Seven unifying themes of psychology-lec2-bscs II sec a

Different school of thoughts in
 Behaviorism:
 Cognitiveism:
Fields of psychology
General psychology
Abnormal psychology
Social psychology
Comparative psychology
Developmental psychology
Educational psychology
Clinical psychology
Cognitive psychology
Industrial psychology
Personality psychology
General psychology:
study of people how they think and behave.
focuses on human behavior and behavioral
Abnormal psychology:
Abnormal psychology
Study the behavior of the people who do not adjust with
 Deals with abnormal behavior
 Covers broad rang of disorders
1. Neuroses: at small level
2. Psychoses: at large level
Social psychology
Looks at the wide rang of social topics.
 Group behavior, social perception, non verbal
behavior, aggression etc.
Comparative psychology
 Concern with the study of animal behavior behavior.
Developmental psychology
Field of psychology looks at development through out
the lifespan. Through childhood to adulthood.
 Include all aspects of human growth.
 How and why people change?
1. Physical
2. Emotional
3. Intellectual
4. Social
5. personality
Educational psychology
 How people learn?
 Students outcomes
 Individual differences in learning ,etc.
Clinical psychology
Branch of psychology concerned with,
 Assessment and treatment of mental illness and
 Abnormal behavior.
Cognitive psychology
Branch of psychology which studies:
 Mental process
 How people think ,remember and learn etc.
Industrial organizational
 Apply psychological theories and principles to
 Focuses on issues such as, how to increase workplace
 Study worker attitude and behavior.
Personality psychology
 Looks at the patterns of thoughts, feeling and behavior
that makes a person unique.
Themes related to psychology as a field of study
Theme :1 Psychology is Empirical
 Every one wants to understand behavior
 Why some people are hard worker?
 Why some are overweight?
Empiricism is What?
 Knowledge should be acquired through observation.
 Psychologist conduct research to test their ideas.
 Are men more aggressive than women?
Theme: 2 Psychology is
Theoretically Diverse
 Psychologist do not set out to just collect facts.
 Explain and understand what they observe
 To achieve this goal they construct theories.
What is Theory?
 System of inter-related ideas used to explain a set of
 No single theory edecuatly explain every thing about
 Is the glass half empty or half full?
Theme 3: psychology evolves in a
socio-historical context
 Interaction exist between what happens in psychology
and what happens in society.
 Psychology develops in a social and historical context
through trends, issues and values.
 Themes related to psychology ‘s subject
Theme 4:Behavior is Determined
by Multiple Causes
 Psychologists find that behavior is governed by a
complex network of interacting factors
 There is multi-factorial causation of behavior.
Theme :5 Behavior is Shaped by
Cultural Heritage
 Culture refers to the shared customs, beliefs, values,
norms, institutions, and other products of community
that are transmitted socially across generations
Theme :6 Heredity and
Environment Jointly Influenced
 Genetics and experience both influence an individual's
intelligence, temperament, personality, and to many
psychological disorders.
Theme :7 People Experience of the
World is Highly Subjective
 People tend to see what they want to see or what they
expect to see.
Developing Critical Thinking
 Critical thinking is purposeful, reasoned, goal
directed thinking.
Involves solving problems
Formulating inferences
Working with probabilities
Making carefully thought-out decisions
 “What is the most important outcome of an
Chap:2 Sensation and Perception
 Sensation:
Sensation refers to sensing our environment through
touch, taste, sight, sound, and smell (the 5 senses).
This information is sent to our brain and that's when
perception comes into play.
perception is the way we interpret these sensations
and therefore make sense of everything around us.
 An area of psychology that examines how physical
stimuli (such as sight or sound) are related to people’s
psychological reaction to those stimuli.
Two basic question
 Can people detect low intensity stimulus?
 Can people discriminate between two same stimulus?
 Psychologist present low intensity stimuli and record
whether people report them.
Classical psychophysics
 Sensory process
Approximate detection threshold
A candle flame seen at 30 miles on dark clear night.
The tick of watch at 20 feet under quit condition.
The wing of a bee falling on your cheek from a distance of ½ inch.
One drop of perfume diffused into the entire volume of a three room
One teaspoon of sugar in 2 litter of water.
Single detection approach
 Expectation
 Motivation
Bottom-up and top-down
 Bot_om
 Cons_q__nces
 Un_vers_ty
Top-down processing:
Top-down processing suggests that we form our
perceptions starting with a larger object, concept, or
idea before working our way toward more detailed
Bottom up
 Bottom-up processing is also known as "small chunk"
processing .
 We attend to or perceive elements by starting with the
smaller, more fine details of that element.
 Building upward until we have a solid representation
of it in our minds.
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