This part of the seminar will

Report
Fluency on Paper:
The Path to Successful
Writing Skills
Troy Witt
ELT Signposts, Brno
11th September 2011
Fluency on Paper:
The Path to Successful Writing Skills
How will the seminar be structured?
• Part A: Theory (15 mins)
• Part B: Methodology (45 mins)
• Part C: Assessment (30 mins)
Part A - Theory (15 Mins)
This part of the seminar will:
• examine the ‘product vs. process’ debate
• consider why writing seems to cause such difficulties for many
students
• explore what needs to go into ‘good writing’ before the pen
even hits the page
Process or Product?
In the teaching of writing we can focus on the product of that
writing or on the writing process itself. When concentrating on
the product we are interested in the aim of a task and in the end
product. Those who advocate a process approach to writing,
however, pay attention to the various stages that any piece of
writing goes through.
Jeremy Harmer, The Practice of English Language Teaching
The Writing Process
Generating
Ideas
Reviewing
Structuring
Drafting
Focusing
Evaluating
White and Arndt, 2001
Why do students HATE writing?
Because...
• it’s dull, time-consuming and not interactive
• it’s often difficult to see improvement
• it requires learning a lot of lexis that is ‘non-transferable’ (used
to write only)
• it’s often the least encountered of all 4 of the skills in daily life
• the fact that good speaking skills do not translate directly into
good writing skills (yet they are both productive) is frustrating
• it’s ‘foreign’ as the Czech school system does very little of it
What do students need to ask themselves before
they write?
1
2
3
4
What is your
motivation for
writing?
What is the best way
to communicate what
it is you need to say?
If you know what you
want, what do you
need to know to
create it?
Who is going to read
what you write?
the WHY
Do you want transfer
information, achieve
a goal, or just make
social contact?
the WHAT
Should you use a
formal letter, a quick
note, or a bulleted
list?
the HOW
What makes a report
different than a
proposal?
the WHO
How is an email to
your boss different
than an email to your
grandmother?
Part B - Methodology (45 Mins)
This part of the seminar will:
• consider the elements and aspects involved in successful
writing
• examine strategies, techniques, and some useful activities that
help support these
Successful Writing Needs A Plan:
Transactional Letter Organization Guide
Successful Writing Needs A Plan:
Transactional Letter Organization Guide
In groups...
•review the task, and discuss the points
that need to be included in the letter
•complete the TRANSACTIONAL
LETTER ORGANIZATION GUIDE for the
task
IESOL B2 Communicator
Sample Paper I
Successful Writing Needs Proper Register:
A Tale of Two Letters
Formal
Informal
1. Dear Sir/Madam
a. And another thing
2. Furthermore
b. Do you think you can
3. I would greatly
appreciate it if you
could
c. Hey Bob
Successful Writing Needs Proper Register:
A Tale of Two Letters
Successful Writing Needs Proper Register:
A Tale of Two Letters
In groups...
•read both letters, decide which letter is
FORMAL and which is INFORMAL
•mark the structures in the list as
indicative to either FORMAL (F) or
INFORMAL (I)
•find examples of each in the two letters
Successful Writing Needs To Be Corrected:
A Letter to Correct
/
WW
wrong word
T
tense
P
SP
punctuation
spelling
GR
grammar
A
unnecessary
word
^
missing word
article
Prep
preposition
WO
word order
Successful Writing Needs To Be Corrected:
A Letter to Correct
What are the problems here?
I born in 1971 in one small town in Mexico.
^
WW
My father is diplomat, so my all life I live in different country.
A
WO
T
GR
I’m married since five years. I knew my wife on school.
T
WW
WW
Prep
Successful Writing Needs To Be Corrected:
A Letter to Correct
Successful Writing Needs To Be Corrected:
A Letter to Correct
In groups...
•correct the letter using the ‘correction
guide’ presented
New Headway UI (3rd Ed)
pg 112
Part C – Assessment (30 Mins)
This part of the seminar will:
• provide an overview of City & Guilds itself, as well as the
IESOL and EBC exams
• provide an opportunity for YOU to try your hand at assessing
some sample responses
A Little Bit About City & Guilds
• British examining and certification body providing 50% of the UK’s
vocational qualifications.
• City & Guilds in ČR organizes exams in English through 35 approved
testing centres.
• City & Guilds exams in English:
 General English exams: IESOL (written) + ISESOL (spoken)
 Business English exams: EBC (written) + SETB (spoken)
Exams for Young learners: YESOL (written) + YSESOL (spoken)
The Exams
CEFR
IESOL*
A1 Breakthrough
Preliminary
EBC**
1
A2 Waystage
Access
B1 Threshold
Achiever
2
B2 Vantage
Communicator
C1 EOP
Expert
3
C2 Mastery
Mastery
*International English
for Speakers of
Other Languages
**English for
Business
Communication
The Exams
Exams Features…
• benchmarked to the CEFR (6 levels)
• valid for life
• recognized internationally
• recognized by the Ministry of Education in ČR, employers and
Czech universities
• based on communicative method
• assessed by independent examiners in London (both written
and spoken exams)
• flexible preparation materials
The IESOL Exams
Communicator
Level B2
Skills and Focus
Task
Format
Writing 1
Instruction to respond
Respond appropriately to a
formally using a written,
given text to produce a
graphic or visual input with
formal response for an
four content points to be
intended public audience addressed and the intended
reader specified
100-150 words
Writing 2
Instruction to write an
informal piece of writing for
a specified reader on a
general subject not
requiring specialist
knowledge
150-200 words
Produce a personal letter, a
narrative or descriptive
composition
The IESOL Communicator Level (B2) Assessment
Criteria
CRITERIA
task fulfillment
grammar
vocabulary
structure
DESCRIPTION
MARKS
A measure of how far the candidate has achieved/addressed the task. Has
the candidate done what was asked (eg “Write four sentences” – are there
four sentences?)
0-3
A measure of the range, appropriacy and accuracy of grammar.
0-3
A measure of the range, accuracy and appropriacy of vocabulary. This
criterion also includes spelling accuracy.
0-3
A measure of coherence and cohesion. How the text is put together. Is there
an attempt to link the ideas and to organise them in a coherent manner? We
also look at the accurate use of punctuation in this criterion.
0-3
First Class Pass 12 – 10, Pass 9 – 6, Narrow Fail 5, Fail 4 – 0
NOTE: detailed grammar can be found in the IESOL Qualification Handbook
IESOL Task Evaluation 1: An Article
Succeed in City & Guilds pg 16/162
IESOL Task Evaluation 1: An Article
IESOL Task Evaluation 1: An Article
In groups...
•Read the task
•Examine both sample answers
•Evaluate each using the B2
Communicator Level assessment
criteria
IESOL Task Evaluation 2: A Formal Letter
Succeed In City &
Guilds pg 140/166
IESOL Task Evaluation 2: A Formal Letter
IESOL Task Evaluation 2: A Formal Letter
In groups...
•Read the task
•Examine both sample answers
•Evaluate each using the B2
Communicator Level assessment
criteria
The EBC Exams
• Modern written Business English for international
communication
• Ministry of Education the ČR accreditation as a standard
language exam for civil servants
• In-tray simulation, real business cases
• Reading and writing
• Results: Fail (less than 60%), Pass (60%+), First Class Pass
(75%+)
The EBC Exams
Level
Length & Tasks
Reading Skills
Writing Skills
1
1 h + 15 min
Understanding simple internal
and external business
communications
Write simple, concise letters
Write simple memos.
Draft faxes
2
2 h + 15 min
Understanding internal and
external business
communications, e.g. memos
and letters, written telephone
messages, faxes and emails.
3
2 h 30 min + 15 min
Understanding internal and
external business
communications.
Write concise letters
Write memos.
Draft faxes.
Prepare other documents for
business purposes, e.g.
circular letters and mailshots,
press releases and articles
Write concise letters.
Write memos.
Draft faxes.
Draft other documents for
business purposes: notices
and invitations, speeches,
agendas and the minutes of
meetings, advertisements
and mailshots, press
releases, articles and circular
letters.
The EBC Level 2 (B1-B2) Assessment Criteria
CRITERIA
layout
DESCRIPTION
assessed on 2 questions only (letter and memorandum)
MARKS
0-4
grammatical accuracy (4 marks)
mechanics
spelling & punctuation (4 marks)
0-12
tone & fluency (4 marks)
content
how well the task itself is completed
First Class Pass +75 %, Pass +60 %, Fail -60%
fluency = degree of success with which message is conveyed
tone = appropriateness of style, register and vocabulary for the purpose of the task
0-4
EBC Task Evaluation: A Business Letter
EBC Task Evaluation: A Business Letter
EBC Level 2
Practice Paper 1
EBC Task Evaluation: A Business Letter
EBC Task Evaluation – A Business Letter
In groups...
•Read the task
•Examine both sample answers
•Evaluate each using the EBC Level 2
assessment criteria
In Conclusion
•
•
•
•
•
a successful writing ‘product’ is the direct result of a strong writing
‘process’
writing is a productive knowledge of register and form, a structured
plan and continual feedback throughout this process
good assessment requires strictly defined criteria, consistency of form
but also a degree of the assessor’s own instinct
The City & Guilds IESOL and EBC materials and practice tests
provide a series of thorough, well-structured writing tasks that can
make a great addition to your classroom
The City & Guilds exams are an efficient way to test and assess your
students’ writing skills
Do you have any questions?
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Thanks very much for your time!
Thank
you
www.cityandguilds.cz
www.cityandguildsenglish.com

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