Review
Developing Questions
Differentiating Your Interview
Recognizing Good Answers
Creating Scenarios
Probing Questions
Interviewer Bias and Unlawful Interview Questions
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It is important to be strategic when developing your questions
Strong questions should…
• Provide evidence for one or more of the competencies you’ve chosen
for your selection model
• Encourage the candidate to discuss specific examples in all of their
answers
• Be connected to specific, observable indicators that you previously
identified for each of your competencies
• Allow you to illicit evidence from candidates of all skill levels and
backgrounds
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Sample standard interview questions by competency
Teaching Ability
Describe a recent lesson that did not go well.
• What had you hoped to accomplish during this lesson?
• If you were asked to teach this lesson again, what would you do
differently?
Achievement
After your first year of teaching at our school, how will you look back
and know that you have succeeded?
• What other measures could you use?
School Fit
What challenges do you anticipate facing next year?
• What strategies would you employ to deal with such
challenges?
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Determining your Interview Questions
Activity
Now that we’ve discussed the types of questions you can ask, we are going
to give you time to build an interview question bank.
1
Develop 1-2 questions for each competency.
2
Determine the order of your questions. Those which are more
involved or require more thought should be asked later in the
interview so that interviewer and interviewee have a chance to
“warm up.”
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© TNTP 2012
Be sure to have a mix of questions so that you can assess each
competency. For a 30 minute interview, you should aim to ask
5-6 questions (allowing time for responses and follow up
questions).
10
Questions you plan to use
Competency
© TNTP 2012
Question
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Agenda
Resume Review
Developing Questions
Differentiating Your Interview
Recognizing Good Answers
Creating Scenarios
Probing Questions
Interviewer Bias and Unlawful Interview Questions
© TNTP 2012
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For each of the following candidate types, what would you look for
in an interview?
Activity
Experienced Teachers
Traditionally Prepared New Teachers
Teachers in Alternative Certification Programs
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Some teachers have actual teaching experience to discuss during
an interview
Experienced Teachers
•Ask for specific examples of teaching experiences,
struggle and successes
•Use specific classes and students
•Ask about successful classroom management strategies
they have used
•Ask about their education/classroom philosophy
•Ask about their work/interactions with their colleagues
• Ask for teaching success that they have observed and
why they think it was successful
Traditionally Prepared
New Teachers
• Ask about specific classroom management strategies
they are planning to use and why they plan to use
that strategy
• Ask for examples from their student teaching
experiences, but understand that not all student
teaching experiences are the same
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For teachers who do not yet have classroom teaching experience,
ask scenario questions
•Ask questions about their content knowledge and how
they would share that with their students
Teachers in
Alternative
Certification
Programs
•Ask scenario based questions, especially about classroom
management
•Ask questions that get at their general approach to
students, parents and colleagues
•Ask about their experiences with children outside of the
classroom
•Ask what training they will receive. Keep in mind that
most of these candidates will learn instructional strategies
during summer training
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You can customize the same question for different types of
candidates
Competency: Achievement
Indicators: Sets and meets academic goals with students; Provides
examples of success in increasing student achievement
Experienced teachers: What classes did you teach last year? Tell me about
your goals for X class? Did you reach them? How do you know?
New teachers: How will you know if you have been successful in your first
year of teaching?
Activity
Review the questions you chose earlier and identify one to customize by experience
level.
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Agenda
Resume Review
Developing Questions
Differentiating Your Interview
Recognizing Good Answers
Creating Scenarios
Probing Questions
Interviewer Bias and Unlawful Interview Questions
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Responses can fall into four general categories
Response
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Next Step
Excellent
Provides abundant evidence
supporting the desired
competency or indicator(s)
Move on to next question
Strong
Provides some positive
evidence of the desired
competency or indicator(s), but
there are gaps in information or
an inconsistent pattern
Probe - ask additional followup or probing questions to
gather additional evidence
Weak
Provides some generally
negative evidence of the
desired indicator(s) or very
limited positive evidence
Probe - Offer the candidate a
chance to clarify his/her
position, provide additional
evidence or demonstrate the
response is not acceptable
Poor
Candidate provides abundant
negative evidence of the
desired indicator(s)
Document evidence and move
on to the next question or
competency
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Tips and best practices
Best Practices
Tips to Remember
•If you want to know more
about a candidate’s experience,
ask another question
•Good answers may change by
school
• Follow your selection model
•Determine if the candidate
answered the question that was
asked
•Take notes
•Determine your key indicators
•Identify your non-negotiables
•Consider recording your first
few interviews to review
candidates’ responses
•Work closely with your
selection team
© TNTP 2012
•It’s not about saying something
specific or getting an answer
exactly right
•Candidate’s experiences and
strengths may be good but not
relevant
•Focus on the ability to teach the
content
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What does a good response look like?
Example: Competency – Teaching Ability
 Strong or excellent answer shows evidence of the following indicators: conveys ideas
and information clearly, provides reasonable examples of effective lesson-planning,
instructional strategies, and/or student assessment, makes content meaningful, sets
concrete, ambitious goals for student achievement, indicates confidence all students
should be held to high standards, reflects on successes and failures
 May also present evidence of other competencies, i.e. communication skills, critical
thinking
Example
Question #1: Tell me about a lesson that you taught last week/yesterday?
A strong answer may include:
•A clearly explained objective
•Measurable assessment
•Indication that the candidate understands differentiation
•All activities directly related to meeting the objective
A weak answer may include:
• An unclear objective
•“Fluff” activities that are not aligned to the objective
• A very simplistic lesson
• A lesson that did not meet the needs of all learners
© TNTP 2012
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Agenda
Resume Review
Developing Questions
Differentiating Your Interview
Recognizing Good Answers
Creating Scenarios
Probing Questions
Interviewer Bias and Unlawful Interview Questions
© TNTP 2012
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Questions that ask candidates to provide a step by step solution to
a difficult scenario are particularly effective
They allow you to evaluate a candidate’s ability to handle challenges
unique to your school
They require the candidate to think beyond a scripted response
They give candidates a realistic picture of the culture and challenges at
your school
They can be tailored to ask about the exact strengths you are looking
for based on your selection model
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Every scenario has three basic parts
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The Set-up: A brief explanation of the teacher’s situation,
describing both the problem as well as additional details you
want them to consider such as time of year or class size
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Complex Problems: A successful scenario poses more than one
problem to demonstrate both realistic expectations as well as
to have the candidate reveal what their priorities are in the
given situation
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A Clear Question: Though the problem is complex, it should
be obvious to the candidate what you expect them to answer
• Example : It’s the third month of your first year of teaching. In order to further
assist your struggling students, you began offering an hour of your time before and
after school. That time has definitely increased their progress, but the additional
two hours has taken away all of your free time. Now the other teacher in your
grade will be out for a few months, and the principal has asked you to take on
some of her students –most of which are behind the students in your class. What
would you do?
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Identifying Strong Responses to Scenarios
Activity
Review the example provided and identify specific indicators that would be
present in a strong response.
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Tips to keep in mind when developing and asking scenario
questions
Developing
Scenarios
• Use realistic scenarios that
have occurred in your
school
• Consider different
scenarios for different
types of teachers:
elementary, secondary,
special education, ESL
• Consider different
scenarios for different
levels of candidate
teaching experience
• Provide context of the
situation, but keep the
scenario brief
© TNTP 2012
Asking
Scenarios
• Expect that the candidate won’t
have a perfect solution to the
problem. You are looking to
make sure that the candidate has
the right instincts.
• Evaluate both the content of the
candidate’s answer (strategies)
and her/his reaction to the
scenario.
• Repeatedly probe the candidates
after she/he has given the initial
answer: “What would you do if
that didn’t work?”
• Allow ample time for the
candidate to digest the situation
and develop an answer.
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Identify a realistic situation that has happened (or could happen) to
a new teacher at your school
Consider using:
• A common complaint or struggle of new teachers
• Specific classroom management challenges (i.e. calling out, fights, etc.)
• Building or site-specific challenges (sharing a building with another school,
multiple entrances/exits, distance between classrooms and main office)
• Peer/parent interaction situations
Activity
List 2 specific challenges faced by teachers at your school that might make
good scenario questions
1.
2.
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Using one of the challenges you identified, create a scenario and
identify the characteristics of a good response
Activity
Scenario #1
Be sure to include:
•The set-up
•Complex or
multiple problems
•A clear question at
the end
An excellent answer:
•
•
•
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Using another challenge, create a scenario and identify the
characteristics of a good response
Activity
Scenario #2
?
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Be sure to include:
•The set-up
•Complex or
multiple problems
•A clear question at
the end
What additions or changes could you make to use this interview scenario as a
writing prompt exercise?
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Agenda
Resume Review
Developing Questions
Differentiating Your Interview
Recognizing Good Answers
Creating Scenarios
Probing Questions
Interviewer Bias and Unlawful Interview Questions
© TNTP 2012
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It’s important to carefully listen to and understand a response
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Repeat back information
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Push candidates to expand upon or clarify his or her response
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Push candidates to develop a variety of responses and solutions
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Allow ample time for candidates to develop a response
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DON’T ask leading questions
DON’T interrupt a candidate’s response
DON’T react with facial expressions or body language
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General Probing Questions
Can you tell me
more about…?
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What do you mean
when you say…?
Can you give me an example
of that?
Would you
do anything else…?
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Using Probing Questions
Activity
Using the candidate description below, develop three possible probing
questions.
Example:
Charles is a third year teacher moving to San Francisco from Chicago. He
received his degree in elementary education.
You ask: Do you think all students should be held to the same expectations?
He replies: That’s a really hard question. Students come to school with so
many different talents and experience many challenges outside of school.
So, no, I don’t think everyone should be held to exactly the same standard.
Possible probing questions:
1._________________________________________________________________
2._________________________________________________________________
3._________________________________________________________________
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Agenda
Resume Review
Developing Questions
Differentiating Your Interview
Recognizing Good Answers
Creating Scenarios
Probing Questions
Interviewer Bias and Unlawful Interview Questions
© TNTP 2012
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While evaluating and interviewing candidates, it is extremely
important to keep personal bias in check
Interviewer bias occurs when an interviewer focuses on a single aspect of a
candidate, preventing an unprejudiced consideration of their ability.
Not all interviewer biases negatively impact the candidate (i.e., a candidate
is well received because they went to the same college as the interviewer),
however, in either case the bias is falsely used as a proxy for information
that should be directly inquired about by the interviewer.
Common biases (either for or against):
•College attended
•Political affiliations
•Appearance or dress
•Certification route
•Previous employers
•Age
•Geographic location
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Interview errors frequently occur in any hiring process
1. Positive-Negative Leniency Error: Interviewer tends to be too hard or too easy on
everyone.
2. Trait Error: Interviewer tends to be too hard or too easy on a given competency or
event (i.e. Teaching Ability or writing sample).
3. Repetition Error: “This candidate reminds me of the last 20 candidates.”
4. Sympathy Score: Interviewer thinks “Well, they were trying really hard and they
are really enthusiastic.”
5. Order Effects: If you have just seen 7 bad candidates, the average one seems like
“Teacher of the Year.”
--Adapted from Culham and Spandel (1993)
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Unlawful Interview Questions
Topic
Lawful:
Unlawful:
Name
• What is your full name?
• In checking your references and/or
educational background, will I be able to
identify you by your current name?
• What is your maiden name?
• Do you prefer Ms., Miss, or Mrs.?
• What type of a name is ________?
Address
• How long have you lived at this address?
• Birthplace?
• Names and relationships of persons
with whom the applicant lives
• Do you own or rent your home?
Age
• Are you under 18 years of age?
• How old are you?
• What is your date of birth?
Disability/
Handicap
• After describing the essential functions of the
job--can you perform these functions with or
without a reasonable accommodation?
• After describing the essential functions of the
job--will you be able to meet these
requirements?
• Do you have any disabilities that would
prohibit you from performing this job?
• Have you ever had a back (or any other
type) of injury?
• Have you ever been injured on the job?
• Have you ever filed for Worker's
Compensation
Citizenship
• Can you present proof, if hired, that you are
eligible to work in the United States?
• Are you a citizen?
• Can you provide a green card or a visa?
National
Origin
• What language do you speak/write fluently
(if job-related)?
• Where were you born?
• What is your native language?
• How/where did you learn to speak that
language?
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Unlawful Interview Questions (cont.)
Topic
Lawful:
Unlawful:
Education
•What schools did you attend?
•What courses did you take?
•What degrees did you earn?
•What years did you attend?
Arrests/
Convictions
•Have you ever been convicted of a
felony?
•Have you ever been arrested?
Family/
Marital
Status
•None
•Are you married? Divorced?
•How many children do you have?
•Do you live alone?
•What does your spouse do for a
living?
Transportation
•Do you have reliable transportation that
will assure that you arrive at work on time
each day?
•Do you have a car?
•How will you get to work?
Sex
•None
•Are you pregnant?
•Are you planning to have any
children?
Race
•None
•What race are you?
Military
Record
•Education and training obtained through
the military
•Dates of military duty.
•Military duty with another country.
•Type of discharge.
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