Ch4 Personality and Values

Report
Stephen A. Schwarzman
7 Billion Dollar Man, “King of Wall street”
Grand 60th Birthday Celebration
Successful, Glamorous!
Adeyl Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU
Mr. Schwarzman wants!
 CEO of Blackstone Group
 A financial advisory firm
 Mission
 Inflict pain on rivals
 Kill off rivals
Narcissist
 Successful, 5’6”
 Firing employees
 Not wearing proper shoes
 Sound of employee’s nose
Adeyl Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU
2
What is Personality?
 The sum total of ways in which an individual reacts
and interacts with others; measurable traits a
person exhibits.
 “The dynamic organization within the individual of
those psychophysical systems that
determine his unique adjustment
Personality
shapes behavior
to his environment” Gordon Allport
 Quiet vs. aggressive people?
 Personality types vs. job types?
Adeyl Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU
Personality Traits
Enduring characteristics that
describe an individual’s
behavior. E.g. shy, aggressive,
submissive, lazy, loyal, timid
Measuring Personality
 Self-report surveys
 Observer-rating surveys
 Projective measures
 Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
 Big Five Model
 Rorschach Inkblot Test
 Thematic Apperception Test
Adeyl Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU
Influence of
Psychometric Tests
For hiring …
Personality Determinants
 Heredity- Genes
 Factors determined at conception- biological,
physiological and psychological makeup


Molecular structure- genes
Identical twins (39/31 yrs, 45 miles)
 Smoke, car, dog, vacations
 Twins on different household Vs. Siblings
 Environment
 Parental environment!
 Situations (Experience)
Adeyl Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU
!
Change in Rank
Ordering
 Dependability
Smartness
5
Measuring Personality- Tests
 Tests are good
 Hiring decisions
 Managing decisions (understand, manage)
 “I worry a lot about the future”
 Problems- Accuracy



Lie “Fake good”
 Impression management
Individual Rating Vs. Observer Rating
Bad mood during test
Adeyl Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU
Identifying
primary traits
Shy, aggressive,
submissive, lazy,
ambitious, loyal,
timid, … … …
6
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
 MBTI- A personality test that taps four
characteristics and classifies people into 1 of 16
personality types.
 100 Question
 How people feel
or act in certain
situations
Adeyl Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU
MBTI- Personality Types
 Extroverted vs. Introverted (E or I)
 Social Vs. Shy
 Sensing vs. Intuitive (S or N)
 Detail (routine) Vs. Big Picture (unconscious process)
 Thinking vs. Feeling (T or F)
 Logic Vs. P. Value/emotions
 Judging vs. Perceiving (P or J)
 Control/Order Vs. Flexible/Spontaneous
Indicator
Adeyl Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU
MBTI Indicator
 Can be a valuable tool for self-awareness and career
guidance BUT Should not be used as a selection tool
because it has not been related to job performance!
INTJ
• Visionaries
• Original mind with
drive for own ideas
and purpose
• Skeptical, critical,
independent,
determined,
stubborn
ESTJ
• Organizers
• Realistic, logical,
analytical, decisive
What is
your type
Adeyl Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU
ENTP
• Conceptualize
• Innovative,
Individualistic,
Versatile,
Entrepreneur
• Challenging
problem Vs.
Routine
NT
• Apple
• FedEx (Frederick
W. Smith)
• Honda
• Microsoft
• Sony (Akio Morita)
Do an MBTI test.
Analyze the result and explain your
career choice with respect to the test.
Due June 22nd
Adeyl Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU
10
Big Five Personality Model …
 Five basic Dimension
 Major Dimensions
 Encompasses most variations
 others underlie
Research support
Adeyl Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU
11
Extroversion
• Comfort level with relationship
• Sociable, gregarious, and assertive Vs. reserved, timid, and quiet
The Big Five Model-Personality
Agreeableness
Dimensions
• Cooperative, warm, trusting Vs cold, disagreeable, antagonistic
Conscientiousness/Reliability
• Responsible, dependable, persistent, and organized Vs. opposite!
Emotional Stability
• Neuroticism (craziness)
• Calm, self-confident, secure under stress (positive), Vs. nervous,
depressed, and insecure under stress (negative).
Openness to Experience
• Range of interest with novelty
• Curious, imaginative, artistic, and sensitive Vs. routine (familiarity)
Adeyl Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU
Organizational impact
Employee
traits
 Relationship with Job Performance
 Conscientiousness
 Higher skill level
 Emotional Stability
 Job Satisfaction
 Good decisions on bad mood!
 Extrovert
 Socially Dominant
 Leaders
Exhibit
 Impulsive
4-2/4.4
Adeyl Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU
Dependable
Organized
Reliable
Hardworking
Careful
Persistent
Thorough
Achievementoriented
Planner
Job
Performance
13
Other Major Personality Attributes
In Organizations
 Core Self-evaluation
 Machiavellianism
 Narcissism
 Self-monitoring
 Risk taking
 Type A vs. Type B personality
 Proactive Personality
Adeyl Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU
Core Self-Evaluation: Components
 Individuals’ degree of liking or disliking themselves.
 Find themselves capable and effective
 Feel control over environment
 Self Esteem
 Locus of Control
Positive
Negative
Job Satisfaction
Job Performance
• Challenge in jobs
• Attain more complex jobs
• Ambitious goals
• Commitment
• Persistence
• Insurance Agents
 The degree to which
people believe they are masters of their own fate.
Internals
Externals
• Individuals- control
what happens to them.
• Individuals- controlled
by outside forces such
as luck or chance.
Adeyl Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU
Too Positive
Machiavellianism (Mach)
 Degree to which an individual is pragmatic,
maintains emotional distance, and believes that
ends can justify means.
Strive for Power
Machs
•
•
•
•
Manipulates
Wins
Persuaded less
Persuades more
Adeyl Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU
Conditions Favoring High Machs
• Direct interaction with others
• Minimal rules and regulations
• Emotions distract for others
Adeyl Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU
17
Narcissism
Mirror
 A Narcissistic Person
 Has grandiose sense of self-importance
 Requires excessive admiration
 Has a sense of entitlement
 Tends to be rated as less effective
 Is arrogant
Selfish
Exploitive
Leaders !
How bad is it?
Adeyl Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU
Views of
others
Narcissism
 In adults, a reasonable amount of healthy
narcissism allows the individual's perception of his
needs to be balanced in relation to others.
 Healthy narcissism is the feeling of greatness. This
is used to avoid feelings of inadequacy or
insignificance.
Adeyl Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU
Self-Monitoring
 An individual’s ability
 to adjust his or her behavior to external, situational
factors.
High Self-Monitors
• Receive better
performance ratings
• Likely to emerge as
leaders
• Show less
commitment to their
organizations
Adeyl Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU
I am true to myself- I do not
remake myself to please
others
I monitor behavior of my
customer and conform
accordingly!
Risk-Taking
 High Risk-taking Managers
 Make quicker decisions
Mr. Trump
1980 ~ Rise
1994 ~ -850 M
2007 ~ +2.9 B
 Use less information to make decisions
 Operate in smaller and more entrepreneurial organizations
 Low Risk-taking Managers
 Are slower to make decisions
Are you going to
take risk?
 Require more information before making decisions
 Exist in larger organizations with stable environments
 Risk Propensity
 Aligning managers’ risk-taking propensity to job requirements
should be beneficial to organizations.
Stock Market Vs.
GrameenPhone
Adeyl Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU
Personality Types- A & B
Type A’s ~ Competitive
Type B’s ~ Rarely Hurried
• Always moving, walking,
and eating rapidly
• Feel impatient with the
rate at which most events
take place
• Strive to think or do two
or more things at once
• Cannot cope with leisure
time
• Obsessed with numbers,
measuring their success
….
• Never suffer from a sense
of time
urgency/impatience
• Feel no need to
display/discuss their
achievements
• Play for fun and
relaxation, rather than to
exhibit their superiority at
any cost
• Can relax without guilt
Stress
Adeyl Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU
Quantity o work
Behavior Prediction
Proactive Personality
 Identifies opportunities, shows
initiative, takes action, and
perseveres until meaningful
change occurs.
 Creates positive change in the
environment, regardless or even
in spite of constraints or
obstacles.
Adeyl Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU
Chapter Check-Up: Personality
 Which of the following is not a typical personality
trait considered to be organizationally relevant?
Locus of control
Self-monitoring
Self-enhancing
Self esteem
Machiavellianism
Adeyl Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU
Example- Personality
 Asifa arrives to class and realizes that she’s
forgotten her homework to turn in. She says “It’s
just not my lucky day today.” Asifa has
Asifa has a high external locus of control.
Asifa believes that things outside of her
control determine what happens.
If Asifa works on a team with you, and you have a very high
internal locus of control, what kinds of discussions do you think
the two of you might have?
Adeyl Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU
Example- Personality
 Hanifa is known for being a go-getter. She never
leaves a task incomplete, and is involved in a
number of activities. Moreover, she’s at the top of
her class. She’s so busy that sometimes, she forgets
to stop and eat lunch. Hanifa can be easily
characterized as someone that has/is a Type ____
Personality.
A
Adeyl Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU
Example- Personality
Hanifa is also likely to not be very
•
Happy?
•
Fun?
•
Creative?
•
Stressed?
In general, Type A’s are rarely creative because they
generally don’t allocate the necessary time for new
solution development; they usually rely on past
experiences to solve problems in order to be speedy.
Adeyl Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU
Adeyl Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU
28
Values
 Mode of conduct or end state of existence
 is personally or socially preferable vs. not pref.
 What is right & good
Fluid and Flexible Vs.
Stable and Enduring
 Value System:
 A hierarchy based on a ranking of an individual’s
values in terms of their intensity.
Gray Areas
Types of ValuesRokeach Value Survey
(RVS)
Adeyl Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU
Importance of Values
 Provide understanding of individuals (cultures )
 attitudes,
Allocation of pay per
 motivation, and
Performance Vs. Seniority
 behaviors of
 Influence our perception of the world around us
 Represent interpretations of “right”, “wrong” and
preference
 Some behaviors or outcomes are preferred over
others.
Adeyl Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU
Values in the
Rokeach Survey
Desirable endstates of
existence; the
goals that a
person would like
to achieve during
his or her lifetime.
E
Adeyl Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU
Values in the
Rokeach Survey
Preferable modes of
 behavior or
 means of
achieving one’s
terminal values.
E
Adeyl Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU
E12/U13
E14/U14
Mean Value Ranking (RVS)
Varies across group- People in
similar occupation/categories ….
Negotiation !
Adeyl Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU
Values, Loyalty, and Ethical Behavior
Ethical Values and
Behaviors of Leaders
Ethical Climate in the Organization
Adeyl Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU
Generational (Work) Values
 Value changes over generation
 Work values- Exhibit 4.10
 Nexters !
 High Expectation
 Seek meaning in their work
 Goal- Rich and famous
 Questioning, socially conscious, enterprenueal
Adeyl Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU
Achieving Person-Job Fit
 Personality matches Job
 Personality and values matches organization
 Flexibility vs. ability
 Personality-Job Fit Theory (Holland)
 Identifies six personality types
and proposes that the fit between
Personality Types
personality type and occupational
• Realistic
environment determines
• Investigative
satisfaction and turnover.
•
•
•
•
Adeyl Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU
Social
Conventional
Enterprising
Artistic
Adeyl Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU
Holland’s Typology
Relationship
* Compatibility among
categories
* Satisfaction
** Realistic person in social
job
Adeyl Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU
Person-organization fit
 Organizational Culture Profile (OCP) is useful for
determining person-organization fit
 Survey that forces choices/rankings of one’s personal
values
 Helpful for identifying most important values to
look for in an organization (in efforts to create a
good fit)
 Result >> Job Satisfaction, Org. Commitment, Low
Turnover
Adeyl Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU
Values across Cultures: Hofstede’s
Framework
 Power Distance
 Individualism vs. Collectivism
 Masculinity vs. Femininity
 Uncertainty Avoidance
 Long-term and Short-term orientation
Big Five
Hofstede’s Framework for accessing culture
Adeyl Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU
Hofstede’s Framework (cont’d)
 Power Distance
 The extent to which a society accepts that power in
institutions and organizations is distributed
unequally.
 Low distance
 Relatively equal power between those with
status/wealth and those without status/wealth
 High distance
 Extremely unequal power distribution
between those with status/wealth and
those without status/wealth
Adeyl Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU
Hofstede’s Framework (cont’d)
Individualism
The degree to which
people prefer to act as
individuals rather than
a member of groups.
Adeyl Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU
Vs.
Collectivism
A tight social framework in
which people expect
others in groups of which
they are a part to look
after them and protect
them.
Hofstede’s Framework (cont’d)
Masculinity
Vs.
The extent to which the
society values work roles
of achievement, power,
and control, and where
assertiveness and
materialism are
Separate Roles
also valued.
Adeyl Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU
Femininity
The extent to which
there is little
differentiation
between roles for
men and women.
Hofstede’s Framework (cont’d)
Uncertainty Avoidance
The extent to which a society feels threatened by
uncertain and ambiguous situations and tries to
avoid them.
• High Uncertainty Avoidance:
Society does not like ambiguous
situations & tries to avoid them.
• Low Uncertainty Avoidance:
Society does not mind ambiguous
situations & embraces them.
Adeyl Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU
Hofstede’s Framework (cont’d)
Long-term Orientation
A national culture
attribute that
emphasizes the future,
thrift, and persistence.
Adeyl Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU
Vs.
Short-term Orientation
A national culture attribute
that emphasizes the
present and the here and
now.
Exhibit XXX
Hofstede’s Cultural Values by Nation
Bangladesh
Adeyl Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU
46
Chapter Check-Up: Values
 In Country J most of the top management team
meets employees at the local diner for a dinner on
Fridays, and there are no reserved parking spaces.
Everyone is on a first name basis with each other.
Country J, according to Hofstede’s Framework, is
probably low on what dimension?
•
Collectivism
How would a College or
•
Long Term Orientation
University in Country J differ
•
Uncertainty Avoidance
from your College or University?
•
Power Distance
Identify 3 differences and discuss
with a neighbor.
Adeyl Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU
Adeyl Khan, Faculty, BBA, NSU
48

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