17.Supply_Chain_Management

Report
Introduction to
Supply Chain Management (SCM)
Rev: Feb, 2012
Euiho (David) Suh, Ph.D.
POSTECH Strategic Management of Information and Technology Laboratory
(POSMIT: http://posmit.postech.ac.kr)
Dept. of Industrial & Management Engineering
POSTECH
Contents
※
Discussion Questions
1
Introduction
2
Motivation in SCM
3
Strategic approaches of SCM
4
Roles of SCM
5
Case Study
Discussion Questions
■ Why do you think implementing SCM is difficult?
■ Find a successful case of SCM and explain it.
■ EDI involves the electronic exchange business transaction documents over the
Internet or other networks between supply chain trading partners.
■ What is the concept explained in the below pharagraph?
– A cross-functional interenterprise system that uses information technology to help support and
manage the links between some of the organization's key business processes and those of its
suppliers, customers, and partners. The intent is to create a fast, efficient, and low-cost
network of business relationships to get an organization's products and services from concept
to market.
3
What is a Supply Chain?
1. Introduction
■ Definition
– The interrelationships with suppliers, customers, distributors, and other businesses that are
needed to design, build, and sell a product make up the network of business entities,
relationships, and processes
Suppliers
Material Costs
Manufacturers
Warehouses &
Distribution Centers
Transportation
Costs
Customers
Transportation
Costs
Transportation
Manufacturing Costs
Inventory Costs
Costs
4
Supply Chain Management
1. Introduction
■ Definition
– Applying a total systems approach to the entire flow of information, materials and service
throughout the supply chain to provide the right quantities of right stuff, to the right
locations and at the right time, and so as to minimize total system cost subject to satisfying
service requirements
Management
customer services
Customer Relationship
Management
Satisfaction of ordering
Management production
Management demand
Supply
5
Sales Strategy vs. Production Strategy
2. Motivation in SCM
■ What would sales & production costs have to be to double net income? Which is
easier?
Percentages are % of sales
Current Situation
Sales Strategy
Production Strategy
Sale
$10
$?
$ 10
Production
$8 (80%)
$ (80%)
$?
Marketing
$1 (10%)
$ (10%)
$ (10%)
Net Income
$1
$2
$2
Reducing production costs is more feasible.
■ Solution
Increase sales 100%
Reduce production costs by 12%
Current Situation
Sales Strategy
Production Strategy
Sale
$10
$ 20
$ 10
Production
$8 (80%)
$ (80%)
$7
Marketing
$1 (10%)
$ (10%)
$ (10%)
Net Income
$1
$2
$2
6
The Importance of Supply Chain Management (1/2)
2. Motivation in SCM
■ Dealing with uncertain environments – matching supply and demand
– Boeing announced a $2.6 billion write-off in 1997 due to “raw materials shortages, internal and
supplier parts shortages and productivity inefficiencies”
– U.S Surgical Corporation announced a $22 million loss in 1993 due to “larger than anticipated
inventories on the shelves of hospitals”
– IBM sold out its supply of its new Aptiva PC in 1994 costing it millions in potential revenue
– Hewlett-Packard and Dell found it difficult to obtain important components for its PC’s from
Taiwanese suppliers in 1999 due to a massive earthquake
■ U.S. firms spent $898 billion (10% of GDP) on supply-chain related activities in
1998
7
The Importance of Supply Chain Management (2/2)
2. Motivation in SCM
■ Shorter product life cycles of high-technology products
– Less opportunity to accumulate historical data on customer demand
– Wide choice of competing products makes it difficult to predict demand
■ The growth of technologies such as the Internet enable greater collaboration
between supply chain trading partners
– If you don’t do it, your competitor will
– Major buyers such as Wal-Mart demand a level of “supply chain maturity” of its suppliers
■ Availability of SCM technologies on the market
– Firms have access to multiple products (e.g., SAP, Baan, Oracle, JD Edwards) with which to
integrate internal processes
8
History of Supply Chain Management
2. Motivation in SCM
1960’s Inventory Management Focus, Cost Control
1970’s MRP & BOM – Operations Planning
1980’s MRPII, JIT - Materials Management, Logistics
1990’s
SCM - ERP - “Integrated” Purchasing, Financials, Manufacturing,
Order Entry
2000’s
Optimized “Value Network” with Real-Time Decision Support;
Synchronized & Collaborative Extended Network
9
Supply Chain Technology Market
Grow 7%
annually
$ 9.2B
$ 6.5B
2. Motivation in SCM
“The supply chain, and the
technologies that support it, will play
an important role in helping companies
deal and thrive in an economy that is
going to be quite unlike anything
we’ve seen in the post-war era,”
- John Fontanella vice president of research at AMR Research
2008
2012
(source : AMR research, 2008)
10
Why Is SCM Difficult?
2. Motivation in SCM
■ Uncertainty is inherent to every supply chain
–
–
–
–
Travel times
Breakdowns of machines and vehicles
Weather, natural catastrophe, war
Local politics, labor conditions, border issues
■ The complexity of the problem to globally optimize a supply chain is significant
– Minimize internal costs
– Minimize uncertainty
– Deal with remaining uncertainty
Plan
Source
Make
11
Deliver
Buy
Electronic Data Interchange (EDI)
3. Strategic approaches of SCM
■ The electronic exchange of business transaction documents between supply chain
trading partners
■ One of the earliest uses of information technology for supply chain management
■ The almost complete automation of an e-commerce supply chain process
■ Many transactions occur over the Internet, using secure virtual private networks
■ A communications standard for sharing business documents and settlement
information among firms
12
Today’s Marketplace Requires:
■
■
■
■
■
3. Strategic approaches of SCM
Personalized content and services for their customers
Collaborative planning with design partners, distributors, and suppliers
Real-time commitments for design, production, inventory, and transportation capacity
Flexible logistics options to ensure timely fulfillment
Order tracking & reporting across multiple vendors and carriers
Shared visibility for
trading partners
13
Supply Chain Management – Key Issues (1/3)
3. Strategic approaches of SCM
■ Forecasts are never right
– Very unlikely that actual demand will exactly equal forecast demand
■ The longer the forecast horizon, the worse the forecast
– A forecast for a year from now will never be as accurate as a forecast for 3 months from now
■ Aggregate forecasts are more accurate
– A demand forecast for all CV therapeutics will be more accurate than a forecast for a specific
CV-related product
■ Nevertheless, forecasts (or plans, if you prefer) are important management tools
when some methods are applied to reduce uncertainty
14
Supply Chain Management – Key Issues (2/3)
3. Strategic approaches of SCM
■ Overcoming functional silos with conflicting goals
Purchasing
Low purchase price
Multiple
vendors
SOURCE
Manufacturing
Distribution
Few
changeovers
Low inventories
Stable
schedules
Low transportation
Long run
lengths
MAKE
DELIVER
15
Customer Service/
Sales
High
inventories
High service
levels
Regional
stocks
SELL
Supply Chain Management – Key Issues (3/3)
ISSUE
3. Strategic approaches of SCM
CONSIDERATIONS
Network Planning
• Warehouse locations and capacities
• Plant locations and production levels
• Transportation flows between facilities to minimize cost and time
Inventory Control
• How should inventory be managed?
• Why does inventory fluctuate and what strategies minimize this?
Supply Contracts
• Impact of volume discount and revenue sharing
• Pricing strategies to reduce order-shipment variability
Distribution Strategies
Integration and Strategic
Partnering
Outsourcing & Procurement
Strategies
Product Design
• Selection of distribution strategies (e.g., direct ship vs. cross-docking)
• How many cross-dock points are needed?
• Cost/Benefits of different strategies
•
•
•
•
How can integration with partners be achieved?
What level of integration is best?
What information and processes can be shared?
What partnerships should be implemented and in which situations?
• What are our core supply chain capabilities and which are not?
• Does our product design mandate different outsourcing approaches?
• Risk management
• How are inventory holding and transportation costs affected by product
design?
• How does product design enable mass customization?
16
Supply Chain Management Operations Strategies
STRATEGY
WHEN TO CHOOSE
3. Strategic approaches of SCM
BENEFITS
Make to Stock
Low manufacturing costs;
standardized products,
meet customer demands
relatively predictable demand
quickly
Make to Order
customized products, many
variations
Configure to Order
many variations on finished
product; infrequent demand
Engineer to Order
complex products, unique
customer specifications
17
Customization; reduced
inventory; improved service
levels
Low inventory levels; wide
range of product offerings;
simplified planning
Enables response to specific
customer requirements
Role and Goals of SCM
4. Roles of SCM
■ Role of SCM
– SCM management helps a company get the right products to the right place at the right time,
in the proper quantity and at an acceptable cost.
■ Goals of SCM
– To manage a process efficiently by forecasting demand
– Controlling inventory
– Enhancing the network of business relationships with customers, suppliers, distributors, and
others
– Receiving feedback on the status of every link in the supply chain
18
Supply Chain Management – Benefits
4. Roles of SCM
■ A 1997 PRTM Integrated Supply Chain Benchmarking Survey of 331 firms found
significant benefits to integrating the supply chain
Delivery Performance
16%-28% Improvement
Inventory Reduction
25%-60% Improvement
Fulfillment Cycle Time
30%-50% Improvement
Forecast Accuracy
25%-80% Improvement
Overall Productivity
10%-16% Improvement
Lower Supply-Chain Costs
25%-50% Improvement
Fill Rates
20%-30% Improvement
Improved Capacity Realization
10%-20% Improvement
Source: Cohen & Roussel
19
Benefits and Challenges of SCM
4. Roles of SCM
■ Key Benefits
–
–
–
–
–
Faster, more accurate order processing
Strategic relationships with supplier
Lower transaction and materials cost
Quicker times to market
Reductions in inventory levels
■ Key Challenges
– Lack of demand planning knowledge, tools, and guidelines
– Inaccurate data provided by other information systems
– Lack of collaboration among marketing, production, and inventory management
– SCM tools are immature, incomplete, and hard to implement
20
Case Study
■ In the Text book
– Real World Case 3 : Perdue Farms and Others: Supply Chain Management Meets the Holiday
Season
■ Domestic Case
 Click Here
21
Reference
■ O’Brien & Marakas, “Introduction to Information Systems – Fifteenth Edition”,
McGraw – Hill, Chapter 7, pp. 276~281
■ Keebom Kang, “Global Logistics and Information Technology(PPTSlide)”,
Graduate School of Business Naval Postgraduate School
■ Keebom Kang, “B2B: Applications for Improving Supplier Selection(PPTSlide)”,
Graduate School of Business Naval Postgraduate School
■ “Basics of Supply Chain Management(PPTSlide)”, Stevens Institute of Technology
22

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