Stress and Coping - Bukal Life Care & Counseling Center

Report
Stress and Coping
Presented by Mrs. Tess Leones
Lecture Objectives
1. To know the basic facts about
stress and its sources.
2. To understand the effects of stress
in our life.
3. To identify and learn different
coping strategies
DOH Facts about Stress
 75-90% of visits to physicians are stressrelated
 Stress-related disorders are a major cause of
rapidly increasing health care costs.
 According to the World Health organization
(WHO), by year 2020, five (5) of the top ten
medical problems world-wide will be stressrelated
DOH Facts about Stress
Stress is a major cause of
Low productivity
High absenteeism
Misallocation of resources
Poor morale, which may lead to
suicide.
One fact seems certain:
Stress is on the increase!
Stress is derived from the Latin word
“Stringi” which translates as “to be
drawn tight.”
 That state of increased arousal necessary for
an organism to defend itself at a time of
danger.
 The “wear and tear” our bodies experience as
we adjust to our continually changing
environment.
 A dynamic state of imbalance in response to
demand, threat, or unmet needs.
Sources of Stress (Stressors)
1. Stress of change:
-major life changes like starting a new job
-getting married
-moving to a new house
Sources of Stress (Stressors)
2. Environmental
-Noise
-Overcrowding
-Natural disasters
-Traffic
Sources of Stress (Stressors)
3. Family and Relationships
-Marital Conflicts
-Disagreement with Other Persons
-Stress of Bereavement
Sources of Stress (Stressors)
4. Occupational/Work Stresses
-Loss of job and mounting bills
-Long work hours
-Short-term contracts
-Task demands
-Promotion/demotion
Stress Symptoms: Physical
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
headaches (often termed tension headaches)
palpitations
skin problems/ rashes
sleep problems
high blood pressure
indigestion
muscle twitches (tics)
colds/ flu
increased bowelmovements (nervous diarrhea)
excessive sweating (palms/ armpits)
Stress Symptoms:
Emotional/Psychological
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sadness
irritability
nervousness
mood swings
depression (common pathway to prolonged
periods of stress)
 angry outburst
 negative thoughts, including suicidal ones
 nightmares
Stress Symptoms: Behavioral
 decreased productivity
 poor appetite resulting in weight loss.
 overeating (bulimia)
 self-care is neglected
 social activities curtailed
 substance abuse-- excessive alcohol or
cigarette smoking
 excessive day-dreaming
Stress Symptoms: Cognitive
 trouble concentrating
 forgetfulness
 poor memory and recall
 increased number of errors
 difficulty making decisions, confusion
Stress Scale
TOO
LITTLE
STRESS
OPTIMAL
STRESS
TOO MUCH
STRESS
Boredom
lethargy
passive
vegetate
Life is
balanced
happy
in control
confidence
Tense
Depression
always tired
exhaustion
feeling 'tied up in
a knot'
constant feeling
of having too
much to do
BURNOUT
Stress “Thermometer”
0
30
50
70
100
little
moderate
high
extreme
stress
stress
stress
stress
<---------------------------------------------------------------->
Life Change Index Scale
According to Dr. Thomas Holmes.
Utilizes an Index Number 1-100 for stress
from different life events.
Events
Stress Index
Death of Spouse
Divorce/Separation
Detention in jail/other institution
100
73
63
Major personal injury/illness
Marriage
53
50
Being fired at work
47
Retirement from work
Pregnancy
Gaining a new family member (birth, adoption,
older member moving in)
Child leaving home (marriage, college)
45
40
In-law trouble
29
Vacation
13
39
29
Dr. Thomas Holmes and his colleagues have
shown a relationship between recent life
changes and the onset of illness.
 0-149 No significant problem
 150-199 Mild life danger with 37% chance of
illness
 200-299 Moderate life crisis level with a 51%
chance of illness
 300+
Major life cricis level with a 79%
chance of illness
ACCORDING TO HANS
SELYE, A PERSON
UNDERGOES 3 STAGES
WHEN EXPERIENCING A
STRESSFUL EVENT.
Stage 1: Alarm
Chemical substances called
hormones are released into the
blood in increased amounts.
Body is trying to ready itself to
cope with a stressor.
Stage 2: Resistance
Increased bodily activity to
leave stressor or resist it.
Stage 3: Exhaustion
 If exposure to the stressor continues, the
body loses its ability to adapt to the
situation. The person's energy is
depleted and the result is exhaustion.
 Doctors believe that several kinds of
illnesses may be caused by prolonged
periods of stress.
NOTE: Almost no one is able
to maintain a normal existence
under continued high level of
stress. When the stage of
exhaustion lasts for a long
period of time, it develops into
“burnout”.
 NOTE: If anyone is experiencing any of
the following, consider seeing a doctor:
-Depression/ desperation
-Loss of appetite/ weight loss/
insomnia
-One feels that life is not worth living.
-Feel overwhelmed by anxiety
-Loss of energy
-Withdrawal.
Stress Management
A. Build your physical reserves because good
health increases tolerance to stress.
-Eat well-balanced/nutritious foods
-Get enough rest and sleep
-Get enough exercise
-Avoid drugs such as tobacco and alcohol. They
contribute to wear and tear on the body.
-Take a warm bath/shower before going to sleep.
-Avoid caffeine
Stress Management
B. Maintain and strengthen your emotional
reserves. Have a network of friends and family
to provide a support system in terms of:
-tangible assistance
-giving information
-emotional support
 NOTE: Physical contact like a hug is a
great stress buster.
Stress Management
C. LOL (laugh out loud). A good
laugh reduces the level of stress
hormone cortisol, and epinephrine and
boosts immunity
Stress Management
D. Stress Innoculation. A good amount
of stress comes from the irrational and
self-defeating beliefs about oneself. If
you can remove them from your
system, it helps you to develop some
kind of “immunity” against
uselessness.
Example
Situations
Negative Selfstatement
Positive Selfstatement
Losing one's job
I'll never get
another job
Maybe my next job
will be a better
deal
It's not the end of
the world. I'll meet
someone else
someday.
There are other
things I can do
with my life other
than grad school.
Breaking up with I have nothing to
the person you
live for. He/she is
love
all that I have.
Not getting into
graduate school
I'm really dumb. I
don't know what
I'll do
Stress Management
 E. Avoid crowding activities into a short period
of time.
 Learn to priorize tasks.
 One step at a time.
 Do not expect too much of yourself.
 Delegate some tasks if there are other responsible
people who can help you. “We are not
superheroes!”.
 Learn to say “NO”
Stress Management
F. Learn to relax.
Plan restful vacations once in a while.
Schedule regular recreation into your
life.
Take on a hobby (“All work and no
play makes Juan a dull boy!”)
 Follow your bliss.
 Listen to sweet music
 Gardening, if you enjoy it.
 Go to spa for a massage
 Treat yourself to a beauty parlor (girls)
 Shop for things you like (stress buster)
 Meditate and/or do yoga
 Go ballroom dancing
 Travel (take a short trip if money is the
problem)
 Use “de-stress visualization/relaxation”
exercises
De-stress Visualizaiton/
Relaxation Exercises?
 Sit in a quiet corner of your room. Close your
eyes.
 Imagine you are in a dream vacation
mountain get-away, on top of the Eiffel
Tower, Great Wall of China, Boracay, Cruse
ship.
 Hold the thought for 10 minutes and see your
self happy
Remember…
 Stress is unavoidable.
 Not all stress is bad. “Spice of Life”
 Life with no stress would be BORING.
 “Eustress” versus “Distress”
When or should all the coping
strategies I had discussed
with you fail, Let God... Rest
in Him... for He said, “Come
to Me you who are weary
and I will give you rest.”
Stress and Coping
Presented by Mrs. Tess Leones
www.bukallife.org

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