Seven unifying themes of psychology-lec2-bscs II sec a

Report
BSCS –II
SEC A-B
BBA-II
Different school of thoughts in
psychology
 Behaviorism:
 Cognitiveism:
Fields of psychology
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
General psychology
Abnormal psychology
Social psychology
Comparative psychology
Developmental psychology
Educational psychology
Clinical psychology
Cognitive psychology
Industrial psychology
Personality psychology
General psychology:
study of people how they think and behave.

focuses on human behavior and behavioral
disorders.

Abnormal psychology:
Abnormal psychology
Study the behavior of the people who do not adjust with
society.
 Deals with abnormal behavior
 Covers broad rang of disorders
1. Neuroses: at small level
2. Psychoses: at large level
Social psychology
Looks at the wide rang of social topics.
 Group behavior, social perception, non verbal
behavior, aggression etc.
Comparative psychology
 Concern with the study of animal behavior behavior.
Developmental psychology
Field of psychology looks at development through out
the lifespan. Through childhood to adulthood.
 Include all aspects of human growth.
 How and why people change?
1. Physical
2. Emotional
3. Intellectual
4. Social
5. personality
Educational psychology
 How people learn?
 Students outcomes
 Individual differences in learning ,etc.
Clinical psychology
Branch of psychology concerned with,
 Assessment and treatment of mental illness and
 Abnormal behavior.
Cognitive psychology
Branch of psychology which studies:
 Mental process
 How people think ,remember and learn etc.
Industrial organizational
psychology
 Apply psychological theories and principles to
organizations
 Focuses on issues such as, how to increase workplace
productivity?
 Study worker attitude and behavior.
Personality psychology
 Looks at the patterns of thoughts, feeling and behavior
that makes a person unique.
Themes related to psychology as a field of study
Theme :1 Psychology is Empirical
 Every one wants to understand behavior
 Why some people are hard worker?
 Why some are overweight?
Empiricism is What?
 Knowledge should be acquired through observation.
 Psychologist conduct research to test their ideas.
 Are men more aggressive than women?
Theme: 2 Psychology is
Theoretically Diverse
 Psychologist do not set out to just collect facts.
 Explain and understand what they observe
 To achieve this goal they construct theories.
What is Theory?
 System of inter-related ideas used to explain a set of
observation.
 No single theory edecuatly explain every thing about
behavior.
 Is the glass half empty or half full?
Theme 3: psychology evolves in a
socio-historical context
 Interaction exist between what happens in psychology
and what happens in society.
 Psychology develops in a social and historical context
through trends, issues and values.
 Themes related to psychology ‘s subject
matter
Theme 4:Behavior is Determined
by Multiple Causes
 Psychologists find that behavior is governed by a
complex network of interacting factors
 There is multi-factorial causation of behavior.
Theme :5 Behavior is Shaped by
Cultural Heritage
 Culture refers to the shared customs, beliefs, values,
norms, institutions, and other products of community
that are transmitted socially across generations
Theme :6 Heredity and
Environment Jointly Influenced
Behavior
 Genetics and experience both influence an individual's
intelligence, temperament, personality, and to many
psychological disorders.
Theme :7 People Experience of the
World is Highly Subjective
 People tend to see what they want to see or what they
expect to see.
Developing Critical Thinking
 Critical thinking is purposeful, reasoned, goal



directed thinking.
Involves solving problems
Formulating inferences
Working with probabilities
Making carefully thought-out decisions
e.g.
 “What is the most important outcome of an
education?”
Chap:2 Sensation and Perception
 Sensation:
Sensation refers to sensing our environment through
touch, taste, sight, sound, and smell (the 5 senses).
This information is sent to our brain and that's when
perception comes into play.

Perception:
perception is the way we interpret these sensations
and therefore make sense of everything around us.
Psychophysics
 An area of psychology that examines how physical
stimuli (such as sight or sound) are related to people’s
psychological reaction to those stimuli.
Two basic question
 Can people detect low intensity stimulus?
 Can people discriminate between two same stimulus?
Detection:
 Psychologist present low intensity stimuli and record
whether people report them.
Classical psychophysics
 Sensory process
Approximate detection threshold

A candle flame seen at 30 miles on dark clear night.
The tick of watch at 20 feet under quit condition.
The wing of a bee falling on your cheek from a distance of ½ inch.
One drop of perfume diffused into the entire volume of a three room
apartment.
One teaspoon of sugar in 2 litter of water.

Vision
Hearing
Touch
Smell

Taste


Single detection approach
 Expectation
 Motivation
Bottom-up and top-down
processing
 Bot_om
 Cons_q__nces
 Un_vers_ty
Top-down processing:
Top-down processing suggests that we form our
perceptions starting with a larger object, concept, or
idea before working our way toward more detailed
information.
Bottom up
 Bottom-up processing is also known as "small chunk"
processing .
 We attend to or perceive elements by starting with the
smaller, more fine details of that element.
 Building upward until we have a solid representation
of it in our minds.
Thank you

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