幻灯片 1 - FAU

Report
ReVISIONS International Symposium,
18-19 June 2012, USP, São Paulo
Mega-city Development in China
Mao Qizhi, Dr. Professor
School of Architecture, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China
Growth Rates of Urban Agglomerations in the World
1970-2011
2011-2025
World Urbanization Prospects: The 2011 Revision
United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division
Content
1. Urbanization and Megacities in China
2. Planning Practice of Megacity Regions’
Development in China
Conclusion
1. Urbanization and Megacities in China
1.1 Population and urbanization
1.2 City size grading and megacities
1.3 Economic development and energy
consumption
1.1 Population and urbanization
By the end of 2011, China had had 657 cities
officially designated, and 19,683 towns.
According to the 2011 Communiqué that
published by the National Bureau of Statistics, total
urban population numbered 690.79 million,
accounting for 51.3 percent. China's urbanization
level exceeded 50%, marking a historic change in the
country's social structure.
Geographic Distribution of Resident Population Density in China (2010)
Total population: 1,370,536,875 persons (1,339,724,852 in mainland)
GD 104 m
SD 96 m
HN 94 m
SC 80 m
JS 79 m
HB 72 m
(unit: person/km2)
Data at the prefecture level
Data from the Communiqué of the National Bureau of Statistics, April 28, 2011
Speed of urban population growth and
urbanization level according to six times
national population census (1953 – 2010)
Migrants reached 260 million and most were peasant workers
Urbanization level = 49.68% ?
1.35%
0.98%
0.69%
0.15%
0.46%
1953
1964
1982
1990
2000
2010
Total population
increment
Urban population
increment
Principle of city development in China
To take a path of urbanization with Chinese
characteristics while promoting balanced
development of large, medium-sized and small
cities and towns on the principle of balancing
urban and rural development, ensuring rational
distribution, saving land, providing a full range of
functions and getting larger cities to help smaller ones.
Focusing on increasing the overall carrying
capacity of cities, to form city clusters with
megacities as the core to boost development in
other areas and become new poles of economic
growth.
1.2 City size grading and megacities
In China, cities size by which have a non-agricultural
population in its city districts and inner suburban areas:
small cities, under 200,000 inhabitants
medium-sized cities, 200,000 – 500,000
large cites, over 500,000 inhabitants
megacity, over one million inhabitants
super-city, over two million inhabitants
中国城镇分布现状图
Existed City Map of China
Jing-JinJi Region
There are total 657 cities and
19,683 towns in end of 2011.
The Sixth National Census
shows total 30 cities had more
than 8 million permanent
residents and 13 had over 10
million.
On nonagricultural population
of the cities, 10 more than 4
million, 14 had 2-4 million, and
39 had 1-2 million.
Yangtze
Delta
ChengduChongqing
Pearl R.
Delta
Ranking of Top-ten Mega-cities in China
based on non-agricultural population of city districts in 2010 (unit: million)
non-agricultural permanent resident of
pop of city district 6th National Census
Shanghai
12.29
23.02
Beijing
9.65
19.61
Chongqing
7.42
28.85
Guangzhou
6.64
12.70
Wuhan
6.16
9.79
Tianjin
5.69
12.94
Shantou
5.17
5.39
Nanjing
5.11
8.00
Chengdu
4.31
14.05
Shenyang
4.27
8.11
rank name of city
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Note: other seven over 10 million permanent resident cities based on the 6th National Population
Census are: Baoding, 11.19 million; Harbin, 10.64 million; Suzhou, 10.47 million; Shenzhen, 10.36
million; Nanyang, 10.26 million; Shijiazhuang, 10.16 million; and Linyi, 10.04 million.
Geographic Distribution of
Megacities in China
(urban district non-agriculture residents over
one million in 2010)
City size
> 8 million (2)
4-8 million (10)
2-4 million (14)
1-2 million (39)
Total 65 megacities
Comparison of Non-Agriculture Population
in Different Sized Cities in China (2010)
Growth in Megacities in the World
Guangzhou and Shenzhen have more than 10 million inhabitants in recent years
1.3 Economic development and energy
consumption
In 2011, the GDP was USD 7,485 billion,
Per capita GDP was USD 5,556 average.
Energy consumption was 3.48 billion tons SCE,
Per capita energy consumption was 2.58 tons SCE.
Energy consumption per RMB10,000 Yuan GDP dropped from
1.22 ton SCE in 2005 to 0.74 ton SCE in 2011.
In 2011, China produced 3.18 billion tons SCE of primary energy
The country imported 254 million tons crude oil, and
China’s outward dependence on petroleum increased to 56.5%.
Composition of the Energy Consumption in China
(1990-2010)
Annual per Capita Energy Production and
Consumption in China (1990-2010)
Population
incomes’
comparison
by urban and
rural in
provinces
(2010)
In 2010, the average
per capita annual
disposable income of
urban population was
19,109 Yuan RMB
(USD 2,850), and the
average per capita
annual net income of
rural population was
5,919 Yuan RMB (USD
880), the gap is 3.23:1.
rural
urban
East average
Northeast average
Middle average
West average
Urbanization patterns play such a key role in the
link between urban-life energy consumption:
daily trip distances to amenities and the work place are
mostly determined by the size and layout of the city;
density of daily trips on main routes and the density of
heating demand are mostly determined by a city’s
population, compactness and spatial layout;
building floor area is a driver of total building energy
consumption.
features such as building type, glazing, and natural
ventilation are mostly determined by urban design and
layout.
World Urban Forum 5
The right to the city:
bridging the urban divide
Under the Millennium Development Goals
for poverty reduction by the year 2015,
governments agreed that these combined with
high quality urban planning and good
governance are the best way forward for a better
urban future.
2. Planning Practice of Megacity Region
Development in China
2.1 City clusters and urban regions planning
2.2 Practice of green and eco-city development
2.1 City clusters and urban regions planning
National Urban System Plan (2006-2020)
---- Urban development spatial structural planning
Map of China’s Urbanization Strategic Pattern
---- planning of national major function oriented zone (2010)
未来京津冀地区空间发展结构示意图
Urban-Rural Spatial Development Strategy of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region
BeijingTianjin-Hebei
Region has
216,000 sq.
km land and
lived 104
million people
Yangtze
River Delta
Regional
Planning
(2009-2020)
urban
system
&
general
layout
Yangtze River
Delta Region
has 211,000 sq.
km land area
and lived 156
million people
Greater Pearl
River Delta
Region has
181,000 sq.
km land area
and lived 110
million people
Greater Pearl River Delta Regional Planning
2011—2020
成
渝
经
济
区
区
域
规
划
(
)
Chengdu—Chongqing
Economic Zone Planning
ChengduChongqing
Economic
Zone has
206,000 sq.
km land area
and lived 93
million people
2.2 Practice of green and eco-city
development
Promoting a policy of energy-saving and emission
reduction and improving growth quality to develop
green and eco-city. Activities include:
- solar energy roof project,
- subsidizing renewal of old buildings for energy-saving,
- rebuilding heating systems in northern China,
- monitoring & improving public buildings’ energy use,
- developing green and low energy buildings,
- water-saving city campaigns,
- car-free day movement,
- electing green traffic cities.
Wu Liangyong
presented
framework of the
Science of Human
Settlements,
insists to integrate
rural and urban
development, and
to achieve general,
systematic and
comprehensive
results.
Framework of the Science of
Human Settlements
Beijing City Region Studies
--- Wu Liangyong
Beijing
Tanshan
Tianjin
Binhai
New Area
Caofeidian
A Real City Planning Must be a Regional Planning
----Lewis Mumford
Sino-Singapore Eco-city of
the Tianjin Binhai New Area
Master Plan of Sino-Singapore
Tianjin Eco-city (2008)
Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao and
SingaporeSenior Minister Goh
Chok Tong presented the SinoSingapore Eco-city opening
ceremony in Tianjin, China.
Tangshan
Caofeidian Eco-city
Two Cores Spatial Structure Plan of
Tangshan----Location of Caofeidian
Tangshan Caofeidian Eco-city
Master Plan (2008-2020)
Conclusion
Shanghai World Expo 2010 has made millions of
people recognize that cities can become healthier and safer,
urban residents can have access to cleaner air and water,
and better life.
China used limited energy to support the national
economy development steadily and rapidly. However, there
are still fundamental problems which remain unsolved.
Facing the above challenges, how can we develop new
eco-cities while exploring a balanced urbanization approach
between large, medium, and small sized cities and towns? It
is a heavy responsibility and there is a long way to go.
Towards an Equitable,
Prosperous and
Sustainable City for the
21st century
Sustainable development is not
an option! It is the only path
that allows all of humanity to
share a decent life on this, one
planet.
Theme of the WUF6: The Urban Future
—— Balancing ecology, economy and equity
ReVISIONS International Symposium,
18-19 June 2012, USP, São Paulo
Many Thanks!

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