Diurnal Water Use & Implications for Master Planning

Report
Diurnal Water Use &
Implications for Master
Planning
Michigan Section AWWA Annual
Conference
August 13, 2010
Janice Skadsen
Co-Authors
 Molly Wade, City of Ann Arbor
 Pete Perala, City of Ann Arbor (retired)
 Stan Plante, CDM
 Henry Fan, CDM
 Mark TenBroek, CDM
Goals of the Master Plan
 IMPROVE city’s capacity to predict flow and
pressure in existing distribution system.
 DETERMINE system improvements needed to
meet current and projected water demands
 PRIORITIZE capital improvement projects
that will sustain reliable water distribution
into the future
Water Master Plan Project
 Data Collected
– Collect detailed diurnal and seasonal water
use patterns for different types of customers
 Data Purpose
– Use patterns in hydraulic model (InfoWater) to
provide more realistic water demands
City of Ann Arbor Statistics
 Service area about 50
square miles
 Population about
115,000
 5 pressure districts
 About 27,000 meters
 All pipe InfoWater
hydraulic model
Automatic Data Readers (AMR)
 Installed in 2004 to:
– Reduce FTEs for manual meter reading
– Reduce workman’s comp claims
– Improve data information and timeliness
– Improve customer service
 Provides real-time detailed data
– Collect data twice per day
 Cost $6.9M for approximately 27,000 meters
AMR Pattern Approach
 Reprogrammed 100 meters:
– Used 30 minute data collection intervals
– Meters selected to represent a range of user
types
– Data collection between February, 2009 and
April, 2009
– Data collection completed September, 2009
 Processed data:
– Develop weekly patterns
Ann Arbor WTP Production
30
25
Flow (mgd)
20
15
10
5
Average
0
Maximum
Minimum
AMR Data Patterns
 Residential patterns:
– Consistent
– Outdoor Waterers
– Irrigation only meter
– Snowbird (not sampled)
 Small commercial patterns
 Large user patterns
 Irrigation & outdoor waterer patterns
Residential Consistent Pattern
3.0
Normalized Water Use
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0
0
24
48
72
96
120
144
168
Hours
Sunday
Saturday
Sample size = 22
Residential Outdoor Waterer Pattern
3.0
Normalized Water Use
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0
0
24
48
72
96
120
144
168
Hour
Sunday
Saturday
Sample size = 6
Dedicated Irrigation Summer/Max Pattern
30.0
25.0
Normalized Usage
20.0
15.0
10.0
5.0
0.0
0
24
48
72
96
Hours
120
144
168
Additional Residential Patterns
 Snowbird:
– No samples showing reduced winter use
– Recommend consistent residential
AMR Data Patterns
 Residential patterns
 Small commercial patterns
 Large user patterns
 Irrigation & outdoor waterer pattern
 Pattern comparisons
Commercial Restaurant Average Pattern
3.5
Normalized Water Use
3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0
0
24
48
72
96
Hours
Sample size = 4
120
144
168
Commercial Multi-Family Housing Pattern
3.5
3.0
Normalized Water Use
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0
0
24
48
72
96
Hours
Sample size = 8
120
144
168
Commercial Office Pattern
3.5
Normalized Water Use
3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0
0
24
48
72
96
Hours
Sample size = 5
120
144
168
Commercial Retail Pattern
3.5
Normalized Water Use
3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0
0
24
48
72
96
Hours
Sample size = 4
120
144
168
AMR Data Patterns
 Residential patterns
 Small commercial patterns
 Large user patterns
 Irrigation & outdoor waterer pattern
 Pattern comparisons
Demand Distribution - Largest 200 Users
800
700
 39% of total system
Average Usage (GPM)
600
demand
500
 27% from Top 50 users
400
300
200
100
0
1
21
41
61
81
101
121
Usage Ranking
141
161
181
Large Users
 User types:
– 12 Campus (Univ. of Michigan, community
college)
– 12 Medical (2 major hospitals)
– 7 Student Housing
– 3 Hotels
– 2 U of M Power Plant connections
– 2 Wholesale Customers
– 1 Retirement Home
– 1 Office
– 1 Unique (mixed commercial /residential)
6.0
Campus
5.0
U/M SCHOOL OF PUBLIC HEALTH
Normalized water use
U/M MICHIGAN UNION
U/ M PALMER DRIVE COMMONS
4.0
U/M LAUNDRY NC
U/M ELECTRICAL ENG & COMPUTER
SCEINCE
3.0
U/M MASON HALL
U/M EAST HALL
U/M LITERATURE SCIENCE AND THE ART
2.0
U/M INTRAMURAL SPORTS BLDG
U/M LURIE ENGINEERING
U/M (Chemistry Building)
1.0
(WCC)
0.0
0
24
48
72
Hours
96
120
144
168
6.0
Campus - representative
Normalized water use
5.0
4.0
3.0
2.0
1.0
0.0
0
24
48
72
96
Hours
Sample size = 11
120
144
168
6.0
Medical
5.0
U/M CANCER & GERIATRIC
U/M UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL
Normalized water use
U/M UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL
4.0
U/M MEDICAL SCIENCE II
U/ M BIOMEDICAL SCIENCE
RESEARCH BLDG
VETERANS ADMIN HOSP
3.0
U OF M/ CARDIO VASCULAR BLDG
U/M MEDICAL SCIENCE III
2.0
U OF M CANCER & GERIATRIC
U/M DENTAL/KELLOGG
U/M MEDICAL SCIENCE III
1.0
U/M DENTAL/KELLOGG
0.0
0
24
48
72
96
Hours
120
144
168
6.0
Medical - representative
Normalized water use
5.0
4.0
3.0
2.0
1.0
0.0
0
24
48
72
96
Hours
Sample size = 12
120
144
168
6.0
Student
U/M BURSLEY HALL
HURON TOWERS APTS
U/M MARY MARKLEY
5.0
U/M NORTHWOOD V APTS 2701
U/M WEST QUADRANGLE
U/M VERA BAITS II COMAN HSE
Normalized water use
U/M SOUTH QUAD
4.0
3.0
2.0
1.0
0.0
0
24
48
72
96
Hours
120
144
168
6.0
Student - representative
Normalized water use
5.0
4.0
Commercial Multi-Family Average pattern
Student - straight average pattern
3.0
2.0
1.0
0.0
0
24
48
72
96
Hours
Sample size = 7
120
144
168
6.0
Hotel
5.0
WEBERS INN
DALHMAN APTS LTD (Campus Inn)
Normalized water use
WINSTON HOSPITALTY (Marriott)
4.0
3.0
2.0
1.0
0.0
0
24
48
72
96
Hours
120
144
168
6.0
Hotel - representative
Normalized water use
5.0
4.0
3.0
2.0
1.0
0.0
0
24
48
72
96
Hours
Sample size = 3
120
144
168
Retirement Homes
6.00
Normalized water use
5.00
4.00
3.00
2.00
1.00
0.00
0
24
48
72
96
Hours
Sample size = 1
120
144
168
Retirement Homes Approach
 Assume two types of use:
– Assisted living:
 Recommend
using monitored pattern
– Retirement community:
 Recommend
using multi-family pattern
6.0
Scio Township
5.0
SCIO TOWNSHIP
Normalized water use
SCIO TOWNSHIP
4.0
3.0
2.0
1.0
0.0
0
24
48
72
96
Hours
120
144
168
Scio Approach
 Monitored pattern reflects tank operation
 Composite demands unknown
 Recommend using Ann Arbor’s composite
pattern
6.0
Large User Average Pattern
Normalized Water Use
5.0
4.0
3.0
2.0
1.0
0.0
0
24
48
72
96
Hour
120
144
168
AMR Data Patterns
 Residential patterns
 Small commercial patterns
 Large user patterns
 Irrigation & outdoor waterer pattern
 Pattern comparisons
Seasonal Patterns
 Criteria:
– Consider all AMR data for 2 years
– Standard deviation
averages
> 40% of monthly
– Summer use (May – August)
(Sept, Oct, Mar & Apr)
> rest of year
7
Normalized Water Use
6
Seasonal Water wUsers
 20% of residential
 22% of small
commercial
 0% of large users
 Irrigation only
meters (746
accounts, 4 large
user) – develop
generated pattern
due to lack of data
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
24
48
72 96
Hours
120 144 168
AMR Data Patterns
 Residential patterns
 Small commercial patterns
 Large user patterns
 Irrigation & outdoor waterer pattern
 Pattern comparisons
– Average day
– Non-summer day
– Summer max day
– Max day
Existing diurnal pattern
35
Demands by User Type
30
25
System Demand (MGD)
1.5
TOP 200
Small Commercial - Average
Commercial Retail
20
Commercial Restaurant
Commercial Office
Commercial Multi-Family
15
Commercial Irrigation
Residential Outdoor Waterers
Residential Consistent
UFW
10
5
0
Year Round
Non-Summer
Summer Max
Max Day
60
Annual Average Patterns
System Demand (MGD)
50
TOP 200
40
Small Commercial - Average
Commercial Retail
Commercial Restaurant
Commercial Office
30
Commercial Multi-Family
Commercial Irrigation
Residential Outdoor Waterers
20
Residential Consistent
UFW
14.8
10
0
0
24
48
72
96
120
144
60
Non-Summer Patterns
System Demand (MGD)
50
TOP 200
40
Small Commercial - Average
Commercial Retail
Commercial Restaurant
Commercial Office
30
Commercial Multi-Family
Commercial Irrigation
Residential Outdoor Waterers
20
Residential Consistent
UFW
13.3
10
0
0
24
48
72
96
120
144
60
Summer Patterns
System Demand (MGD)
50
TOP 200
40
Small Commercial - Average
Commercial Retail
Commercial Restaurant
30
Commercial Office
Commercial Multi-Family
Commercial Irrigation
20.8
Residential Outdoor Waterers
20
Residential Consistent
UFW
10
0
0
24
48
72
96
120
144
60
Max Day Patterns
System Demand (MGD)
50
TOP 200
40
Small Commercial - Average
Commercial Retail
30.3
Commercial Restaurant
30
Commercial Office
Commercial Multi-Family
Commercial Irrigation
Residential Outdoor Waterers
20
Residential Consistent
UFW
10
0
0
24
48
72
96
120
144
60
Diurnal Pattern Comparison – Average Day
50
System Demand (MGD)
Year Round
Year Round - Original Diurnal
40
30
20
10
0
0
24
48
72
96
120
144
168
60
Diurnal Pattern Comparison – Max Day
System Demand (MGD)
50
40
30
20
10
Max Day
Max Day - Original Diurnal
0
0
24
48
72
96
120
144
168
3
Comparison of Diurnal
Demands in Model
UFW
Residential Consistent
Residential Outdoor Waterers
Small Commercial
TOP 200
Original Diurnal
Normalized Water Use
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
0
24
48
72
96
120
144
168
Benefits
 Higher peaks and lower minimums observed
versus typical assumptions
 Improved understanding of water use,
particularly local conveyance
 Effort minimal to reprogram and collect data,
but some effort to analyze
 Data collection limited by volunteer
participation & battery life
Recommendations
 Consider developing residential user classes
– Consistent year-round use
– Summer waterer with increased summer peaks
 Use large user flows and patterns directly
where available
 Consider a variety of commercial and small
industrial patterns where possible

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