Close reading in the Elementary Classroom

Report
Close Reading in the
Elementary Classroom
Today’s Learning Targets:
• I will be able to define the term close reading and explain why
it is important for students to be able to closely read complex
texts.
• I will be able to explain how the Common Core Standards
include all of the skills involved in close reading.
• I will understand the criteria for selecting complex texts for
close reading and be able to select appropriate texts for my
students.
• I will understand how to use the gradual release of
responsibility to teach my students to be close readers.
• I will be able to use the Common Core Standards to prepare
text dependent questions and evaluate questions that already
exist in my lessons or textbook series.
Pre-K-5 Balance
of Informational
text and
Literature
6-12
Knowledge
in the
Disciplines
Academic
Vocabulary
Close Reading
Staircase of
Complexity
Writing from
Sources
Text-Based
Answers
We just discussed…
Manifest Destiny
Where the Wild Things Are
•
•
•
•
Increasing size of images
Pointy icons
Changing Moon
Enjambment, assonance,
and consonance
• Paratactic language
• Notion of wild vs.
domestic and civilized vs.
uncivilized
•
•
•
•
Hypotactic Language
Incremental repetition
Use of asyndetons
Momentum of argument
and prose
This is how
adults do a
“close
reading”!
Note the Progressions
(Example: R.L.1)
Pre-K
With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about details in
a text.
K
With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key
details in a text.
1
Ask and answer questions about key details in a text.
2
Ask and answer such questions as who, what, when, where, why, and
how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text.
3
Ask and answer questions about key details in a text, referring explicitly
to the text as the basis for the answers.
4
Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text
says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.
5
Quote accurately from the text when explaining what the text says
explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.
6
Cite textual evidence to support what the text says explicitly as well as
inferences drawn from the text.
What is “close reading”?
Turn to someone near you and discuss
what your understanding of close
reading is and what you think it looks
like at your grade level.
What is “close reading”?
• Read the article from Educational
Leadership entitled “Closing In on Close
Reading”.
• As you read, please do the following:
• Underline important points
• Write a ? next to anything you find confusing
• Under each column of text (except for the one
on the first page), write one sentence that
summarizes the main idea of that section.
Discuss What You Read
• When you receive the signal to start, get
up and find a partner.
• Be ready to discuss the questions that
appear on the screen with your partner.
• When you receive the signal to switch,
move to another area of the room and
find a new partner.
• You and your new partner will also discuss
questions that appear on the screen.
Let’s begin! Find a partner!
According to the text, what is
“close reading”?
What are the key skills
involved in close reading?
How is this similar to or
different from how we have
taught students to read in the
past?
Switch Partners!
What are the benefits of
using short texts for close
reading?
What could a teacher do to
gradually increase students’
abilities to use the process of
close reading
independently?
According to the author of this
article, what kinds of questions
should students ask or be asked
about a text?
Which types of questions do you
ask most frequently? Which types
of questions appear in our
textbook series? Which ones are
left out?
Please return to your seat.
Does anyone have any
questions at this point?
What is close reading?
•
•
•
•
Engaging with a text of sufficient complexity directly
Examining meaning thoroughly and methodically
Reading and rereading
Understanding the central ideas and key supporting
details
• Reflecting on:
• the meanings of individual words and sentences
• the order in which sentences unfold
• the development of ideas over the course of the text
• Ultimately arriving at an understanding of the text as a
whole
(PARCC, 2011, p.7)
Selecting the right text is very
important!
Criteria for Text Selection
Quantitative
Qualitative
Reader and Task
• Aligned with the Lexile (or other computergenerated) levels outlined in the standards
• Allows you to teach the skills described in the
standards
• Has a complex level of meaning, purpose,
structure, language, and knowledge demand
• Content-rich and interesting
• Models the kind of thinking and writing
students should aspire to in their own work
Lexile Ranges
Text Complexity Old Lexile Ranges
Grade Band in
the Standards
K-1
N/A
Lexile Ranges
Aligned to CCR
expectations
N/A
2-3
450-725
450-790
4-5
645-845
770-980
6-8
860-1010
955-1155
9-10
960-1115
1080-1305
11-CCR
1070-1220
1215-1355
Go to www.lexile.com to analyze a text’s Lexile level for free.
For Elementary Teachers
• Non-Fiction or Fiction (remember the 50/50
rule)
• Presents sophisticated structure or issue (i.e.
changes point of view, focuses on a father losing
his job)
• Integrates captions, photographs, graphs, tables,
etc. (non-fiction)
• Academic Vocabulary
How to Support Students
TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY
“I do it.”
Modeling
Guided
Instruction
“We do it.”
Collaborative
Work
Independent
Work
“You do it
together.”
“You do it
alone.”
STUDENT RESPONSIBILITY
THE GRADUAL RELEASE OF RESPONSIBILITY FRAMEWORK
Basic Lesson Structure
Beginner
Intermediate
Advanced
1. The teacher reads the
text out loud to students
without stopping to give
them a sense of the
overall plot or main idea.
1. The students read the
text silently one time
through to get a sense of
the overall plot or main
idea.
1. The student reads the
text silently one time
through to get a sense of
the overall plot or main
idea.
2. The teacher re-reads
small chunks of the text
at a time and asks
discussion questions. The
students may work in
pairs first, but answers
are shared with the
whole group.
2. Teacher re-reads small
chunks of the text out
loud and asks discussion
questions. Students may
discuss the questions as a
whole group, in pairs, or
small groups.
2. The student re-reads
small chunks of the text
at a time, stopping to
make notes, underline
key points, and ask
himself questions.
3. The students and
3. The students write a
teacher develop a written written response to a
response to a prompt
prompt independently.
together.
3. The student writes a
response to a prompt and
provides evidence from
the text in his answer.
Text Dependent Questions
Require students to…
• Cite evidence
• Determine the central idea
• Analyze how the author structures the text and
develops ideas/claims
• Determine the meanings of words and phrases
• Determine the point of view or purpose
(From the Common Core Standards)
“Don’t Wait”
• Ask text dependent questions frequently, and
throughout the selection rather than waiting
until the end of a selection.
• Experiment with different activities for keeping
students engaged (i.e. think-pair-share, stop and
jot, small groups, etc.)
Text-Dependent Questions
are not…
Low-level, literal, or recall questions
Focused on comprehension strategies
Just questions…
28
•
•
•
•
•
Can only be answered with evidence from the text.
•
Focus on word, sentence, and paragraph, as well as
larger ideas, themes, or events.
•
Focus on difficult portions of text in order to enhance
reading proficiency.
•
Can also include prompts for writing and discussion
questions.
Can be literal (checking for understanding) but must also
involve analysis, synthesis, evaluation.
29
Text-Dependent Questions...
Non-Examples and Examples
Text-Dependent
In “Casey at the Bat,” Casey strikes
out. Describe a time when you failed
at something.
What makes Casey’s
experiences at bat humorous?
In “Letter from a Birmingham Jail,” Dr.
King discusses nonviolent protest.
Discuss, in writing, a time when you
wanted to fight against something
that you felt was unfair.
What can you infer from King’s
letter about the letter that he
received?
In “The Gettysburg Address” Lincoln
says the nation is dedicated to the
proposition that all men are created
equal. Why is equality an important
value to promote?
“The Gettysburg Address”
mentions the year 1776.
According to Lincoln’s speech,
why is this year significant to
the events described in the
speech?
30
Not Text-Dependent
Three Types of TextDependent Questions
consider the following three categories:
1.
2.
3.
Questions that assess themes and central ideas
Questions that assess knowledge of vocabulary
Questions that assess syntax and structure
31
When you're writing or reviewing a set of questions,
•
•
Use a backwards design approach
•
Create a set of questions that will lead students
towards that understanding
•
This should be the focus of the culminating
assignment
Clarify your own understanding of the themes and
central ideas first
32
Assessing Themes and Central
Ideas
Assessing Themes and Central
Ideas
Example: Because of Winn Dixie
• Two people of very different ages may still have much in
common and become friends.
• Possible Questions:
• Why does Opal spend so much time with Miss Franny, the town
librarian?
• Can people of different ages still be friends? Use evidence from
the text to support your answer.
33
• Core Understanding and Key Idea:
Assessing Vocabulary
Which words should be taught?
• Essential to understanding text
34
• Likely to appear in future reading
Which words should get more time and attention?
• More abstract words (as opposed to concrete words)
persist vs. checkpoint
noticed vs. accident
• Words which are part of semantic word family
secure, securely, security, secured
Assessing Vocabulary
•
“To avoid someone means to keep away from them so that you
don’t have to see them and they don’t have to see you. How did
the boys avoid meeting Bolivia at first?” (pg. 23)
•
Re-read the last two paragraphs on page 39. Rory had a “strong
suspicion”. What is a suspicion? What details in the story made
Rory suspicious of Bolivia?
35
Example: “Hot and Cold Summer” - 5th grade fictional text
Assessing Syntax
Syntax can predict student performance as much as
vocabulary does.
•
Questions and tasks addressing syntax are powerful.
36
•
Example:
Who are the members of the wolf pack? How many wolves
are in the pack? To answer this, pay close attention to the use
of commas and semi-colons in the last paragraph on pg. 377.
The semi-colons separate or list each member in the pack.
Assessing Structure
•
“Look at the illustrations on page 31. Why did the illustrator
include details like the power outlets in the walls?”
•
“Dillard is careful to place opposing descriptions of the
natural and man-made side-by-side. How does this
juxtaposition fit with or challenge what we have already
read? Why might she have chosen this point in the text for
these descriptions?”
37
Examples:
Culminating Tasks
•
•
Should relate to core understanding and key ideas.
•
Whenever possible, try to get your students to make claims or
arguments and support them with evidence.
Examples:
“The title of this selection is ‘Because of Winn-Dixie.' Using your
answers from the questions above and class discussion, explain why
this is an appropriate title for the selection. Be sure to clearly cite
evidence from the text for each part of your answer.”
“Officer Buckle’s final safety tip is 'ALWAYS STICK WITH YOUR BUDDY.'
How did he and Gloria each learn this lesson for themselves
throughout the story?”
38
A coherent sequence of text dependent questions will scaffold students
toward successfully completing the culminating task.
Progression of Text Dependent
Questions
Structure
Vocabulary
and Syntax
Themes
and Central
Ideas
Culminating
Task
Planning Close Reading
Questions
Stop
After
Question
pg. 31 Why did the illustrator
include details like the
power outlets in the
walls?
How will
students
answer it?
Discuss with
a partner
Type of
Analysis
Structure
CCLS
RL.K.7
Your Task:
• Take out the text you brought with you today. Is it an
appropriate text for close reading? Evaluate it using the
criteria you learned about today.
• Write at least one of each type of text-dependent question
about the text you selected.
OR
• Review the questions you normally use with this text selection
(these could be the questions from your textbook series) and
decide whether or not they are aligned with the Common
Core standards. Keep the ones that are, and add questions to
address any gaps.
Final Thoughts:
• Begin to incorporate close reading into your instruction on a
regular basis if you haven’t already.
• Use the gradual release of responsibility to help your
students become more independent:
• Model how you closely read and analyze a text
• Read texts out loud and discuss text dependent questions
together
• Have students work in pairs or small groups to discuss texts
• Help students develop a set of skills (i.e. annotating text, asking
questions, etc.) to be able to closely read and analyze text on
their own.
• Be sure that you are asking the right types of text dependent
questions.
Example Lessons
http://vimeo.com/album/2192390/video/56069187
http://www.engageny.org/resource/close-reading-strategieswith-informational-text-by-expeditionary-learning

similar documents