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Report
Faculty of Science
Code for Success
My Degree
The First Year Science
eCommunity is a website
that provides information and
resources to ease your
transition and maximise your
success as a scientist at
Sydney.
The site can be accessed via
Research and
Information Skills
sydney.edu.au/current_stude
nts, by logging into the
Learning Management
System (icon link can be
found on the right) then
clicking the ‘eCommunities’
tab in the bar menu.
FAQs
FIRST YEAR CHEMISTRY
CHEM1101
Welcome to First Year Chemistry
• Questions or problems with the course?
Director of First Year Studies
 Adam Bridgeman (Room 543a)
[email protected]
Adam
• Questions or problems with the labs?
Director of First Year Laboratories
 Ron Clarke (Room 318)
[email protected]
Ron
FIRST YEAR CHEMISTRY
CHEM1101
Not sure about something – ask Sophie!
•
First Year Enquiry Office (10 am - 3.15 pm)
[email protected]
Sophie
Need extra help with course work?
•
•
First Year Chemistry Learning Centre
•
At the back of Lab D – textbooks, computers etc and….
•
Tutors available Mon-Thu, 1-2pm from week 2 for free consultations
CHEM1101 Discussion Board on eLearning
•
Submit your questions and a tutor will reply
FIRST YEAR CHEMISTRY
CHEM1101
Information and Resources
•
First Year Chemistry web site: firstyear.chem.usyd.edu.au
•
CHEM1101 website: firstyear.chem.usyd.edu.au/chem1101
 Access answers to tutorial problems, lecture notes, exam papers etc
eLearning : elearning.sydney.edu.au/
 Access pre-lab quizzes and resources from off-site
 CHEM1101 Discussion Board
ChemCAL: chemcal.chem.usyd.edu.au
 Self-help tutorials and quizzes
•
•
FIRST YEAR CHEMISTRY
CHEM1101
Syllabus and Learning Outcomes
•
firstyear.chem.usyd.edu.au/chem1101/syllabus.shtml
•
firstyear.chem.usyd.edu.au/chem1101/learningoutcomes.shtml
Lecture Notes
•
firstyear.chem.usyd.edu.au/chem1101/lecture_notes.shtml
 Username – “chem1101” Password – “carbon12”
Textbook
•
Recommended (single book covers both semesters):
 Blackman, Bottle, Schmid, Mocerino and Wille,
Chemistry and SI Chemical Data (package), 2012 (John Willey)
ISBN: 9781118234228
FIRST YEAR CHEMISTRY
CHEM1101
Tutorials
• Start in week 1
• Check answers to homework questions on the web before tutorial
Laboratory Work
• Starts in week 2 – check your timetable
• If you’ve previously passed this lab course, see Enquiry Office about exemption
Assessment
• 15% laboratory assessment (see first lab session for details)
• 15% tutorial quizzes (3 per semester: weeks 5, 9 and 12)
• 10% research assignment on global warming (from week 8 - 11)
• 60% 3 hour exam at the end of semester
FIRST YEAR CHEMISTRY
CHEM1101
Laboratory Handbook
• Free – collect during your first lab session in week 2
Safety glasses must be worn
• Obtainable when you get your laboratory book in week 2 or from the Union
Laboratory Coat - Complying to Australian Safety Standards
• Obtainable from the Co-Op bookshop, Wentworth Newsagency or Faculty eStore
(http://www.science.usydestore.com.au/) for less than $30
 Must be white and long sleeved
Footwear and Long Hair
• Covered footwear must be worn during all lab classes – no sandals or thongs
• Long hair must be tied back
FIRST YEAR CHEMISTRY
CHEM1101
Lecturers
• We are very approachable - if you have questions, talk to us!
• There are 3 series of this unit – all use the same notes
• Weeks 1-7:
 Dr Liz New (1), A/Prof Tim Schmidt (2) and Dr Siggi Schmid (3)
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
• Weeks 8-13:
 Prof Peter Harrowell (1 and 2) and A/Prof Ron Clarke
[email protected]
[email protected]
FIRST YEAR CHEMISTRY
CHEM1101
check your
university email
regularly
or read it with gmail
FIRST YEAR CHEMISTRY
CHEM1101
Overview of this Course
The lectures begin with the smallest scale and work up from there
(Lectures 1-4)
Sub-atomic/nuclear structure
(Lectures 5-19)
Atomic, electronic and molecular structure (quantum theory)
Lectures 20-38 focus on macroscopic chemical processes and forces between molecules.
We will make frequent reference to the experimental basis for our understanding
throughout. That is, we will relate the molecular-scale theories to macroscopically
observable properties.
Some important specific examples will be discussed in detail and examined alongside
general principles.
Throughout, I will link the examples to the issues mentioned on the previous slide.
FIRST YEAR CHEMISTRY
CHEM1101
Assumed Knowledge
We assume HSC Chemistry Core.
Some aspects of HSC Options will be covered in this Unit.
For revision, see Web Resources on the First Year Chemistry Web
site, and read over the introductory topics in any General
Chemistry text
Topics - Atomic and molecular structure, states of matter, elements
& compounds, moles, stoichiometry (balancing reactions),
classes of chemical reactions, periodic table.
FIRST YEAR CHEMISTRY
CHEM1101
1803
1897
1909
1909
1913
J Dalton provided evidence for fundamental
indivisible particles - atoms.
JJ Thomson
discovered electrons - “cathode rays.”
RA Millikan
measured the charge of an electron.
E Rutherford
proposed an atom be composed of a
small positive nucleus (1912) surrounded
by a lot of space occupied by electrons.
HGJ Moseley
determined the charge on the nucleus.
Rutherford & others regard the atomic weight as being the number of protons and the
nuclear charge as being the number of protons minus the number of electrons in the
nucleus.
1913
1920
1932
N Bohr
J Aston
J Chadwick
applied quantum theory to electrons in atoms.
finds isotopes by mass spectrometry
discovered the neutron.
This gives a fairly complete picture of the nucleus as composed of charged protons and
uncharged neutrons.
FIRST YEAR CHEMISTRY
CHEM1101
How Mass Spectrometry Works
Figure 19.1 Blackman
In a mass spectrometer, the atoms or molecules to be studied are vaporized and
then ionized, usually by an electrical discharge.
In the conventional design of a mass spectrometer, ions follow a curved path and
their deflection depends on the mass-to-charge ratio, m/z (sometimes denoted
m/e). This deflection was originally recorded as impact on a strip of
photographic film, but now use digital current or luminescence detectors.
FIRST YEAR CHEMISTRY
CHEM1101
Mass Spectrometry
Aston’s results established the existence of isotopes. (They were already known
for radioactive elements, but never shown for stable elements.)
1920 - Aston measured two isotopes of Ne (20 and 22), three of S (32, 33, 34), three of Si
(28, 29, 30), six of Kr (78, 80, 82, 83, 84, 86), and many others
http://www-outreach.phy.cam.ac.uk/camphy/massspectrograph/
FIRST YEAR CHEMISTRY
CHEM1101
Nucleons - The Sub-Atomic Particles
Not present
in stable
atoms.
Particle
Symbol
Charge
Mass (a.m.u.)
proton
p
+1
1.007276
neutron
n
0
1.008665
electron
e-
-1
0.000549
positron
e+
+1
0.000549
The unit of mass is atomic mass units (a.m.u.), defined by
setting the mass of the isotope 126C to exactly 12.000000….
1 a.m.u. ~ 1.66 x 10-27 kg.
FIRST YEAR CHEMISTRY
CHEM1101
Nuclides and Isotopes
The composition of any nucleus is defined by two numbers.
• The atomic number is the number of protons in the nucleus.
• This defines the chemical nature of the atom.
• It is equal to the total charge on the nucleus.
• The mass number is the total number of nucleons (protons
and neutrons) in the nucleus.
E.g.
12
6
C
has an atomic number of 6 and a mass number of 12.
• A nuclide is an atom with a particular mass number and atomic number.
• Nuclei with the same atomic number but different mass numbers are
called isotopes.
FIRST YEAR CHEMISTRY
CHEM1101
Nuclei with the same atomic number but different mass
numbers are called isotopes.
E.g. Carbon may exist as a number of isotopes
11
6
C
Unstable
nucleus;
prepared by
nuclear
reaction in a
cyclotron.
12
6
C
Stable
nucleus;
accounts for
98.89% of
natural
carbon.
13
6
C
Stable
nucleus;
accounts for
1.11% of
natural
carbon.
14
6
C
Unstable
nucleus;
trace
amounts
present in
living matter.
15
6
C
Unstable
nucleus.
FIRST YEAR CHEMISTRY
CHEM1101
The atomic mass of an element is the average of the atomic
masses and abundances of each of the naturally-occurring
isotopes.
E.g. The atomic mass of carbon is 12.01...
That is (12.0000x98.89 + 13.00335x1.11)/100
12
6
C
Mass of nuclide
is the reference
for a.m.u scale.
13
6
C
Mass of nuclide
taken from a
reference table

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